Skip to main content

Full text of "Seamen's Journal (May-Dec. 1922-1923)"

See other formats


G 



Ai^, 1 



\- 




j gag-ss^r^sr^TT' i »* ^ ' •^ m sr^srw i eyt 



^ ... ^-. . --^ -^^^tr^^rr.^-^^r^ FT7 -- r r.. 



Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

INDEX— VOLUMES 36 and 37 

MAY, 1922 — DECEMBER, 1923 



Title Vol. No. Page 

A 

.ccident Risk of Seamen* 37 4 8 

.ccident Statistics, Seamen's* 36 7 9 

hievements of the I. S. U. of A 36 6 3 

dvanced Thinking" * 36 8 8 

_ge of Merchant Vessels Vol. 36, 4-13; 6-16; 7-18 

Airplane Travel, Future 37 10 14 

Alaska Fishermen's Agreement, 1922.. 37 1 14 

Alaska Fishermen's Agreement, 1923.. 37 6 12 

Alaska's Resources 37 10 12 

Albatross, The Lonely 37 4 14 

Amalgamation, Reflections on 37 8 3 

Amalgamation, A. F. of L. Policy 

Toward 37 12 3 

American Federation of Labor — 

A. F. of L. Membership 36 4 12 

The Story of the A. F. of L. (by 
Mathew Woll), serial of seven 

articles beginning 37 5 11 

The Forty-third Annual Convention. 37 11 3 

A. F. of L. on Amalgamation 37 12 3 

American Marine Congress (Anothe. 

Drive— For What?)* 37 11 6 

American Line (Last • of a Famous 

Fleet)* 37 11 9 

America's Shipping Problem (Con- 
gressman Davis' proposals) 37 5 3 

American Shipping Policy, An* 37 4 3 

Americans, Will They Go to Sea?*... 36 4 7 

Arbitration, Anti-Strike Laws, Etc. — 

No Compulsory Arbitrator 37 3 3 

Compulsory Arbitration * 37 4 7 

Argentine's Navy 36 6 16 

Argentine Seamen's Code 36 2 14 

Argentine, Paraguay, and Uruguay 36 8 13 

All editorial matter is designated by an 
asterisk (*). 



Vol. No. Page 
Asiatics, Exclusion, Etc. — 

Lascar Crew on S. S. Egypt* 36 3 6-7 

China's Labor Problem 36 3 16 

Asiatic Seamen's Unions * 36 4 8 

Seamen's Employment Agencies in 

Japan 36 4 15 

Labor in Japan 36 5 11 

Importing Chinese Crews* 36 6 6 

Who Is Guilty? (Wreck of S. S. 

Egypt)* 36 6 9 

Chinese on S. S. Ecuador Discharged* 36 6 10 

Chinese Crew of S. S. Celestial 36 8 15 

Chinese Population Abroad 37 1 18 

Labor in Japan 37 2 10 

Narcotics and Chinese Crews 37 3 9 

Japan's Population 37 3 17 

Chinese in the Coastwise Trade*.... 37 6 8 

Lascars on British Ships 37 8 14 

Workers in China Organize 37 11 12 

Japanese Population of Hawaii 37 12 8 

Japanese Fishermen in Hawaii 37 12 18 

Athens Defies Rome* 37 10 8 

Atlantic Voyages, Record 37 8 6 

Australian Seamen, Etc. — 

Seamen's Twice-a-month Payday.... 36 3 4 

Population of Australia 37 1 11 

Imprisonment for Quitting* 37 2 7 

Australia's Wooden Ships 37 3 5 

Involuntary Servitude * 37 3 8 

Suspending the Shipping Act in New 

Zealand 37 3 10 

Compulsory Arbitration 37 4 7 

Wage Increase on Australian Com- 
monwealth Liners 37 11 10 

B 

Bank, A Sea-Going 37 6 15 

Belgium's Fishing Fleet 37 10 18 

Bengal Pilots Threaten Strike 37 10 13 

Better Days Ahead 36 2 3 



THE SEAMEN'S J^yj^^£;£H()E8X-^d^V]il^ THIRTY-SIX AND THIRTY-SEVEN 



Vol. No. Page 



Book Reviews — 

Standard Seamanship in the Mer- 
chant Service, by Riesenberg 16 

The Three Soldiers 36 

Knots and Splices, by Verrill 36 

The Coming of Coal, by Bruere.... 36 
Sea-Going Concrete Ships, by Fong- 

ner 37 

Politics, by Exline ^7 

The Labor Year Book, by the Rand 

School on Social Science V 3 

Spanish Seamen in the New World 
During the Colonial Period, by 

Taylor '. 37 4 

Position Study at Sea. by Chase.... 37 4 
An Outline of the American Labor 

Movement, by Wolman ^7 5 

The Real Storv of the Pirate, by 

Verrill ....../. '. 37 5 

The Sailors' Union of the Pacific, by 

Taylor Vol. 37.6-18 

The Last of the Vikings, by Bojer.. 37 6 
The Control of Wages, by Hamilton 

and May 37 

What Shall I Read, by Saposs 37 

How to Run a Union Meeting, by 

Blanshard 37 

The Romance of Trade, by Kirkaldv 37 

Lloyd's Register, 1022-23..' '. 37 

The Great Deception, by Colcord . . . 37 
Creative Forces in Japan, bv Fisher. 37 
International Seamen's Union of 

America, by Albrecht 37 

The Lookoutman, by Hone 37 

Books, Do You Read ? 36 

Boycott, The Secondary 36 

British Seamen, Census of 36 

British Ship Subsidies 36 

Brutality on Barkentine Rolph ( Dam- 
ages for Crew ) 37 

Bucko Mate's Reward ( Barkentine 

Rolph ) 37 

Bucko Mates, Regarding* 37 



1 


13 


5 


19 


6 


IS 


7 


IS 


I 


16 


3 


17 



IS 
10 

IS 

19 

11-18 

19 

IS 
10 

19 

IS 
14 
IS 
10 

16 
17 

11 
17 
17 
13 



California's Absent Voters' Law 37 10 7 

California's Oil Wells 37 9 19 

California Labor Protests (State Fed- 
eration Resolution on Seamen) 37 10 9 

Canada's Xew Flags 36 6 12 

Canadian Seamen's Discharge Hook.. 36 4 15 

Carthage. Ruins of 36 1 19 

Catalina Island Museum 36 S 16 

Cement Trust. The Pacific Coast*.... 37 10 10 
Chinese — See Asiatics. 
Chinese Seamen's Strike at Hong- 
kong Vol.36, 1-11; 2-16 

Church, The and Labor* 37 9 9 

Coal Miners' Victory 36 5 4 

Coal Mining. Facts About 36 2 11 

Company L T nion, A * 37 4 6 

Company Union Fraud, The 37 8 13 

Convict Shi)) vs. Knee Breeches* 37 5 8 

Cooks' and Stewards' Xew Wage Scale 37 8 4 
Co-operative Shipping Companv in 

Ttaly J7 S 12 

Copper Supplv, The World's 37 4 17 

Costly Aftermath of 1921 Lockout*.. 36 1 9 

Court Decisions, Maritime, Labor 
Legal Notes, Etc.— 
Street vs. Scab Shipping 

Office . . Vol. 36, 1-10; Vol. 37, 4-8 

Setting Aside Release Signed by 

Seamen (Brown vs. P. S. ) Vol. 36, 4-8; 6-14 



8 


13 


s 


15 


1 


17 


1 


17 


1 


IS 


2 


17 


3 


is 



6-10 



is 



8 


is 


s 


19 


s 


19 


8 


19 


s 


1" 


9 

(> 


19 
19 



Vol. X... Page 
Transportation, Seamen's Right to* 36 5 

Advances in Foreign Ports (Shep- 
pard \ s. Lamport and Holt) 

Vol. 36. 6-10; Vol. 37. 3-18 

Failure to Furnish Medical Treat- 
ment 36 

Damages for Wrongful Discharge.. 36 
Damages for Illegal Imprisonment.. 37 
Extra Pay for Short-handed Crew.. 37 

Failure to put up Stanchions 37 

Description of Voyage 37 

Damages for L'njustifiable Arrest... 37 
Damages for Injury (Andrew John- 
son vs. Panama Railroad) Vol. 37. 4 IS 

British Shipping Act Pleaded in 
U. S. Court (Andreas Jensen vs. 

S. S. Imperator ) 37 5 

Damages for Brutal Treatment on 
Barkentine Rolph (Opinion of 

Judge Partridge ) 37 8 

Neglect and Delay to Give Medical 
Treatment ( Del Rio vs. Standard 

Oil Co. ) . . 37 

Failure to Give Medical Treatment 

(Cheremnich vs. S. S. Lassen)... 37 
Unjustifiable Imprisonment (Alakis 

vs. S. S. Vanus ID 17 

Injury through Negligence (O'Shea 

vs. Emergency Fleet Corporation} 37 
'Defective Appliances < Dike vs. S. S. 

Edw. L. 1 )oheny ) 37 

Typhoid Due to Drinking Water 
(< Hsen vs. s. S. Deva) 37 

Citizenship of Ferryboatmen ^7 

S. F. Building Material Men En- 
joined by Judge Dooling ^7 12 

R. R. Brotherhoods Enjoined From 
Organizing Los Angeles Railway 

Company * 37 12 

Courts and Their Power (by lohn 

Ford) Vol. 37, 3 

Currency. World's Paper 1914-1023... 37 



Danish Shipping Statistics 36 

Dollar's Favorite Crews 36 

Deck Loads, International Regulation 

of 36 

Deck Scrubbing Machine. New 37 

Democracy, The "Xew" in Africa... 36 

Denmark's Xew Seamen's Act 37 

Desertions, Why Those* 37 

Disrupters, The Hireling 37 

Division, Don't Tolerate 37 

Dollar's Confessions * 37 

Dollar Contradicts Himself* 37 

Dollar Bells, The 37 

I )ues, Everybody Pays 36 



Faster Island 37 

Editorial, A Prize (by William Allen 

White) .' 37 

Education, Etc. — 
See Book Reviews 

Education for Seafarers * 37 

Libraries Aboard Ship* 37 

Education or Propaganda? 37 

What Is Labor Education? ^7 

Selecting Books for Seamen* 37 

Why Education? 37 

True Labor Education 37 

Efficiency — "The" Remedy 37 

F.mden, Exploits of the Cruiser 37 



11; 


6-14 


6 


15 


2 


16 


1 


19 


3 


13 


10 


17 


7 


14 


9 


7 


7 


6 


10 


5 


4 


4 


6 


9 


10 


8 


10 


12 


4 


11 



16 



16 



3 


7 


5 


9 


7 


3 


s 


8 


9 


7 


12 


13 


12 


17 


1 


3 


5 


13 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUMES THIRTY-SIX AND THIRTY-SEVEN 



Vol. No. Page 

Epic on the Sea, An (by Felix Riesen- 

berg) 37 3 14 

Evolution — Not Revolution (Amalga- 
mation Analyzed) 37 12 13 

Exalting the Inefficient (by John S. 

O'Brien) 36 4 18 

Experience, One Year's, May 1921-May 

1922 * 36 1 3 

"Experts" Testify (Marvin and 

Haines)* 36 2 7 

F 

Fascisti, Truth About the 36 8 13 

Facts, Do You Want?* 37 2 , 9 

Federal Strike-Breaking * 36 6 6 

Finance, A Glimpse at High 36 4 16 

Finance, Frenzied Shipping 36 3 11 

Finance, The Ultimate Boss 36 6 5 

Finances — War Shipping Profits 37 1 10 

Financing (International Typograph- 
ical Union) 37 9 10 

Finland's Population 37 4 12 

Finnish Seamen's Bill 37 7 17 

Fisheries, Etc. — 

Alaska Fishermen's Agreement, 1922 36 1 14 

Belgian Fishermen, Insurance for.. 36 4 14 

Pacific Coast Salmon Catch 36 7 16 

Status of Whaling Industry 37 3 19 

Eels, Migrants of the Seas 37 4 12 

Japanese Fishermen 37 5 10 

Recruits for Alaska Canneries*.... 37 6 7 

Alaska Fishermen's Agreement, 1923 37 6 12 

Newfoundland Sealing Fleet 37 6 23 

Whale, Extermination of the 37 7 13 

Alaska Fish Conservation 37 8 8 

Norway's Fishing Industry 37 8 16 

Belgium's Fishing Fleet 37 10 18 

A Stone-Eating Shellfish 37 11 15 

The Salmon Industry 37 12 11 

Japanese Fishermen in Hawaii 37 12 18 

Freedom Through Discipline 37 7 5 

French Merchant Marine, The 37 8 16 

French Seamen's Strike * 37 1 9 

French Seamen's Wages 37 9 12 

Furuseth, Andrew, Articles by, Etc. — 

A Letter to the President 36 7 3 

Needed Legislation 38 1 5 

Memorial to United States Senate... 37 2 3 

Labor Day Meditation 37 9 3 

Address on "Subsidy" at A. F. of L. 

Convention 37 11 4 

Future, What of the? * 36 8 6 



G 

Garibaldi, Italian Co-operative Society 37 8 12 

Gasoline, 25 per cent of Crude Oil.... 36 8 17 

Grand Canal of China, The 37 4 12 

Great Lakes — 

Steel Trust Challenged 36 4 3 

Wage Increase on Great Lakes.... 36 5 3 

Propagandists at Work* 36 5 10 

Great Lakes Strike 36 6 5 

The Strike on the Great Lakes* 36 7 10 

Vessels in the Great Lakes Trade... 38 1 4 
Wage Increase for Deck Crews of 

Car Ferries ,37 3 10 

Modern Shanghaiing 37 5 8 

Safety and the 12-Hour Day * 37 12 7 



H 



Vol. No. Page 



"Handicap," Regarding That 36 4 8 

Handicaps, Real 37 2 13 

Hanson, Thomas A., Death of 37 1 

Hawaiian Population * 37 12 8 

Hawaii, Japanese Fishermen in 37 12 IK 

High-Priced American Crews* 36 1 9 

History Repeats Itself * 37 9 6 

I 

Ice Patrol, Work of the 37 12 12 

Immigration — 

Trish Emigration 36 2 26 

Immigrants in America 36 3 15 

The New Immigration Law 36 7 17 

Immigration Restrictions* 37 2 9 

Polish Emigration 37 4 26 

Thoughts on Migrations* 37 9 8 

Immigrants, The Cry for * 37 7 

Injunction Farce, The 36 6 11 

Injunctions, Ridicule for* ...36 5 10 

Injunction Against San Francisco 

Industrial Association, etc 37 12 4 

Injunction Against R. R. Brotherhoods 

in Los Angeles * 37 12 7 

Insurance for Belgian Fishermen 36 4 14 

International Labor Office, The* 36 1 8 

International Seafarers' Federation — 

Miscellaneous News 36 1 17 

Hall Seamen's Union Amalgamated 

with N. S. & F. U.. 36 2 25 

I. S. U. of A. Convention Expresses 

Confidence in I. S. F 37 2 5 

Seamen's International Affairs 37 5 5 

International Seamen's Union of America — 

See — United States Shipping Board 

The "International" Union* 36 3 3 

The Seamen's Compensation Bill*.. 36 ' 3 9 

International Freight Rate Fixing*.. 36 4 

Will Americans Go to Sea?* 36 4 7 

The Union's Achivements 36 6 3 

Furuseth's Letter to the President.. 36 7 3 

Seamen's Compensation Bill 36 7 9 

I. S. U. of A. Convention Call 36 7 16 

The 26th Annual Convention * 37 1 6 

Death of Secretary-Treasurer Hanson 37 1 7 

Seamen's Plea to U. S. Senate 37 2 3 

Review of 26th Annual Convention 37 2 4 

The Blacklisting Grade Book 37 3 5 

The "Half Wage" Clause in the Sea- 
men's Act 37 3 9 

Review of 67th Congress 37 4 9 

A Typical Language Test 37 5 16 

Synopsis of Grievances Submitted to 

Shipping Board 37 6 3 

Manning, A Contrast in* 37 10 6 

Seamen and Longshoremen Agree... 37 11 

Seamen United. Officers Divided*.. 37 11 10 

I. S. U. of A. Convention Call 37 11 11 

"For Non-Union Men Only" 37 11 13 

"Character and Ability" (Reginald L. 

McAll) 37 12 9 

I. S. U. of A., a study of its history 

by A. E. Albrecht 37 12 16 

Italian Seamen vs. Fascisti 37 10 15 

I. W. W., Analysis by A. F. of L.... 37 11 3 
Italian Seamen's Co-operative Move- 
ment 37 8 12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUMES THIRTY-SIX AND THIRTY-SEVEN 



Vol. No ! 
J 

Japanese — See Asiatics 

Japanese Seamen's Insurance V) 2 14 

Java, Population of .36 3 17 

Johnson, Senator Magnus, Ridicule 

for * 37 9 8 

Jugo-Slav Seamen's Union, The 37 4 10 

L 

Labor Day. 1923 37 9 3 

Lahor and the Church* 37 9 9 

Labor and Politics * 36 2 7 

Labor Press, Support the (by J. M. 

Baer) 37 10 5 

Labor Press, Value of the (by Samuel 

Gompers) 36 ■ S 11 

Labor History. Bits of 36 3 15 

Labor Spies, Rules for 36 3 19 

Labor's Vision (by H. G. Wells) 36 3 15 

La Follette's Triumph * 36 6 8 

Language on American Ships (by 

Samentu) '..37 1 19 

Language Test. A Typical (S. S. 

Agnes Dollar) " 37 5 16 

Largest Steamer Afloat 37 7 17 

Law Enforcement 37 4 11 

Lessons from History (by Tohn P. 

Frey) " 37 3 13 

Libraries — See Education, Rook Reviews 

Lie, The Whispered 37 8 7 

Lifeboat Patent, New 37 1 15 

Lincoln, Abraham. Reversed* 36 5 8 

Lloyd's Register of Shipping — 

Lloyd's Shipbuilding Statistics 36 1 5 

World's Shipbuilding Data 36 4 5 

Age of Merchant Steamers 36 7 18 

Tanker Tonnage Growing 36 8 18 

World's Shipbuilding Data 37 2 18 

Largest Steamer Afloat 37 7 17 

Lloyd's Register, 1922-23 37 9 14 

Lloyd's Register of American Yachts 37 10 20 

The Origin of Lloyd's 37 11 14 

Lorntsen, H. M.. Death of 37 8 10 

M 

Man in the Ranks. The * 36 3 8 

Manning Question, The* 36 3 6-7 

Marine Engineering, Progress of 37 7 14 

Maritime Law, Proposed Unification of 36 8 4 

Maritime Losses in 1922 37 3 14 

Merchant Vessels, Age of Vol. 36. 4-13:6-16 

Merchant Steamers, Age of 36 7 18 

Mexico Bars Strike-Breakers 36 5 17 

Militarism, Rampant * 36 6 9 

Minimum Wage for Women in Cali- 
fornia 36 2 10 

Minimum Wage Law Meld Unconsti- 
tutional 37 5 10 

Motor Ship Tonnage 36 7 13 

Monsters of the Sea 36 5 16 

N 

Narcotics and Chinese Crews 37 3 9 

Nolan, John L, Death of 36 8 7 

Norway's Fishing Industry 37 8 16 

Norway's New Seamen's Act 37 9 7 

Norwegian Merchant Elect. The 37 7 5 

O 

Ocean Mail Appropriations 1921-1922 37 2 12 

Oil Production in California 37 9 19 



Vol. No. Page 
Olander, Victor A., Articles by — 

The Courts and the People 36 7 11 

The "Leviathan" Affair 37 9 5 

The Constitution, the Free Man and 

the Slave 37 12 5 

Opium Traffic, The 37 8 17 

Overtime Work * 36 1 8 

P 

Pacific Coast Seamen's "Voluntary" 

Wage Increase * 37 2 6 

Palmer Fleet, Last of the 37 6 14 

Panama Canal Traffic 37 9 13 

Paper, History of 37 4 17 

Pension Eund * (Printing Pressmen's 

Union ) 36 3 7 

Piracy in China 37 10 23 

Poetry— 

What Is a Scab' 36 6 4 

The Conqueror 37 1 24 

The Vital Issue 37 2 11 

The Price of Wealth 37 7 19 

The Morning Sea 37 12 26 

Populations, Masculinity of* 37 7 16 

Poverty, The Reward of 37 8 9 

Prohibition Problems, Etc. — 

The Liquor Question* 37 7 9 

Rooze Buccaneering 37 7 12 

Booze Prosperity 37 10 18 

The Twelve-Mile Limit* 37 12 10 

Future of Booze-Running 37 12 12 

Q 

Quitter. The Cowardly 36 7 15 

R 

Races, The Melting of, in Hawaii*.. 37 12 8 

Radio— Hospital Rights 37 6 18 

Radio Medical Service 37 5 15 

Record Atlantic Voyages* 37 S 6 

d Trip of U. S. S. Omaha 37 7 10 

Record in Grain Loading 36 6 21 

Rockefeller's Income 37 6 17 

Rocks, I )angerous Uncharted 37 11 15 

Rolph, Barkentine, Brutality on 37 S 15 

Russian Ambassador, The 36 2 17 

S 

Sailer. World's Largest, Wrecked.... 36 5 13 

Sailing Against the Wind 37 3 12 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 38th 

Anniyersary 37 4 5 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific, History 

bv Paul S. Taylor 37 11 18 

San Francisco Bay Ferries* 37 7 10 

San Francisco berry Passenger 

Statistics ..36 7 21 

San Francisco Eerrv Boatmen's 

Wages* 37 S 6 

San Francisco Industrial Association 

Enjoined by Judge Dooling 37 12 

Sanitation Aboard Ship * 37 7 X 

Sea-Going Show, A 37 5 14 

Seagoing Vessels, Size of 37 11 16 

Seamen as Harvesters * 36 6 7 

Seamen and Longshoremen Sign 

Agreement 37 11 7 

Seamen or Smugglers?* 37 10 8 

Seamen's Accident Risk* 37 A 8 

Seamen's Accident Statistics* 36 7 9 

Seamen's Act — See International Sea- 
men's Union of America; Also — 

Court Decisions, Etc. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUMES THIRTY-SIX AND THIRTY-SEVEN 



Vol. No. Page 
Seamen's Journal a Monthly Publica- 
tion * 36 1 5 

Seamen's Shipping Offices in India... 36 6 11 

Seamen's Shipping Offices in Sweden 36 3 13 

Seamen's World Code * 36 6 10 

Shipbuilding — See Lloyd's, also United 

States Shipbuilding 
Shipping Board — See United States 
Shipping Board 

Shipping Policy, An American* 37 4 3 

Shipping, Public Education on 37 7 3 

Ship Scuttling as a Business 37 2 11 

Ship Subsidy, Etc.— 

Hearings on Ship Subsidy* 36 1 

Ship Subsidy and Seamen 36 2 4 

That Undignified Wrangle* 36 2 8 

Wages and Subsidies 36 2 18 

A. F. of L. Raps Subsidy 36 3 4 

Frenzied Shipping Finance 36 3 11 

Subsidy Bill Amended * 36 4 10 

Subsidy and Publicity 36 4 13 

Ship Subsidy Referendum* 36 5 6 

British Ship Subsidies 36 6 13 

The Ship-Subsidy Bill, Questions and 

Answers 36 6 1 5 

Trading Booze for Subsidy * 36 7 

The "Drive" for Ship Subsidy 36 8 3 

History of Subsidy Raids 37 1 7 

Strange Bedfellows* 37 1 10 

World's Ocean Mail Appropriations 37 2 12 

Real Handicaps 37 2 13 

Congressman Davis' Proposals 37 5 3 

Subsidy Hunters Inconsistent 37 6 10 

A. F. of L. on Ship Subsidy 37 11 3 

Shipwrecked Cattle, A Tale of 37 11 5 

"Ships," Other Kinds of 37 6 19 

Solidarity Fakers * 37 7 7 

"Solidarity," in the name of* 37 3 6 

Spain's Population 37 10 11 

Speed, She Paid for 37 10 14 

Speed, The Age of * 37 6 8 

Standard Oil Salaries 37 3 16 

"Standards" (by Samentu) 36 7 19 

Steamships, Historical 37 4 15 

Steering, Automatic 36 8 19 

Strikebreakers * 36 7 9 

Strikebreakers as Heroes 37 4 14 

Strikebreaking Expensive * 37 7 8 

Strike, General, Analyzed 37 8 14 

Strike of R. R. Shopmen* 36 5 8 

Strike Threat by Bengal Pilots 37 10 13 

Surveyor, Work of the 37 11 16 

Swedish Seamen'* Act, New 36 7 12 

Swimming the English Channel 37 10 19 

Swiss Referendum, The * 37 6 10 

T 

Tanker Tonnage Growing 36 8 18 

Testing Time of Men, the 36 2 13 

Timber, Grays Harbor 37 4 16 

"Time Back" (by Samentu) 36 8 18 

Tips or Wages 37 3 4 

Tonnage of World's Motor Ships 36 7 13 

Tonnage, Age of World's. .. .Vol. 36, 4-13; 6-16; 7-18 

Tonnage Explained 36 3 18 

Tonnage Figures, World 36 5 15 

Tonnage, Nation's Per Capita 37 7 12 

Tonnage, World's Hie 37 4 12 

Towing Job, a Difficult 37 9 15 

Towing, Mechanical 37 10 4 

Trade Union Permanency (by John 

P. Frey) 37 11 12 

Trade-Union Movement, International 

Statistics * 36 7 8 



Vol. No. Page 

Transatlantic Passengers 37 4 5 

Treachery by I. W. W. * 36 5 9 

"Treat 'Em Rough" (by Samentu).... 36 5 17 

Tveitmoe, Olaf A., Death of 37 4 10 

Twelve-Hour Day. The * 37 5 7 

Twelve-Hour Work Day, Gary's 37 7 18 

U 

Union Baiting Is Expensive* 36 2 6 

Union Busters Use the T. W. W. 

(by Manly) 36 7 5 

Union Label, The 37 9 15 

Union Man's Duty, The 36 1 19 

Unionism, Indifferent 37 10 17 

U. S. Coal and Oil Burning Vessels.. 37 1 17 
United States Destroyers Wrecked 

off Point Argucllo.: Vol. 37, 10-8; 1 1-8 

United States Lighthouse Service 37 1 12 

U. S. Marine Hospital. Origin of 37 1 16 

U. S. Marine Hospital. Admission to .. 37 2 12 
United States Marine Hospital Radio 

Service 37 6 18 

United States Prison Population 37 6 17 

United States, Shipbuilding in the 37 8 16 

United States Shipping Board — 

Shipping Board's Fleet. The 36 8 12 

Transfers to Foreign Registry 37 1 12 

Shipping Board's Fight Against 

Unions 37 2 3 

Laskers' Testimony on La Follette 

Seamen's Act 37 2 7 

Lawyers Get Their Share 37 2 19 

Message to the Seamen of America 37 4 3 
Seamen's Conference with Shipping 

Board and New Wage Scale 37 6 3 

Adieu, Mr. Lasker * 37 6 8 

Free Advertising (Mr. Lasker)*.... 37 7 9 
Cooks' and Stewards' New Wage 

Scale 37 8 4 

The Shipping Board Fleet (Portland, 

Ore., Memorial) 37 10 3 

United States Shipping Statistics 37 11 5 

United States Steamboat Inspection.. 37 1 4 

United States Trade Statistics 37 10 16 

V 

Value of Cabled News * 36 2 8 

Vessels Left High and Dry 37 12 13 

Viking Yankees 37 8 15 

W 

Wage Increase for Pacific Coast Sea- 
men 37 2 16 

Wage Increase by U. S. Shipping 

Board Vol. 37, 6-3; 8-4 

Wages, Equalizing Seamen's* 37 9 10 

Wages or Tips ? 37 3 4 

Wages, The Meaning of * 37 11 10 

Wages vs. "Output per Man" 36 8 9 

Wages vs. Salaries. . 37 7 13 

Wage Theories * 36 4 10 

Wages vs. Dividends * 36 7 6 

Wages, The Question of* 37 6 6 

War Against War? * 37 12 6 

Waste, Elimination of* 36 3 10 

"Weaker Sex," Progress of the 37 4 13 

Western Civilization * 37 2 8 

Winds, Classifying the 37 8 16 

Wobblies in Other Lands 36 7 7 

Wobbly Bookkeeping * 37 8 7 

Wobbly Fiction Dissected 36 2 5 

Women's Eight-Hour Law (Maine vs. 

California) * 37 12 10 

Wooden Horse, The (by Samentu)... 36 6 17 




Official Organ of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^IIIUIIIIIillMIIUIIIIIIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIIO^ 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Gontents 



ONE YEAR'S EXPERIENCE 3 

LLOYD'S SHIPBUILDING STATISTICS 5 

EDITORIALS: 

THE JOURNAL A MONTHLY 6 

HEARINGS ON SHIP SUBSIDY 7 

OVERTIME WORK 8 

THE COSTLY AFTERMATH 9 

HIGH-PRICED AMERICAN CREWS 9 

SAFETY FIRST 10 

THE CHINESE SEAMEN'S STRIKE 11 

THE WORLD OF THE FUTURE 12 

SEAMANSHIP 13 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S AGREEMENT 14 

GERMAN SHIPPING STATISTICS 15 

THE COAL MINERS 5 STRUGGLE 16 

SEAFARERS' FEDERATION NEWS 17 

THE UNION MAN'S DUTY 18 

"FIXING" WAGES BY LAW 18 

THE RUINS OF CARTHAGE 19 

DOLLAR'S FAVORITE CREWS 19 

AMERICAN SHIPPING NEWS 20 

WORLD'S SHIPPING NEWS 22 

AMERICAN LABOR NEWS 24 

WORLD'S WORKERS' NEWS 25 



VOL. XXXVI, NO. 1 
WHOLE NO. 1900 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
MAY 1, 1922 



i'lillllll!l[]||||||||||||[]||||||lillll[]IMIIIIIIIIOII1IIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIII[]|||||IH^ 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS* FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
\. K. of U Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

THOS. A. HANSON, Secretary 
355 North Chirk Street, Chicago, 111. 

RICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass........ PEROX J. PRYOH Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW STORK, X. Y ROBERT .1. LEWIS, Agenl 

70 South B 

BALTIMORE, Aid C. RASMUSSEN, 

1710 Thames street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa.. O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agenl 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Va... DAN LNGRAHAM, Agent 

f»4 Commercial Place 

NEWPORT NEWS, Va. JULIUS NELSON. Agent 

123 Twenty-third Street 

MOBILE, Ala ..VINCENT M. THORN, Agent 

Saint Michael Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Stud 
R. 1. RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

515 Eddy st r 
PORT ARTHUR, Tex. JOSEPH WARD, Agenl 

132 Proctor Street 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW FORK CITY. x. Y. L2 South Street 

H. P. GRIFFIN, President 

W. L CARTLEDGE Secretary- Treasurer 

phone Bowling Green 8S40-S841 

Branches: 

NEW YORK, X. Y.. D. E. GRANGE, Agent 

514 Greenwich Street 

BOSTON, Mass. J. A. MARTIX, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 
NEW ORLEANS, L R. T. KAIZER. Agent 

228 Lafayette Street 
BALTIMORE Md. H METERS, Agent 

804 South I ; road way 
PHILADELPHIA, Pa PRANK NOLAN, Agent 

140 South Third St. 

GALVESTON, Te 'HAS. F. BULLOCK, Agent 

2117% Avenue A 

PROVIDENCE, R. WM. BELL, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S. OILERS* AND WATERTEND- 

ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, X. v. :n South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Phone John 0!»75 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa. CHAS. AUGUSTSON, 

206 Moravian Street 
BALTIMORE, Md. PATRICK KEANE 

South Broadway 
GALVESTON, Te: CHAS. W. HANSON, Agent 

321% Twentieth SI 

i:< )ST< »x. Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

288 Stat 
NORFOLK, Va.... PETER M.-K1LLOP, Agent 

513 Bast Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La. R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala VINCENT THORN. Agent 

69% Saint Michael St. 
PROVIDENCE, R. I. T. HASSARD, 

515 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mas? 12 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass. NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

• Main Stri 
NEW 3TORK, N. Y JAMES J. PAGAN, Agent 

111 South Str< 
ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. H. F. McGARRIGEL, Agent 
TOti North Rhode Island Avenue 



BOATMEN'S BENEFICIAL ASSOCIATION 
II. ESKIN, Secretary 
HOBOKEN, X. .) 316 R 



EASTERN MARINE WORKERS' ASSOCIATION 
NEW HAVEN, Conn 13% l 



SAILORS* 
'III' AGO, 111.. 



LAKE DISTRICT 

UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 



■ North Clark B 
K. B. NOLAN, S.-.retary 
Phon.- State 5175 
Branches: 

BUFFALO, X. Y GEORGE HANSEN, 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio B. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 
MILWAUKEE Wis. CHAS. BRADHERING, 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agenl 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR J. VY. ELLISON, Agent 

7 1 Bridge Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, X. Y Agent 

122% Main Street. Phone 890 

CONNEAUT, I Agent 

992 Day Street 



Agent 



Agent 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, X. V 71 Main Streel 

Tims. CONWAY, Becret 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 9048 
Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O .1. W. ELLISON. Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

CLEVELAND, O.. 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wia I Street 

Phone South 598 

• IT, Mich 4lo Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

•horn 6413 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, X. Y 86 \ 

J. M. SECORD, Secrets 

Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, lil - 855 North Claris 

CLEVELAND, O. 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed 

ASHTABULA, HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO. Ill 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 I >a • 

TOLEDO 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, X. Y 122U Main 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC . 
Headquarters: 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Secretary pro b 

Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCnrvr.i:. B. C R. TOWNSEND, Agent 

P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA. Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2016 North Thirtieth Street 

SEATTLE, Wash. P. B. GILL Agent 

a Street. P. O. Box 65 
ABERDEEN, Wash. CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore HANS GULLAKSEN, Agent 

88% Thii 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 87 

HONOLULU. T. II JOSEPH FALTUS, Agent 

P. O. Box 314 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 
SAX FRANCISCO. Cal. it Commercial 

PATKH'K FLYNN, 

Telephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



ONE YEAR'S EXPERIENCE 




OR exactly a year now, American ship- 
ping has been conducted under the 
system known in common parlance 
as "back to normalcy." Long enough 
to afford some practical experience 
of the thing'. We are now able to make a 
comparison between the promises and the 
practices of those responsible for the present 
method of doing business. 

May 1, 1921, will be remembered as the 
date upon which the new system was inaugu- 
rated. The method was simplicity itself. 
The shipowners announced a heavy cut in 
wages, including the abolition of overtime. 
The seamen's unions, of course, resisted the 
cut. 

The consequent strike, lockout, or what- 
ever one may please to call it, continued for 
weeks, and in certain instances for months. 
For a time, the seamen held the winning 
hand. That is to say, vessels were unable 
to secure crews. But for one thing, the sea- 
men would have won the fight. 

The thing that decided the issue was the 
fact that the shipowners had a powerful ally 
in the United States. The Government was 
in the fight, not only as a government but 
as a shipowner. In these circumstances the 
outcome was inevitable. 

The Government (otherwise, the Shipping 
Board) could not afford to lose, consequently 
the seamen could not hope to win. 

The incident affords a good test of the 
theory of "government ownership." Prac- 
tically, the seamen, instead of fighting the 
private shipowners (with the Government 
standing by to preserve "law and order"), 
were fighting the Government itself. In 
such case there could be only one result — 
defeat of the seamen. 

The seamen in all departments — forward 
and aft, on deck, in the fireroom, and in the 
glory-hole — were well organized. Their 
cause was just. They were resisting a cut 
nominally figured at \2 l / 2 per cent, but in 
reality amounting to twice or three times 
that figure. As usual, the facts in this con- 
nection were grossly misrepresented. The 
seamen put up a good argument. But — no 



chance ! The outcome was inevitable as fate 
itself. 

During the struggle some interest attached 
to the question of immediate responsibility 
for the wage cut, and as to the ulterior 
motive in view. Was the Shipping Board 
the prime mover, and the private shipowner 
merely the willing or unwilling tool? Or 
was it the other way round? Was the mo- 
tive merely one of economy, or was it anti- 
union, intended to destroy organization 
among the seamen, and thus establish the 
shipowner's right (?) to "run his own busi- 
ness"? 

We think that each of these questions 
may be answered in the affirmative. Public 
and private officials alternated in leadership 
of the fight. As to motive, we have seen 
no sign in any quarter of a disposition to 
call a halt in the policy of reducing the sea- 
man's conditions to the lowest possible level. 

Shipowners who heretofore have plumed 
themselves upon their "fairness" to labor, 
and to the seamen in particular, seem per- 
fectly willing to go as far as the other fel- 
low in the matter of "abolishing all union 
rules and regulations." 

The questions as to responsibility and mo- 
tive are of little importance at the present 
time. The only thing that counts is the 
result, and that is known by everybody. Let 
us give the situation a brief "once over." 

Wages have gone downu to the point of a 
bare living, and even lower. The original 
reduction of \2y 2 per cent has been followed 
by other reductions, too numerous to men- 
tion, until we have reached the point at 
which all pretense of maintaining a specified 
rate has disappeared. 

The shipowners offer whatever rate they 
see fit, and the seamen take it or leave it. 
Many seamen are today working for wages 
far below the rates prevailing, say fifteen or 
twenty years ago. We have gone back, not 
only to normalcy, but to sub-normalcy. 

Already there are signs that the ship- 
owners, in their anxiety to reap full advan- 
tage of their victory, have reduced wages 
below the limit of human endurance. On the 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



Pacific coast this limit has been reached, for 
we have quite recently had a "voluntary" 
increase, accompanied by a flourish of trum- 
pets. To those who understand, the "vol- 
untary" increase of wages will be merely 
the shipowner's way of acknowledging his 
own greed and short-sightedness. 

Overtime has been abolished. That is to 
say, overtime pay has been abolished. Over- 
time work, however, continues as before. 
Working rules are a thing of the past. The 
only rule now recognized on board ship is 
the old one: "Do wdiat you're told, and do 
it damned quick!" 

The union book has been superseded by 
tin- Association's "record book." The seaman, 
having been freed from the "tyranny of the 
unions," is now required to display the badge 
of his servitude to the Shipowners' Associa- 
tion ! Taken all in all. it is a beautiful situa- 
tion. It is harmony and tranquillity with the 
blacklist hanging over the heads of all who 
refuse to look pleasant when they are booted. 

The laws made for the protection of the 
seamen, also those made for the protection of 
the traveling public, have gone galley west. 
The law of the jungle — that is, the ship- 
owner's own sweet will — is the only law now- 
recognized on board ship. 

Just as the Seamen's Act and other similar 
laws were placed on the statutes at the in- 
stance of the seamen's unions, they can only 
be enforced by the same means. Having 
weakened the power of the unions, for the 
time being, the shipowners have ignored, 
and in some instances openly defied the laws, 
with no one to say them nay. 

Still, the case is not without at least one 
redeeming feature. The policy of the ship- 
owners is daily proving the helplessness of 
the seaman in the absence of the power oi 
self-protection — the power of organization. 
The seaman who in the past has been dis- 
posed to ask himself the question. "What is 
the good of a union?" now has his answer. 
And that answer permits of no contradiction. 

The shipowners have enjoyed a free hand 
during the past year. They have had every 
opportunity to put into practice their oft- 
repeated assurances of interest in the sea- 
man. The seaman himself now sees the 
result. He sees that the only interest of the 



shipowner lies in securing the maximum of 
labor for the minimum of compensation. 

After a year's experience under the sys- 
tem of "independent labor," it may truthfully 
be said that the conditions of the American 
seaman are probably the worst to be found 
under any flag. 

What of the future? The answer, now as 
always, rests with the seamen themselves. 
Either the seamen will continue as "inde- 
pendent laborers," taking whatever wages the 
shipowner offers them, and submitting meek- 
ly to every imposition upon their manhood, 
or they will rebel against these conditions 
and get together for the purpose of assert- 
ing their right to at least a living wage and 
decent treatment at the hands of their "supe- 
riors." 

One thing is certain, namely, that the 
present conditions of employment, or rather. 
unemployment, can not last forever. These 
conditions may change any day. Then wdiat? 

Shall we wait until the tide has turned, 
and then take our chances of a "voluntary" 
increase of wages, doled out, a dollar this 
month and fifty cents next month, according 
as the shipowner's conscience pricks him? 
Or shall we get together now, this very 
moment, and prepare to take full advantage 
of a change in conditions as soon as it 
occurs? 

To put it another way, shall we continue 
in the position of meek and humble serfs 
who are duly grateful for every crumb from 
the master's table; shall we concede to the 
shipowner the right (?) to pay whatever 
rate of wages he may deem good for us, 
or shall we act like men and insist upon an 
equal voice in the determination of our liv- 
ing conditions? 

"There is a tide in the affairs of men which, 
taken at the flood, bads on to fortune." 
Let us not forget that in order to take the 
tide at the flood we must prepare while it is 
still on the ebb. 



Mistakes are dangerous when they become 
habits. It is a mistake to spend money 
earned under union conditions for non-union 
labor or its products. Demand the label, 
card and button. 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN 



LLOYD'S SHIPBUILDING STATISTICS 



American shipyards today have less work 
in hand than in the period preceding the 
late war, says a statement issued by Lloyd's 
Register of Shipping, summarizing the re- 
turns for the quarter ending with April 1. 

World shipbuilding generally, it is pointed 
out, is rapidly reverting to the pre-war scale, 
while the returns for the United Kingdom 
show a total of orders in hand aggregating 
over 500,000 gross tons more than before 
the war, work has been ordered suspended 
on more than 600,000 tons of the present 
total, so that the actual status of British 
shipbuilding is about 6 per cent below the 
pre-war basis. 

Only 136,000 gross tons of ships are now 
being constructed in the United States, ac- 
cording to the returns. This figure com- 
pares with 148,000 tons for July, 1914, or a 
decrease of almost 10 per cent. At the 
beginning of this year the total reported for 
American yards was 216,000 tons, so that 
the decrease in the past three months has 
been about 40 per cent. At this time in 
1919 the United States was building 4,186,000 
gross tons of ships, or more than all the 
rest of the world combined. The decline 
from the peak in this country, therefore, has 
been more than 4,000.000 tons in the work 
under way at one time. 

All other countries than the United States 
and the United Kingdom, with the excep- 
tion of Germany, for which no authentic 
figures are available, now have under order 
1,307,000 tons, which is more than double 
the. pre-war construction aggregate for these 
nations. Of the present total, however, 
325,000 tons represents contracts on which 
suspension of work has been ordered, so 
that the actual amount under way is slightly 
less than a million tons. 

The following table shows the amount of 
shipbuilding orders now in hand as com- 
pared with the pre-war period, Lloyd's Regis- 
ter states: Apr j 1922 Ju]y j 1914 

United States 136,266 148.000 

United Kingdom 2,235,998 1,722,000 

Other Countries 1,307,358 626,000 

World 615,390 793,000 

Taking the amount of work on which sus- 
pensions have been ordered into considera- 



S JOURNAL 5 

tion, however, the present status is shown 

to be as follows :tj. k . Others World 

Total 2,235,998 1,443,624 3,679,622 

Suspensions 617,000 325,000 942,000 

Under way .1,618,998 1,118,624 2,737,622 
Returns of vessels building throughout the 
world under the supervision of Lloyd's Regis- 
ter and intended to be classed with that So- 
ciety show an aggregate of 2,396,073 gross 
tons, of which 1,757,512 tons are being con- 
structed in the United Kingdom. 

A general decrease is shown in the returns 
covering the construction of tankers. Nearly 
40,000 tons less of oil-carriers are now being 
built in the United States than at the begin- 
ning of the year, while the decline for the 
United Kingdom in the same period has been 
120,000 tons, and for other countries about 
25,000 tons, as the following table shows: 

Apr. 1,1922 Jan. 1,1922 

United States 67,976 103,000 

United Kingdom 416,654 536,000 

Other Countries 130,760 154,000 

World 3,679,622 2,496,000 

A striking example of how the progress 
on the work in hand is outpacing the placing 
of new orders is shown in the returns from 
the United Kingdom. During the past three 
months British yards began construction on 
only 49,000 tons of new work, while the 
launchings in the same period represented 
333,000 tons of steamers and motor vessels. 
In addition to Great Britain and Germany, 
there is more construction work being done 
in the yards of France, Holland and Italy 
than in the United States. All three of the 
latter countries, however, are doing less ship- 
building than at the beginning of this year, 
as are Japan and the British Dominions. 
The following table shows the status of these 
countries as compared with three months 

a §'° : Apr. 1, 1922 Jan. 1, 1922 

Italy 311,888 393,832 

France 286,255 352,635 

Holland 258,240 313,879 

Japan 117,312 145,000 

British Dominions 63,502 66,469 

Compared with the peak of construction 

under way at one time in the world, the 

present total represents a decline of nearly 

65 per cent. In September, 1919, there were 

8,048,000 gross tons of ships in hand. The 

present figure of 2,950,000 tons actually 

building is a decrease of nearly 4,100,000 

gross tons. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE HOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH. President 

A. F. of L. Building:, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FX.TNN, First Vice-President 

. r )8 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

TITOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo, N. V. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY j. PRTOR, Fifth Vice-President 

iy 2 Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

T. A. HANSON, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 X. Clark Street, Chicago, m 

Office of Publication, 525 Market street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.60 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL BCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will he pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of f 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 






MAY 1. 1922 



THE J< >URNAL A M< >NTHLY 



With this issue the Seamen's Journal 
makes its appearance in new form and under 
new ownership and control. 

The Pacific Coast weekly has been trans- 
formed into a national monthly, published 
by and under the direction of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America. Yet, 
though the Journal will now have a much 
greater circulation and a consequent wider 
field of usefulness, no change is contemplated 
in the general policy laid down nearly thirty- 
five years ago, i. e., on November 2. 1887, 
when Volume 1, Number 1 of the old Coast 
Seamen's Journal made its debut on the 
waterfront of San Francisco. 

The Journal's first editor, Xaver Leder, in 

his introductory article outlined a policy and 

;i declaration of purpose that have stood the 

of time. Here are a few pithy para- 



graphs from the first page of Volume 1. 
X umber 1 : 

If the pen be mightier than the sword then it 
shall be the main object of this Journal to point 
out to those who would wield their pens in behalf 
of Justice a grander and sublimer field for opera- 
tion than they could possibly conceive. In these 
times when the vivid spectacle of a gigantic men- 
tal evolution finds its expression particularly in the 
convulsive' struggle of the Producers of all coun- 
tries, it does indeed seem singular that so compara- 
tively few facts regarding the cause and condition 
of the Seaman have been gathered upon the horizon 
of public analysis. 

It is true that the Sailor's life has been, almost 
from time immemorial, the object of thousands of 
literary efforts; but those stories of a fantastic 
type, written in a highly romantic strain, amid the 
cozy and comfortable surroundings of the author's 
study, have, if anything, only resulted in rendering 
still more obscure the true condition of our craft, 
and in making the sailor an object of envy rather 
than one worthy of assistance and moral aid. 
Hut who indeed could possibly give the desired and 
correct information, short of ourselves, who are 
part and parcel? No one. Our task, then, be- 

plain. Webs of romance must be un. 
mirages of a rosy and fantastic hue must be de- 
stroyed. That penny-novel type of a Sailor-hero 
has held his sway over the minds of the people 
too long. We, who have been chained by dire 
necessity to a continual life upon the ocean, must 
raise our voices in our own behalf. 

The stories told in these columns will surely 
lack the fantastic sound of sea novels. They are 
not published to tickle your imagination, but to 
arrest the thought of such men and women who 
are in search of Truth, and for the establishment 
of Justice, and who agree with us that Sailors 
have a right to aspire to as high a moral and 
mental standard as any other craft or class. 

Meaningful words indeed ! And who will 
assert that the JOURNAL has not, except for 
one short lapse, held true to the course 
mapped out by the founders? 

This, then, will continue to be the JoUR* 
\ tf/s purpose and policy : 

To give voice to the aim- and aspirations 
of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

To champion the Seamen's cause the world 
over. 

To assist and encourage other labor or- 
ganizations in the attainment of their just 
demands. 

To espouse every other worthy cau- 
far as time and space will permit. 

To challenge all would-be union-busters 
and defy their henchmen, the treacherous 
"borers from within," under whatever name 
they may masquerade. 

Faithful adherence to this policy wdl re- 
move more finely woven webs of romance 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



and will at the same time help to place the 
Seamen's cause squarely and fairly before 
the bar of public opinion. For, in the long 
run, there is nothing on earth so essential 
to permanent and enduring progress than 
that short and simple word, Truth!. There- 
fore, as in the past, so in the future the 
Journal will earnestly endeavor to stick to 
the truth. Even though this may mean that 
Ave travel via the longest route toward the 
blessed millenium that mere mortals never 
reach, we will still try never to swerve from 
the truth ! For, after all — 

Truth is easiest, and the light shines clear 
In hearts kept open, honest and sincere'. 



HEARINGS ON SHIP SUBSIDY 



Hearings on the Ship Subsidy bill pend- 
ing in Congress commenced on April 4. and 
are dragging along with the end not yet in 
sight. 

Labor's vigorous protest against certain 
features of the proposed subsidy scheme has 
already had very positive results. 

The Seamen's representatives, backed by 
the spokesmen for the American Federation 
of Labor presented telling arguments against 
the naval reserve section of the bill. It 
was pointed out that while joining the Mer- 
chant Marine naval reserve was to be volun- 
tary, a month's extra salary was held out 
as a bait to tempt the seamen to come under 
the Act. During the existence of a "national 
emergency" declared by the President, mem- 
bers of the reserve could be transferred to 
the control of the Secretary of the Navy. 
"A national emergency" can easily be con- 
strued to mean a seamen's strike. There- 
fore, when seamen who voluntarily become 
members of the naval reserve go on strike 
against undesirable conditions, the Secretary 
of the Navy could call them to the colors 
and compel them to go back to their ves- 
sel.-. If they refused they would be court- 
martialed. 

The Shipping Board has now agreed to 
eliminate the naval reserve section from the 
bill. The Shipping Board has also officially 
stated that the immigration section in the 
bill will be amended so as to remove the 
objections raised by labor. 



Last but not least official notice has been 
served by the Shipping Board that an amend- 
ment will be offered making it compulsory 
for each subsidized vessel to carry a crew 
of which at least 66% per cent are Ameri- 
can citizens — inclusive the licensed officers, 
but exclusive of the stewards' department. 

Thus it will be admitted that considerable 
has been gained through the campaign of 
publicity initiated by the organized seamen 
and effectively backed by the American Fed- 
eration of Labor. 

In the meantime we cannot lose sight of 
the fact that the principal argument for the 
ship subsidy now being forced upon Con- 
gress is that it costs more to operate Ameri- 
can ships because they pay higher wages 
and carry larger crews than their principal 
foreign competitors. There are other argu- 
ments, but this is the one to which greatest 
emphasis is given in all the propaganda of 
the ship subsidy advocates. 

In order to ascertain the actual facts re- 
garding this question, a careful study has 
been made, based upon the most authentic 
and up-to-date information available. The 
sources relied upon are official reports of the 
respective governments, original copies of the 
actual wage scales in force, and articles from 
American and foreign ship owners' journals. 

This study of wages and manning on 
i\merican ships and foreign vessels of the 
same class and tonnage reveals many start- 
ling facts. And when the Seamen's turn 
comes to testify they will be prepared to 
prove : 

1. American seamen's wages have been 
deflated more violently than those of any 
other nation. While American seamen have 
had their wages reduced by amounts ranging 
from $20 to $40 per month (27 to 53 per 
cent), the wages of Japanese seamen have 
been increased 45 per cent, the wages of 
Australian seamen increased by 9 per cent 
and the wages of Chinese increased by 15 to 
30 per cent. 

2. As a result of these reductions the 
wages of American seamen are now much 
lower than the wages of Canadian and Aus- 
tralian seamen ; are practically on a level 
with British wages ; and are substantially 



8 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



higher than the wages only of Japanese 

among- the principal maritime nations. 

3. The size of American crews has been 
reduced by the order of the Shipping Board 

effective December 10, 1921, to such an ex- 
tent that American crews on vessels of the 
same class and tonnage are now 2?) per cent 
smaller than British crews and 70 per cent 
smaller than Japanese crews. 

4. The reduction of the size of American 
crews under the Shipping Board's order has 
been particularly drastic as regards the num- 
ber of able and ordinary seamen, who are 
essential to the safe and efficient operation 
of the vessels. 

5. As a result of this drastic reduction in 
the number of seamen the actual monthly 
wag;e cost of seamen upon a British ship is 
now 54 per cent higher than upon an Ameri- 
can Shipping Board vessel of the same class 
and tonnage. 

6. The only real advantage in wages or 
salaries which the British ship owner now 
enjoys as compared with the American is in 
the lower salaries paid deck and engineer 
officers. 

7. The present policies of the U. S. Ship- 
ping Board and American private owners as 
regards manning and wages are dangerous 
to safety of life and vessels, inimical to oper- 
ating efficiency, and destructive of the Ameri- 
can Merchant Marine. 



< OVERTIME WORK 



The current monthly financial letter of the 
Farmers and Merchants National Bank of 
Los Angeles contains a length)' tirade against 
overtime pay. To quote : 

"One of the most cunning schemes of labor 
unionism to rob employers was the invention of 
the overtime system. The establishment of a uni- 
versal eight-hour day enables the overtime graft 
to be fully developed. 

"When a man draws pay for overtime, he lays 
down on his job during regular hours, so as to 
make overtime employment. This is one of the 
abuses of our present system of doing things that. 
sooner or later, must be eradicated." 

The narrow and circumscribed point of 
view of this bos Angeles bank is typical of 
the average financier's attitude toward the 
problems of the worker. 

The length of the day's work largely de- 
termines the length of the worker's life. 



Statistics show that the average expectancy 
of life of an American citizen is o2 years. 
Under the 48-honr week the printers in this 
country live, on the average, a trifle over 53 
years. This will throw some light on why 
they are now fighting and heavily ass< 
themselves for the establishment of a 44-hour 
week. If these facts do not tell the story, 
the following table should clear tip any doubt, 
even in a banker's mind : 

When printers worked 72 hours a week, 
they lived 28 years. 

When printers worked 66 hours a week, 
they lived 35 years. 

When printers worked ' ■< ) hours a week. 
they lived 41.5 years. 

When printers worked 54 hours a week. 
the_\' lived 45.26 year-. 

When printers worked 48 hours a week, 
they lived 53.17 years. 

The gentlemen who prate so much about 
industrial freedom and the '•American plan" 
have never analyzed such tables, their sole 
concern being bonds, stocks, dividends, cou- 
pons, rates of interest, etc. 

But even though a Los Angeles banker 
cannot possibly conceive that a shortening of 
the day's work has been a genuine humani- 
tarian achievement of distinct benefit to the 
entire race and to civilization as a whole, 
the American people generally have long 
since arrived at that conclusion. 

If some philanthropic or "uplift" organi- 
zation, some well financed association for im- 
proving mankind, some "welfare" federation. 
Rockefeller, Carnegie or Sage foundation had 
added nine years to the lives of 50,000 people, 
established a home for the sick and aged, 
raised wages, shortened hours, insisted on 
sanitary conditions in workrooms, fought 
against child labor, paid out a million for 
old-age pensions and maintained a great sys- 
tem of education, how the plaudits of such 
an achievement would ring through the 
; >ress ' 

Yet all this has been done by a single 
American trade-union, namely, the Interna- 
tional Typographical Union. 

I> there a bank or a banking system with 
a similar record? 



Join the union:" it is the only way you 
can help yourself. 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE COSTLY AFTERMATH 



A year has passed since Admiral Benson 
of the United States Shipping Board started 
on his great union-smashing campaign. And 
the American taxpayers have not yet been 
presented with a final statement of the cost. 
It is always rather expensive to break 
strikes but, of course, the Admiral was not 
much concerned about expenses. If Uncle 
Sam did not have the ready cash, surely he ' 
could raise it! Did not the organized ship- 
ping interests vociferously applaud the Ad- 
miral whenever a new defy was addressed 
to the Seamen's Unions? 

It will be recalled that privately owned 
vessels did not take many chances with the 
incompetent labor available during the strike. 
However, the fleet of merchant vessels con- 
trolled by Admiral Benson was owned by the 
people. So it was deemed perfectly safe to 
take long chances with strike-breaking crews. 
One of these long chances was the steam- 
ship Pocahontas. This vessel was for- 
merly the German steamship Prinzess 
Irene, 10,352 tons, built in 1900. She was 
one of the vessels controlled by Admiral 
Benson and in May, 1921, she sailed for 
Italy with such a crew as could be secured 
during the strike of union seamen. Trouble 
started from the first, the engineer crew be- 
ing totally incompetent to handle the ship. 
During the passage to the Azores, every- 
thing except the electric lights went out of 
order, the boilers badly priming, etc., and one 
of the juniors was put in irons for alleged 
tampering with the machinery. At the 
Azores, English and German engineers were 
secured, thanks to whose brotherly assistance 
the ship was brought to Naples on July 3. 
In the olden days, when the Pocahontas 
was run by the Norddeutscher Lloyd, she 
usually made Naples in about twelve days 
from New York. While at Naples repairs 
were carried out and, in the meantime, the 
charterers of the vessel got into difficulties, 
so that the Shipping Board had to spend 
about $200,000 "to get the ship out of hock," 
as Mr. Lasker so picturesquely put it. 

The ship was released on September 7 
and left the next day for Gibraltar, where 
she arrived September 13. She has been 



lying there ever since, further troubles hav- 
ing occurred after she left Naples. According 
to our esteemed contemporary Nauticus, 
of New York, it has since been established 
that the engines of the Pocahontas were 
not tampered with by the crew. All the 
troubles were due to sheer incompetence and 
inability to handle the work. It seems to 
have been a common thing during the pas- 
sage for the firemen supposed to be on 
watch to lose themselves among the steerage 
passengers. One of the junior engineers 
went mad and jumped overboard, others were 
drunkards, others again dope fiends, etc. In 
short, the ship should never have been 
allowed to leave port, manned as she was. 
There is no doubt, however, that many of 
the harrowing tales published about the 
Pocahontas were sheer inventions, inspired 
probably by the steerage waiters, who were 
gathered from the dens of thieves in New 
York City. One of them died at sea from, 
it is believed, poison given him by his col- 
leagues, who suspected him of intending to 
betray them for stealing ship's stores. 

The proud liner, now a mere hulk bearing 
pitiful testimony to the inefficiency of Ship- 
ping Board management, is for sale, and it is 
reported that the first offer of £17,000 has 
recently been received by the Shipping Board. 

Truly, Admiral Benson's chickens have 
come home to roost! 



HIGH-PRICED "AMERICAN" CREWS 



In view of the persistent campaign of 
deliberate misrepresentation about the in- 
ability of American shipowners to compete 
in the foreign trade because of their high- 
priced "American" crews, the Journal here- 
with submits the scale of wages paid to 
the Chinese crew noAv serving on the Ameri- 
can steamship Nanking. Please note that 
the Nanking is owned by the China Mail 
Steamship Company of San Francisco and 
is operated under all those "unfair, gro- 
tesque and burdensome" navigation laws 
which a "short-sighted Congress" is said to 
have foisted upon American shipping. 

The Nanking arrived at San Francisco 
on April 17 with a Chinese crew of 158, 
segregated in departments as follows: Stew- 



12 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL May, 1922 

Increase receive half pay for the time they were on 

1. Chinese River Steamers M)' , strike, but they also continue to receive 

2. Other Chinese steamers, up to 1,000 half pay (if no job is ready for their.' [or 

tons deadweight 30% the period of S]/ 2 months. 

3. Hongkong Canton & Macao Steam- Those "long-suffering" American shipown- 

boats Co., Ld 20% ers who have always give preference to Chi- 

4. Other British Companies' River nese labor are surely placed in a sad and 

Steamers taking the scale of the unenviable position. Their noble conscience 

Hongkong Canton Macao Steam- did not permit them to do business with the 

boat Co., Ld.. as a basis 20'* American Seamen's Union. They employ 

5. Coasting Steamers 20%- only "independent" labor. And now their 

6. Java Lines 15% greatest source of supply is being unionized! 

7. Pacific Lines IS'', Oh, yes. there is still some retributive 

8. European Lines 15% justice in this world! 

9. Australian Lines 15% Three cheers for the Chinese Seamen's 

Clause 2— A date will be fixed for the gen- Union! 

eral return to work. From the time of leav- 

ing until such date, men will receive half pay THE WORLD OF THE FUTURE 

according to the new scale. Men may be 

re-instated on any of their own Company's In this present world, men live to be 

vessels, or such other vessels as may be themselves; having their lives, they lose 

mutually agreed upon. If positions are not them; in the world that we are seeking to 

available for men ready to return to work make, they will give themselves to the God 

as above, it is agreed that half pay shall con- of Mankind, and so they will live indeed, 

tinue for such period as the men are not They will as a matter of course change their 

employed, but not exceeding five and a half institutions and their method-. -< > that all 

(5 l / 2 ) months from the date of the general men may be used to the best effect in the 

return to work. This half pay will be ad- common work of mankind. They will take 

ministered from a Fund under the control this little planet, which has been torn into 

of a duly appointed .Administrator. shreds of possession, and make it again one 

3. The owners agree to assist in inaugurat- garden, 

ing a system of engaging crews which will The spirit of God in man is crying out in 

minimize as far as possible any irregularities our hearts to save us from these blind alleys 

which may exist in connection with the pay of selfishness, darkness, cruelty and pain, in 

of seamen. which our race must die; he is crying for the 

Signed at Hongkong, this fifth day of high road which is salvation; he is command- 
March, One Thousand Nine Hundred and ing the organized unity of mankind. 
Twenty-two. When men cease their internecine 1 war, 
R. Sutherland, Chairman, Shipowners' Com- then, and then alone, can the race sweep 
mittee. forward. The race will grow in power and 
A. Jamiesen, H. B. M. Consul General at beauty swiftly; in every generation it will 
Canton. grow. All this world will man make a 
Luk King Fo, Secretary at to Commissioner garden for himself. — H. G. Wells, in "The 
for Foreign Affairs, Canton. Undying Fire." 

Chak Hon Ke, Delegate, Chinese Seamen's 

Union. Don't be a '"take it or leave it" trade 

unionist. Refuse to take it if it does uot 

It is needless to state that the foregoing bear the union label. 

agreement is one of the most remarkable 

documents ever exhibited in America. Trade unionists who believe in signs very 

Clause 2, in particular, is worthy of care- often fail to see the absence of the union 

fill perusal. The Chinese seamen not onlv label, -hop card, or working button. 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



SEAMANSHIP 



Felix Riesenberg, C. E., late commander 
of the schoolship Newport, also author of 
those excellent books "The Men on Deck" 
and "Under Sail" has added a real master- 
piece to his list of publications. The title 
of his latest book is "Standard Seamanship 
for the Merchant Service." It has 942 pages 
and 625 illustrations. The price is $7.50. 
The publishers are D. Van Nostrand Com- 
pany, 8 Warren Street, New York. 

Captain Riesenberg always differed with 
those nautical experts (?) who have never 
had a personal touch of sea life and who 
therefore maintain that real seamen are no 
longer necessary to the success of an Ameri- 
can Merchant Marine. So in this splendid 
work Captain Riesenberg has made a gen- 
uine effort to compile virtually all the knowl- 
edge extant that conquers the sea' through 
seamanship. To say that Captain Riesen- 
berg, through his latest book, has rendered 
real public service is putting it mildly, in- 
deed. 

The Journal, cannot begin to do justice 
to this author. The Preface to his book has 
vision and a message combined. It is full 
of real stuff'. Here is some of it : 

"When the sea and men and ships were 
brought together at the beginning of the 
ancient craft of seamanship, the range of man's 
vision extended with his conquest on the sea. 
The dreadful superstitions of land-locked peo- 
ple gradually gave way before the enlighten- 
ment and freedom of the seas — the seaman 
moves forward in the very vanguard of human 
progress. 

"Without the sailor, and without the heroic 
heritage with which he has endowed the world, 
men today would live in dark and hopeless 
isolation. In the old days the boldest sought 
the sea — the most daring men were those who 
voyaged far beyond the blue horizon. And 
today, when everything at sea seems safe, 
sailors handle mighty vessels thousands of 
times as great and more difficult to manage 
than those with which the art of seamanship 
began. 

"The work of the sailor, as his name implies. 
started with the use of the winds, the spread- 



ing and management of sails. Propulsion by 
means of oars continued for many years after 
sails came into use. The Phoenician galleys 
and the long ships of the Vikings combined 
both oars and sails. The long voyages of 
the world, however, were first made possible 
by sail. The nef and the caravel and the 
larger and more able craft that followed, 
on to the time of the Great Republic and the 
ships of her day, carried the art of sailing to 
a high state of perfection. Then came a third 
transition in motive power at sea. Rollers 
and engines were placed in the hulls of ships 
and seamanship combined the art of sailing 
with the art of handling vessels by their own 
power applied through paddle wheels or 
screws. For centuries the sailor had managed 
his craft alone, after the passing of the oars- 
man, and then he was joined by a new 
seafarer, the ocean engineer. 

"Always the old processes of seamanship 
have undergone their changes. Oars — oars 
and sails — sail — sail and steam — and today we 
have steam and motor vessels covering the 
seas and able sailing craft still holding on 
and improving their opportunities in the 
world-wide lanes of trade. As fuel increases 
in cost sail comes back wherever voyages are 
long and freights too low to tempt the power 
carrier. 

"In the great field of power-driven steel 
construction a vast economic struggle is in 
progress between the engines of Watt and 
Fulton, the turbines of Parsons and Curtis, 
and the motor of Diesel. And aside from 
this there is the competition of coal and oil 
fuel for the generation of steam. Over- 
shadowing the giant struggle is the spirit of 
Faraday picking and choosing a prime mover 
for the final dynamo sprung from his dis- 
coveries. 

"As motive forces and materials of con- 
struction have improved the tonnage of ves- 
sels has increased until a point is near where 
limiting factors, both economic and material, 
tend to put an end to further growth in size. 
The thousand-foot liner and the twenty thou- 
sand ton deadweight carrier are about the 
largest craft for transocean service or for 
world-wide cargo trade. Sailing craft of 
seven to eight thousand deadweight tons are 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



all that men may safely handle even with the 
most scientific sailing gear. 

"These larger, faster craft have brought 
with them great demands upon the ancient 
art of seamanship. New and better gear is 
required. Steel and fiber ropes of superior 
make and of unprecedented size and strength 
are now employed. Tackle of all kinds is 
heavier, stronger. Anchor cables have reached 
an enormous size; anchors are being forged 
to as great a weight as fifteen tons. Boats 
have multiplied until the larger passenger 
carriers are covered with flotillas of small 
craft nested in two's and three's under huge 
mechanical davits with steam and electric 
hoists for their management. Forces have. 
multiplied in every direction while crews, com- 
posed of able seamen, are smaller and often 
less able than before. And with all of this 
has come a tremendous increase in the value 
<>f property at sea. while thousands of lives 
are entrusted to the safety of a single ship. 

"In considering these matters we must al- 
ways remember that the sea is no respector 
of ships or persons. The sea is always ready, 
at the first sign of failure, to rush in and 
destroy the very craft it so readily supports 
upon the surface of the water. The sea is 
«»nly safe and harmless so long as tin ship is 
safe and seaworthy and ably handled. The 
great liner, with a gash in her side, becomes 
a very charnel house of death. ]n a few 
moments the safe and comfortable ship is a 
horrible trap. The great powerful craft rush- 
ing through the sea at express speed turns 
her power and her momentum into a dreadful 
cause of destruction when she piles upon a 
rams an iceberg, or cuts down another 
vessel. 

"No matter how important a man at sea 
may consider himself, unless he is funda- 
mentally worthy the sea will some day find 
him out. Tf a wrong move is made at sea, 
in a critical moment, death may be the 
penalty for the mosl simple failure — not only 
death to one but to many. Incompetence may 
prevail upon the shore but at sea it sooner 
or later is ruthlessly uncovered and utter dis- 
aster often follow - in its wal 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S AGREEMENT 



United effort — all hands pulling together— 
irings results. 



The fond hopes freely expressed by Wobbly 
disrupter- on the I 'acific Coast that the Alaska 
Fishermen's Union would go to smash this 
spring have been rudely shattered. The 
Alaska Fishermen's Union is very much alive 
and doing business on the old stand after 
entering into a working agreement with the 
various fishing companies for the season of 

Section 4 of the 1922 agreement cover- 
"Compensation" and reads as follows for all 
Bering Sea ports: 

(a) Each gill-net fisherman shall receive in 
addition to the wages of one hundred forty dol- 
lars for the run and all other moneys earned under 
tin's agreement, fifteen cents i"<>r each King Salmon 
weighing over fifteen pounds (King Salmon under 
fifteen pounds to be accepted two for one), three 
cents for each Red or Coho Salmon, one and 
one-quarter cents for each Chum Salmon, and 
one-half Of one cent for each Pink Salmon, 
caught and delivered to the ^sso< iation. These 
rates only to be paid for salmon caught with 

furnished by the Association. If other nets 
are used or are found in possession of any pill- 
net fisherman or in his boat. BUCh fisherman and 
hi- partner agree to accept a< full compensation 
tor all salmon delivered by them during the entire 
season a price of twenty-five per cent below the 
above rates. All salmon must he in perfect con- 
dition, not discolored or mutilated when delivered 
and must be discharged from boats at least once 
in twenty-lour hours. 

(b) The Association is not compelled to take 

any Chum or T'ink Salmon, but if received they 
to be paid for at above ra1 

The Association reserves the right to limit 
each boat to not less than twelve hundred salmon 
per day, such limit to commence at midnight 
following notification. Notification of limit to be 
given before six p. m. by hoisting a Ian 
flag both at the cannery and at receiving lighters. 

(d) When boats are on the limit they may 
make one or more deliveries between midnight 
and midnight, but all boats must be discharged 
rlean at the receiving station in the presence of 
the tallymen. Accurate account of all salmon 
discharged above limit to be kept by tallymen, 
and such salmon shall be credited pro rata to all 
boats short of the limit, but in no event shall 
any boat be credited in excess of the limit i 
when detained as provided hereafter in this 
tion. Any boat short of the. limit is permitted 
to receive from any other boat- sufficient salmon 
to fill the limit. 

Any boat detained from delivering salmon at 
receiving station for more than live hours 
having there reported arrival shall be credited 
with one hundred red salmon for each hour's 
detention, but not more than twelve hundred 
salmon, in addition to all salmon delivered on 
-mb day, shall be allowed for twenty-four hours- 
detention. The same rule to apply when boats 
the limit. Boats must have nets cleared 
before arrival at receiving station. 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



(e) Fishing boats and crews ordered trans- 
ferred to fish at another station than the one 
originally attached to shall be selected by lot. 

(f) No fishing to be done on any fishing 
grounds closed by the United States Government 

(g) Fishermen and trapmen hired in Alaska 
shall commence work with the arrival of the first 
sailing vessel and cease work with the departure 
of the last sailing vessel of their stations and 
shall each receive in place of run money the sum 
of seventy dollars together with any other com- 
pensation provided for fishermen and trapmen in 
this agreement. 

(h) Fishermen and trapmen hired in Alaska 
and not performing such work before and after 
the fishing season, shall not receive said sum of 
seventy dollars. Such money not paid to be dis- 
tributed to needy fishermen or their dependents, 
as may be directed by the fishermen of the 
station. 

(i) Fishermen or trapmen detained in Bristol 
Bay after September 1 shall be paid at the rate 
of eighty-five dollars per month for the time of 
such detention. 

(j) For salmon transferred from Xushagak, 
Kvichak, Naknek, Egegak or Ugashik, or pur- 
chased from other companies, all fishermen and 
trapmen employed at receiving station shall share 
equally in extra compensation equal to one-third 
of the price paid for such transferred salmon 
where caught. Xo such extra compensation shall 
be paid for salmon caught by boats transferred 
to another station. 

(k) The basis of compensation of wages if paid 
by the case shall be a ca^e of salmon containing 
forty-eight one-pound tall cans or a case contain- 
ing ninety-six half-pound cans. For wage pur- 
poses, if anv salmon in half-pound cans are packed 
forty-eight to the case, three cases of forty-eight 
half-pound can> each to be computed as two cases 
of forty-eight one-pound tall cans. If salmon are 
salted, each borrel of salmon is to be computed 
as four ca-e^ and each half-barrel as two cases 
of forty-eight one-pound tall cans. Regular red 
salmon prices to be paid for all other kinds of 
fish that may be put up by the company in cans 
or barrels, dried, smoked or salted. 

(\) Men with families dependent upon them 
shall be allowed seventy dollars per month. Pay- 
ments to commence on the first of the month 
following departure from San Franci-co. and 
monthly thereafter. 

(m) All moneys earned to be payable in San 
Francisco after the return of the expedition, except 
the sum of ten dollars which is to be paid on 
the homeward voyage to each man signing this 
agreement. 

For Chignik. Alitak. Cook Inlet. Fort 

Wrangell and Loring the "Compensation"' is 

as follows : 

Fach party of the second part ^except those 
-hip on other specified waees as noted on 
the articles') shall receive in addition to the wages 
of one hundred and forty dollars for the run: 
One and one-quarter cents per case for all salmon 
packed at the cannery during the season 1922. 
and five-eighths of one cent per case for all salmon 
caught by the Chignik fishermen and shipped 
away. 

For Uyak Bay I Karluk"! the "Compensa- 



Each party of the second part (.except those 
who ship on other specified wages as noted on 
the Articles'* shall receive in addition to the wages 



of one hundred and seventy-five dollars for the 
run: Five dollars and fifty cents per one thousand 
cases for all salmon packed by the company at 
Uyak Bay. Alaska, during the season of 1922. 
and two dollars and seventy-five cents per one 
thousand cases for all salmon, caught by the 
company at Uyak Bay and shipped away. 

The forty-eight honr week has been regained 
in all sections of Alaska. 

As in the past, the Sailors Union oi the 
Pacific and the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Water Tenders' Union of the Pacific also 
sneceeded in negotiating union agreements 
with the various Alaska fishing companies. 



GERMAN SHIPPING STATISTICS 



For the first time since the war, official 
German statistics have been published con- 
cerning German shipbuilding. The official 
German figures now issued comprise the 
period from 1914 down to the end of 1920. 
the considerably more productive year of 
1921 not yet being embodied in the statistics. 
As compared with Lloyd's statistics, which 
exclude vessels of less than 100 tons, the 
German figures contain also the tonnage of 
the smaller ships. The German statistics in 
gross tons are given as follows: 1913. 440.000 
tons: 1915. 201.000 tons: 1916, 196.000 tons: 
1917. 65.000 ton,; 1918, 38,000 tons; 1919. 
155.000 tons, of which 130.000 are said to 
have been built for foreign account ; and 
1920. 327.000 tons, of which 84,700 tons were 
for foreign owners. At the end of 1920, 892 
ships of a total of 1.714.000 gross tons were 
in course of construction at German yards. 
During and since the war the number of 
yards was increased and the capacity of ex- 
isting yards was largely expanded. 



Charles G. Ammon, a fraternal delegate 
from the British Trade Union Congress to 
the San Francisco convention of the A. F. 
of L.. has been elected to the House of Com- 
mons by British trade unionists, according to 
the Union Postal Clerk. The British union- 
ist is one of the outstanding figures in 
British postal unionism. His first speech 
on the floor of the House of Commons was 
an attack on the attempt to reduce em- 
ployes and their wages, under the gn 
"economv." 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



THE COAL MINERS' STRUGGLE 



Men close to President Harding have 
asserted that the Federal Government would 
maintain a neutral attitude toward the coal 
miners' strike. 

Yet, the power of government is behind 
Federal injunctions that now plaster the min- 
ing sections of West Virginia. 

Most of these injunctions are in support of 
the individual contract, which anti-union coal 
owners make their employes sign before they 
give them work. 

In this contract the worker agrees not to 
join a union while so employed. This 
contract was upheld by the United States 
Supreme Court in December, 1917. in the 
case of Hitchman vs. miners. Since then 
West Virginia coal owners, especially, have 
used this method to enlist the government in 
their war on the Miners' union under the 
guise of "maintaining the right of contract." 

There can be no greater mockery than to 
call this forced pledge a "contract." Miners 
contemptuously refer to it as "yellow dog." 
It violates the first element of contract 
making — that both parties to a contract must 
be free agents; that there must be an absence 
of force or intimidation, and that the sign- 
ing of a contract must be a voluntary act 
by both parties. 

It is idle to say that the elements of con- 
tract-making apply to miners in the moun- 
tains of West Virginia who, with their fam- 
ilies, are far removed from industrial centers. 

The miner cannot offer his services as does 
the worker in populated centers. His choice 
is limited to mining that is controlled by a 
small group of men who act together. 

Who will say that under these conditions 
contract-making is equal and the miner is a 
free agent when he is told that he will not be 
given work unless he signs a contract not 
to join a trade union while so employed? 

Who will say that the coal owner is free 
from intimidation when he knows that if the 
miner does not sign his wife and children 
will suffer? 

Nothing shows the property bias of the 
judiciary more clearly than the Hitchman 
decision, which overturns former contract 
decisions. 



In the enforcement of contracts courts 
have consistently held that both parties must 
have free will; that there must be no element 
of force, coercion or undue advantage. 

In the Hitchman case the United States 
Supreme Court ignored these fundamentals 
that it so often declared for. As a result the 
Hitchman Coal and Coke Company and its 
kind can now hold employes in serfdom with 
the aid of the Federal judiciary. 

There is neither morality, ethics, justice 
nor elemental law in the "yellow dog." It is 
based on the hunger of babies and the needs 
of women. It bemeans men by forcing them 
to agree not to do a thing that they have 
a lawful right to do, and which every impulse 
calls upon them to do. 

It is jug handled, one-sided and unfair. 
It can only be sustained by men steeped in 
property ideals. 

This is the contract that is general in 
West Virginia, and which injunction judges 
are rushing to support. As these judges are 
backed by every power of government how 
can it be said that the government is neutral 
in the miners' struggle for a living wage and 
sustaining employment? 

What can be the thoughts of these miners 
who listened but a few years ago to a ship 
agent's tale of a land across the ocean where 
all men are free? 

Now these miner- see the government of 
that free land upholding a greedy coal owner 
who took advantage of the needs of babes 
and forced their father to sign a pledge that 
he would not join the Miners' union? 

They see that government warning trade 
unionists that they will be fined and jailed 
if they talk organization to miners who sur- 
rendered their lawful right and accepted a 
"yellow dog" because they were forced to 
do so. 

Courts may talk about the "sacredness" of 
these "contracts." Lawmakers may remain 
silent before the injustice of the "yellow 
dog" and the iniquity of injunction judges, 
but the men who risk their lives, while held 
in this serfdom, will ask each other if the 
ship agent told all he knew. 

What progress can genuine Americanism 
make among these workers when they ask 
that question? 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



SEAFARERS' FEDERATION NEWS 



Secretary C. Damm of the International 
Seafarers' Federation writes that at the invi- 
tation of President J. Havelock Wilson he 
attended a Maritime Commission meeting at 
Paris the early part of March, where ques- 
tions were discussed regarding Dock Loads, 
Hours of Labor, Unemployment Insurance 
for Seamen, International Seamen's Code, and 
the protection of the Health of Seamen. 

The representatives of the shipowners tried 
to throw out any further discussion on the 
48-hour week, but Mr. A. Rivelli, represent- 
ing the French seamen, and Mr. Havelock 
Wilson, representing Great I Britain, made a 
splendid stand and the result is, that on a 
near future date the Director-General of the 
International Labor Office under the League 
of Nations is to call a conference of ship- 
owners and seamen to discuss the hours of 
labor at sea. 

A committee was also formed to discuss 
Deck Loads, Mr. Rivelli and Mr. Havelock 
Wilson were elected to represent the men 
while Mr. Cuthbert Laws, of Great Britain, 
and Mr. Salveson of Norway were nominated 
to represent the shipowners. 

In Great Britain a strenuous fight is taking 
place between a new Union, formed by the 
amalgamation of the National Union of Ships' 
Stewards, Cooks, Butchers and Bakers and 
the British Seafarers' Union on the one hand, 
and the National Sailors and Firemen's Union 
on the other. The British Seafarers' Union 
is a dual organization and was established 
during the strike of 1911. It has, ever since 
its formation tried to become affiliated to 
recognized labor and political bodies in Eng- 
land, but such affiliation has always been 
refused. However, when the National Sailors 
and .Firemen's Union withdrew from the Na- 
tional Transport Workers' Federation, owing 
to that Federation refusing to permit mem- 
bers of the National Sailors and Firemen's 
Union working by ships in port, the dual 
Union was at once admitted to the National 
Transport Workers' Federation and the leaders 
of that Federation are very energetic in assist- 
ing the newly formed amalgamation in their 
endeavor to smash the National Sailors and 



Firemen's Union of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. 

From personal observations made by Mr. 
Damm during a recent visit to England, he 
is convinced that the National Sailors and 
Firemen's Union is not losing its membership, 
it is quite the opposite. Allowing for the 
slackness in shipping and the large number 
of men unemployed, the income of the Na- 
tional Sailors and Firemen's Union is equal 
to the income for the corresponding month 
last year. Mr. Damm thinks it is a pity that 
at a time while employers are doing their 
best to reduce wages and increase working 
hours, some men should take upon themselves 
to disrupt the existing Unions and thereby 
weaken the position of the men. This un- 
happy state of affairs is not confined to Eng- 
land. The disrupters and secessionists always 
make their appearance when the organized 
workers have passed through a bitter fight. 
They are, in many respects, like the buzzards 
who hover over the battlefield after the armies 
have passed on to victory or defeat. 



The renewed struggle between the employ- 
ers and the building trades unions of San 
Francisco is settling down to a long, hard 
fight. The Industrial Association announces 
that it will again charter a hotel to house 
its imported strikebreakers. The unions 
claim that contractors are establishing closed 
shop conditions wherever the building mate- 
rial dealers will allow them to. They state 
that one reason for the recent walkouts is 
the extreme danger to the men in working 
on the same jobs with unskilled and ignorant 
workers, and claim that the accident ratio 
has greatly increased since the establishment 
of the "American plan." It is for this rea- 
son that the elevator constructors particu- 
larly, whose work is unusually hazardous, 
finally refused to work on "open shop" jobs. 



The steamship Celestial, 7030 tons gross, 
4351 net, 10,000 tons deadweight, steams 
\0y 2 knots, built at Shanghai, in 1921, for- 
merly owned by the Shipping Board and now 
owned by the Dollar Steamship Line, Inc.. 
San Francisco, has been renamed Margaret 
Dollar. 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



THE UNION MAN'S DUTY 



Do you do your duty to your union? Are 
you not just a little bit careless as to its 
welfare and progress? Do you ever attempt 
to build it up? Did you ever put yourself to 
the least inconvenience to get new members? 
These are questions that each member should 
ponder over, and if you find you have been 
neglectful and careless in the past, make a 
new start. Remember, "It is never too late 
to mend." Did you ever notice when some- 
thing special has to be done, or when the 
ordinary routine' work of your union has to 
be performed, that the work is shifted upon 
someone else, usually the "willing few," 
commonly known as the "clique," who work 
on and on until energy is gone and patience 
exhausted. The others take things calmly 
and unconcernedly, shirk all responsibilities, 
refuse to do committee work, only attend 
the meetings at intervals, take no part in 
the affairs of the union, except to find fault, 
and would not hold office if you paid them 
for doing so. 

Listen to them when they are nominated 
to fill any position that becomes vacant, and 
you hear them "most respectfully decline." 
This should not be. Is it any wonder that 
the pathway of the past is strewn with the 
wrecks of trade organization? Human endur- 
ance has its limit. Human energy its end. 
It cannot be expected that the few ardent, 
faithful workers will keep up their efforts 
forever. It is your duty to assist them to 
encourage them, to take a more active part 
in the work of your union, to jump into the 
breach and help the "old boys" who have 
stood the brunt of battle in the past — to gain 
greater and nobler things. We all have an 
equal interest in the progress of our organ- 
ization, we should all share equally in the 
work to be done and the burden to be borne. 

Paying "dues" and "assessments" are not 
the only "duties" required of us. Every man 
must do more than that if he wants his union 
to be successful. The "labor movement" 
requires the unflagging support and the un- 
tiring activity of every member within its 
folds. If you will not move in your own 
interest you cannot expect others to make 
sacrifices for you. Do your duty and do it 



well, act a manly part, come to the front. 
Take hold of the helm. Steer clear of all 
the difficulties you can. Encourage your 
fellow-members to do likewise. Make your 
meetings interesting; but do not wash all 
your dirty linen in the union meeting. Then 
you will find a wonderful change take place 
in a short time. Get out and "organize" and 
"'organize" and "organize." 

Follow these instructions and o>u will 
find before very long that you ; 
more successful than ever you expect) 
even imagined. 



"FIXING" WAGES BY LAW 

The executive council of the California 
State Federation of Labor urges trad.: union 
ists throughout the State to hold mass meet- 
ings against women's wage reductions by 
the State Industrial Welfare Commission. 
The trade unionists blame Mrs. Katherine 
Edson, a member and also the executive offi- 
i mission, who. the workers de- 
clare, "was determined to reduce the existing 
minimum of wage-earning women in Califor- 
nia from $16 to $15 a week." The wage cut 
will not take effect for sixty days. This will 
give unionists ample time to arrange foi 

"against a $15 budget for working 
women fostered by a 'social worker' who 
regularly draws $60 a week from the State 
treasury." 

Governor Reily of Porto Rico has retali- 
ated against monarchists who are trying to 
oust him from office. He has dismissed Diaz 
Collazo, a financial officer, on the ground that 
he tried to use a grand jury report as a 
weapon to force his own advancement in 
office. He offered to drop all opposition if 
the Governor would appoint him chii 
police. Collazo is a brother-in-law -f Com- 
missioner 1 >a\ ila. who is Btationed at Wash- 
ington, and who is working actively in the in- 
ts of the monarchical group. Porto 
Rican organized workers are supporting Gov- 
ernor Reily solely on the ground that his 
opponents would re-establish the old Spanish 
ideals in this island. 



The union label very often interests us in 
ourselves because it interests us in others. 



May. 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



THE RUINS OF CARTHAGE 



Seldom has there been an archaeological 
enterprise which piqued curiosity as does the 
proposed excavation as the site of Carthage; 
for Carthage was not merely one of the 
greatest cities of the ancient world, but the 
greatest metropolis of the Semitic race, says 
the New York Tribune. It was a city which 
more than any other, save only Rome, was 
calculated to affect and to determine the sub- 
sequent history of the world. It was there 
that was fought to a finish the struggle 
between the sons of Japhet and the sons of 
Shem, and that was determined whether the 
Aryan or the Semitic should be the dominant 
race. The Punic wars were not merely 
international; they were ethnic. 

With all its greatness, it was the fate of 
Carthage to perish more utterly than any 
other city of comparable importance and to 
leave fewer of its own records than any 
other. Carthage had apparently little or no 
literature or art of its own. Of all its liter- 
ature only two books survive, and they only 
in translations — the "Periplus" of Hanno and 
the "De Re Rustica" of Mago ; and neither 
of them tells us anything about Carthage 
itself and its people. 

We have therefore been dependent for our 
knowledge of Carthage upon the two nations 
which were its inveterate enemies and one of 
which was its ultimate destroyer. That in 
those circumstances we should have so favor- 
able an account of it, and particularly of its 
greatest man, is perhaps the highest tribute 
that could be paid to it and to him. Hanni- 
bal's only historians were the hostile Romans, 
and yet their story of him, in spite of their 
enmity, is so eulogistic that he has come to 
be regarded as perhaps the greatest of mili- 
tary leaders. 

Cato's demand at last prevailed, and Car- 
thage was destroyed with a completeness 
which no other such city ever suffered. Yet 
we can scarcely doubt that beneath the desert 
sands there lie relics of the past the unearth- 
ing and interpretation of which will throw 
new light upon the history and character of 
the city. 

There will be special timeliness and per- 
haps profit in exploring the remains of Car- 



thage, just as the spiritual civilization of the 
world has emerged from a great struggle for 
supremacy with the purely material, because 
precisely such was the struggle which ended 
in the destruction of Carthage. That city fell 
and left no annals of its own because its 
civilization was wholly material, while that 
of Rome, with all her faults, had regard to 
letters and art, to philosophy and laws, to 
the spirit as well as to the body of mankind. 



DOLLAR'S FAVORITE CREWS 

Attorney Axtell of New York has supplied 
the Journal with information indicating that 
"Captain" Robert Dollar is still at his old 
tricks. 

The facts in the case at issue are substan- 
tially as follows : 

The American steamship Celestial, built 
in China for the United States Shipping 
Board, and recently acquired at bargain- 
counter rates by the Dollar interests, hired 
a crew of Americans at Norfolk, Va. Most 
of these men were natives and five or six 
were ex-service men. All were hired under 
a verbal contract for a voyage to the Orient. 
On arrival at New York and after eighteen 
days' service in fitting the ship to run prop- 
erly, all the white men were discharged and 
in their places were taken on twenty-eight 
Chinamen at wages slightly lower than the 
wages paid them. 

Protest was filed with the Collector of 
Customs and a survey held both at New 
York and Baltimore, and in both instances 
the Chinamen were found to be able to 
understand the language spoken by the offi- 
cers sufficiently well to carry out orders. 
so the vessel has departed for the Orient on 
her voyage. 

Mr. Axtell has taken the testimony of sev- 
eral of these seamen and feels confident that. 
upon return of the vessel to a port in the 
United States, he will be able to collect for 
all the men who were kicked ashore full cost 
of maintenance and loss of wages, i. e.. the 
amount they would have earned had they 
been steadily employed for the entire trip. 

A similar case has been won already 
(Mattes vs. Standard Transportation Com- 
pany., 274 F. 1015). 

More power to Mr. Axtell ! 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Canadian Government has ordered all 
work on the Esquimalt drydock to cease 
immediately. 

Fast sailers formerly engaged in sealing 
out of Victoria, B. C, are reported to be in 
demand as booze runners from Mexico to 
California ports. 

.The former German sailing ships Hans and 
Thielbek, now owned by Robert Dollar Co.. 
San Francisco, have been renamed Mary 
Dollar and David Dollar, respectively. 

The Barde Industrial Co. of Seattle has 
taken possession of forty-three wooden hulls 
King at Lake Union, near Seattle, and sold 
by the Shipping Board for $1800 each. 

Request for an appropriation of $1, 500,000 
for the installation of a new cable between 
the United States and Alaska has been made 
to the Senate Appropriations Committee by 
the War Department. 

Last year, 392,600 tons of manganese ore 
were imported into the United States, oi 
which 2o2.4o8 tons came from Brazil and 
113,730 tons came from India. Africa sup- 
plied 8453 tons and Hongkong 7319 tons. 

The Shipping Board has hied a suit for 
$30,000 damages against the owners of the 
Dutch steamship Wolsum, which collided 
with the steamship West Himrod off the At- 
lantic entrance to the Panama Canal April 2. 

The Rice Brother- Corporation of Booth- 
bay Harbor, Me., has contracted to build a 
steel freight and passenger steamer for the 
Great Lakes. Work has already been started 
on the craft. 

The Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, reports sixty-two vessels of 6203 
tons gross, built in the United States during 
the month of March, of which three of 1145 
tons gross were built of steel on the Atlantic 
coast. No self-propelled vessels of 1000 tons 
gross and over were built during the month 
of March, and no vessels were built in this 
country for foreign owner-. 

\t the Alameda (Cal.) plant of the Bethle- 
hem Shipbuilding Corporation work has been 



resumed on the two 20,000-ton deadweight 
ore-carriers building for the account ni the 
Ore Steamship Co. These carriers are 571.6 x 
72 x 44 feet. They are to be equipped with 
Curtis turbines with Falk reduction gears 
and three Scotch s. e. boilers. 

Coal and stone shippers of the Great Lakes 
have closed a contract with the Manitowoc 
Shipbuilding Corporation, Manitowoc, Wis., 
for a self-unloading steamer. The new boat 
is to be completed and ready for business 
next September. She will be 450 <>. a. x 430 
X 60x30 feet, carrying .about 7500 tons dead- 
weight on 19 feet. The price is understood 
to be slightly more than $600,000. 

Reports published in New York that the 
Oceanic Steamship Company had notified the 
Shipping Board that it would not agree to 
continue the Australian mail contract after 
its expiration June 30 were denied by Fred- 
erick S. Samuels, assistant to the president. 
Mr. Samuels said that the company had 
made no statement on this matter. The 
Oceanic contract is one of three extant under 
the Mail Act of 1891. 

On a bid of $135,000. the Shipping Board 
purchased one of its own freighters, the 
West Hartland, at auction in Seattle. The 
Hartland, which was in collision with the 
Admiral liner Governor when the latter sank 
last April, was sold tinder a claim for limita- 
tion of liability. Claims against the craft 
run into the millions, and the claimant- will 
oppose confirmation of the sale. The Robert 
Dollar Company bid $100,000 for the steamer, 
and other private interests offered up to 
$134,500. 

The entire Hawaiian sugar crop of 1922, 
estimated at 505.000 tons, will be brought to 
the mainland through the port of San Fran- 
cisco. Heretofore a large part of the crop 
has always been shipped through the Panama 
Canal to refineries on the Atlantic seaboard. 
The change is ascribed to Cuban competi- 
tion and to improved refining facilities on the 
Pacific Coast. The amount of Hawaiian 
sugar shipped through the Panama Canal 
during the calendar year 1921 was 115.571 
tons. One cargo of 8055 tons passed through 
in January, 1922. 

The foreifirn trade of Seattle continue- to 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



show substantial gains over the record of 
last year. In March it totaled 99,804 tons, 
valued at $17,541,032, as compared with 
82,679 tons, valued at $14,783,544, in the 
same month of 1921. The totals were com- 
pleted by Port Warden Fred M. Lathe's 
staff. The imports for March, this year, 
totaled 34,829 tons, valued at $13,153,043, as 
against 31,887 tons, valued at $9,080,118 in 
March, 1921. Exports totaled 64,975 tons, 
valued at $4,387,989, as against 50,792 tons, " 
valued at $5,703,426 in the same month last 
year. As will be noted, the export tonnage 
increased but the value fell off. 

The long-standing controversy concerning 
the final disposition of the tankers surren- 
dered by Germany after the Armistice has 
solved itself. The vessels, it may be recalled, 
were claimed by the Standard Oil Co. as 
its property through stock ownership in the 
Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Ges., said 
to be a mere subsidiary. Now, it appears, 
the Standard Oil has ceased its representa- 
tions, and the ships, which have been idle 
since their surrender, have reached such a 
condition of decrepitude through neglect and 
deterioration that they are not worth the 
cost of putting them back in condition, let 
alone the existing surplus of tankers. 

A Japanese cargo steamship in command 
of a white officer is at Vancouver, B. C. 
Captain C. J. Gillespie, master of the Mitsui 
steamer Kinkasan Maru entered the Japanese 
Merchant Marine service thirty years ago, 
when the Japanese were forced to go abroad 
in search of masters for the modern deepsea 
ships they were buying. Since then the 
Japanese have developed their own naviga- 
tors and seamen, and there remain only one 
or two of the old guard of white men, like 
Captain Gillespie. The fact of his long ser- 
vice with the company is proof of the high 
regard in which he is held. He is a Scotch- 
man, and speaks even Japanese with a burr 
instead of a lisp. 

The long silence from the proposed $30,- 
000,000 Pacific Coast shipping pool which has 
been observed since the San Francisco dele- 
gation returned empty-handed from Wash- 
ington was broken this week with the an- 
nouncement that Seattle interests were plan- 



ning on breaking away from the coast com- 
bine and engineering a $25,000,000 project of 
their own. The statement that such a move 
was on foot was made by William Pigott, 
one of the Seattle representatives at the pre- 
liminary conference in San Francisco and an 
influential personage in Seattle affairs. Mr. 
Pigott said that Seattle was not satisfied 
with the San Francisco meeting, and would 
attempt to form its own pool for Puget 
Sound shipping. 

To be delivered within sixty days, the 
steamer Lone Star State, now operated in 
the transatlantic service of the United States 
Line, has been allocated to the Pacific Mail 
as the first of two additional "535" liners for 
the regular transpacific trade, President Gale 
H. Carter of the Pacific Mail announced. 
The other liner will be assigned at a later 
date, after the Buckeye State and Hawk- 
eye State, which have been under Matson 
operation, are turned over to the United 
States Line. The original Shipping Board 
program called for five "535" liners for the 
Pacific Mail transpacific service, and three 
"502" liners for the East India run. They 
obtained three of the "535's" and all of the 
"502's" although one of the latter class was 
recalled, and the other two were placed in 
a new Manila-Hong Kong line out of this 
port. 

The following American vessels have been 
sold and transferred to foreign flags : Ker- 
manshah (ss.), ex Himalaya, 4947 tons gross, 
3152 net, built at Newcastle, 1910; Kermoor 
(ss.), ex Morawitz, 4795 tons gross, 3106 net, 
built at Sunderland, 1907; Keresaspa (ss.), 
ex Franconia, 4636 tons gross, 3019 net, built 
at Newcastle, 1903; Mount Seward (ss.), ex 
Erodiade, 3725 tons gross, 2359 net, built at 
Sunderland, 1912, and Mount Sterling (ss.), 
ex Campania, 3550 tons gross, 2267 net, built 
at South Shields, 1901, all to Hungarian 
registry; Onward (ss.), 157 tons gross, and 
Chanticleer (st. ms.), 108 tons gross, 97 net, 
built at New York, 1902, to British registry ; 
Susana (ss.), ex Titania, 3710 tons gross, 
2358 net, built at Sunderland, 1897, to Italian 
registry, and Lizzie D. (wood ss.), 122 tons 
gross, 83 net, built at Philadelphia, 1907, to 
Cuban registry. 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



Last year 480 Swedish vessels met with 
accidents, of which number six went down 
with all hands, and 41 in all were total losses, 
their tonnage having been 12,210 gross. 

Last year 51.760 immigrants arrived in 
Germany via Hamburg, of whom 40,162 came 
from the United States and 270 from Canada, 
while a further 13.104 arrived from America 
via Bremen. 

For upwards of twenty years the Jamaica 
Government obtained supplies of coal for 
the island railway service from the United 
States. Since the beginning of the year, how- 
ever, cargoes of coal have been obtained from 
Cardiff. 

According to the Berliner Tageblatt the 
port of Bremen at present supplies 60 per 
cent of the total quantity of cotton consumed 
on the Continent. In 1911, Bremen came 
after Liverpool with 1.250.000 bales, against 
1.500.000 bales. 

The Royal Holland Lloyd service from 
Amsterdam to Cuba, Mexico and New Or- 
leans via Spanish ports, will be discontinued 
on account of lack of support. The Spain- 
Gulf route is now exclusively served by 
Spanish, British and French lines. 

The Lloyd Brasileiro has inaugurate. 1 a 
monthly service between Barcelona and Per- 
nambuco-Rio de Janeiro-Santos. The vessels 
placed provisionally on this service are the 
cargo and ps ssenger steamers Benevente and 
Macaba. The Baependy, Campos and Santos 
will follow and substitute for the other 
vessels. 

The Lloyd Royal Beige appears to be in a 
desperate situation financially and has re- 
quested the Belgian Government for assist- 
ance to the amount of fcs. 280,000,000 ($2.- 
400,000), in addition to the fcs. 100,000,000 
($850,000) already guaranteed. It is stated 
that the Belgian Prime Minister is not favor- 
able to the request. 

Well managed steamship companies ap- 
parently have no trouble raising funds for 
needed expansions. The recent issue of two 



million sterling 5 per cent debenture at 8I3/2 
by Lamport & Holt in London was a com- 
plete success, the subscription books having 
been closed at 3 p. m. on the opening day. 

The Union SS. Co. of New Zealand, Ltd., 
Dunedin, made a net profit of £87,206 dur- 
ing the year ended September 30, 1921, and 
£65,566 is carried forward, against £73,360 
brought over from 1920. A dividend of 4 
per cent is paid. The paid-up capital con- 
sists of £2,000,000 and the shipping prop- 
erty is valued at more than £3,000,000. 

The conference rate on coffee from Brazil 
to New York has been reduced to 30 cents 
per bag, but it is understood that coffee has 
recently been carried for as low as 15 cents 
a bag. The lines might have been getting 
from 60 to 80 cents a bag all along, if they 
had been able to co-operate, instead of which 
the coffee shippers have it all their own way 
at present. 

The Swedish Committee of Lloyd's Regis- 
ter has submitted a proposal to the parent 
committee in London that the new regula- 
tions for the Scandinavian countries be based 
upon the metric system, instead of English 
feet and inches. Additional proposals have 
been submitted with regard to changes in the 
rules for oil engines which have been pro- 
posed by manufacturers. 

The Government of Jugo-Slavia, in con- 
nection with Mr. Cristobal Mihanovich, of 
Buenos Ayres, has formed a new steamship 
company under the name of "Transoceansla 
Plovidka" (Transoceanic Society), with a 
capital of 30,000.000 dinars 1 about $500,000). 
The new company will maintain freight and 
nger lines from Spalato and Ragusa to 
Santos, Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro, and 
Buenos Ayres. 

An extraordinary meeting of the Compaz- 
ine Generale Transatlantique was held in 
Paris recently to consider whether the com- 
pany's share of capital should be increased. 
It was decided thai "the capital may be 
raised to 119,000,100 francs by the issue of 
another 793,334 ordinary shares of 150 francs 
each, and later increased further to 200.- 
000,100 francs, the board being authorized 
to carry out this decision by one or more 
issues." 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



The Norwegian Government realized a 
profit of kr. 14,000,000 out of the disposal 
of the state-owned fleet. It having been 
suggested that all or part of that money 
might be reinvested in new ships, in order 
to relieve the plight of Norwegian shipyards, 
which are unable to proceed with work on 
hand on account of the inability of the own- 
ers to pay further installments, the answer 
was that the Norwegian Government at 
present had no use for ships. 

In spite of the paucity of traffic last year, 
the Danish cargo steamship companies show 
good financial results, largely as the outcome 
of the heavy capital amortizations effected 
during the boom years. The Dansk-Fransk 
Dampskibs., pays a dividend of 15 per cent 
after adding kr. 200,000 to reserve. The 
Norden Co. pays 20 per cent, against 70 per 
cent last year, 85 per cent in 1920 and 130 
per cent in 1919. The Dannebrog pays 20 
per cent after writing kr. 1,507,237 off the 
value of the fleet, against 50 per cent last 
year. 

The Woodfield Steam Shipping Co. of 
London, which owns six steamers of about 
44,300 tons gross, averaging ten years of age,- 
made a profit of £104,453 last year, against 
£138,206 in 1920. A dividend of 7y 2 per 
cent is paid, against 15 per cent in 1920 and 
1919. The sum of £40,000 is transferred 
to taxation reserve and £25,000 to deprecia- 
tion. The paid-up capital amounts to £288,- 
588, of which £41,244 consists of 5 per cent 
preference shares; the fleet is valued at £7 
per ton deadweight net and investments 
aggregate £327,588. 

The Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs of Tronh- 
jem, Norway, which owns a fleet of twenty- 
nine vessels aggregating 51,300 tons dead- 
weight valued for insurance purposes at kr. 
27,000,000, made a net profit of kr. 2,100,000 
last year, which is not sufficient to meet 
taxes; the latter amounting to kr. 3,500,000. 
The report states that during the past seven 
years, the stockholders have received kr. 18,- 
200,000 in dividends while kr. 22,000,000 has 
been paid in taxes of all kinds. This com- 
pany operates a service between American 
and Baltic ports in conjunction with Messrs. 
S. O. Stray & Co. 



The amount of coal landed at Genoa dur- 
ing 1921 was 1,772,535 tons against 1,649,550 
in 1920; a very small total, as compared with 
the pre-war import of 3,200,000 tons. It is 
of interest to note that coal discharges at 
Spezzia increased from 323,610 tons in 1920 
to 371,863 in 1921, as compared with the 
pre-war trade of 250,000 tons. Large quanti- 
ties of coal are being sent from Spezzia to 
Milan in spite of the fact that the freight 
Spezzia-Milan is 32 lire per ton against 25 
lire Genoa-Milan. This is explained by the 
exorbitant landing costs at Genoa — 26 lire 
per ton against 13 at Spezzia. 

The Roland line of Bremen pays a divi- 
dend of 15 per cent for 1921 against 8 per 
cent for the previous year. In general all 
German steamship companies show good re- 
sults for last year, and the accounts reveal 
an increase in the net profits which enabled 
the payment of larger dividends. This ap- 
parent prosperity, however, is largely due to 
the decline of the mark which enabled the 
companies to swell their income accounts. 
On the basis of the exchange value of the 
mark, however, it appears that the German 
companies as a whole did not much improve 
their financial position last year and are still 
skating on very thin ice, their capital hav- 
ing in most cases been increased far more 
than the value of their fleets in term of 
marks. 

The firm of Lamport & Holt of Liverpool, 
which is controlled by the Royal Mail and 
Pacific Steam Navigation Companies, made 
a profit of £314,665 last year and pays a 
dividend of 8 per cent after transferring 
£50,000 to reserve. The sum of £137,162 
is carried forward, against £100,496 brought 
in from 1920. The dividend compares with 
10 per cent for the four preceding years, 
while £75,000 was transferred to reserve in 
1920 and 1919. The capital of the company 
amounts to £3,100,000, of which £1,000,000 
consists of 6 per cent preferred stock and 
£1,000,000 of 6y 2 per cent preferred stock. 
In addition there are outstanding debentures 
amounting to £950,000. The fleet of 307,715 
tons gross is valued at £4,836,933. inclusive 
of investments. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



LABOR NEWS 



According to recent statistics compiled by 
the Montreal (Canada) industrial establish- 
ment inspectors, there are 13,188 children be- 
tween the ages of fourteen and sixteen em- 
ployed in the industries in that city. 

Six suits aggregating $30,000 have been 
filed against Colonel Demhart, commander of 
the Xational Guard troops on strike duty at 
the Newport rolling mill in Newport, KLy. 
The suits are the result of citizens being 
thrown into Colonel Demhart's bull pen. 

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America, through their general office in New 
York, have cabled $15,000 to buy equipment 
for a new hospital which has just been 
opened in Moscow. The money was sent to 
a Berlin bank, where the equipment is to be 
bought at a low price owing to the favor- 
able rate of exchange, and sent to Moscow 
immediately. 

Hungry ex-service men are again pan- 
handling Seattle's prosperous citizens for a 
two-bit piece for the price of coffee and a 
flop. The Red Cross until recently subsi- 
dized the Unemployed Veterans' Club, which 
gave free meals and lodging to former sol- 
diers, because soldiers begging for money on 
the streets are a bad advertisement for the 
city. With the coming of spring, the grants 
of money have been discontinued. 

Farm labor conditions this year seem to 
be very different from those of the years im- 
mediately following the war. the ratio of 
supply to demand reported by the United 
States Department of Agriculture on April 
1 being 111.4. as compared with 68.8 in 1920. 
This is in spite of the fact that the demand 
for farm labor has substantially increased — 
owing, in the main, to diminished wage rates 
since the days of after-war boom in industry. 

Last year's profits of Standard Oil of Cali- 
fornia totalled $33,588,230, as against $41,- 
655,254 the previous year. The California 
unit of Standard Oil has proven to be one 
of the best dividend producers since the 
United States Supreme Court "smashed" the 



trust. Incidentally, it should be noted that 
the Standard Oil Co. of California has dur- 
ing the past few years been in hearty sym- 
pathy with every union-busting movement. 

A riding of the Industrial Board of Penn- 
sylvania prohibiting the employment of min- 
ors under sixteen years <>f age on coal 
dredges was adopted in March and became 
effective on April 14. This board also has 
had under consideration the employment of 
minors in home work and in theatrical per- 
formances, and, after recent hearings on rul- 
ing- tentatively drafted by the board, the 
commissioner has appointed committees from 
among those who attended to present definite 
recommendation.--. 

The United States Senate has passed an 
amendment to the Rent Act, which will com- 
pel hotels .and restaurants in the District of 
Columbia to give thirty days' notice before 
they can raise rates. Cards must be posted 
in the rooms and upon walls giving the rates 
and the date of posting. Senator Caraway 
of Arkansas proposed the amendment. He 
said that prior to a recent convention here 
he made reservations at a hotel for $4 a day 
and that the reservations were later cancelled 
and rates were raised to $20 a day. Evi- 
dently every Senator has had the same ex- 
perience, for all of them voted for the amend- 
ment. 

More than two thousand textile strikers 
stood in front of the Providence, R. I.. State 
house, and with uplifted hands, repeated after 
President McMahon of the United Textile 
Workers a pledge to "go out and clean up 
this State from the rottenness that controls 
it," and "to do all in our power to purge the 
State house of unclean politicians, not only 
in the Senate but in the House of Repre- 
sentatives." The strikers thronged the State 
house in an effort to induce the Senate t" 
aet on the forty-eight-hour bill, which is now 
in the Judiciary Committee. By a vote of 
2o to 7 the Senate refused to take it from 
the committee. One Senator declared that 
his colleagues "would go down in history 
as moral cowards unless they brought the 
bill out and voted on it on its merits." When 
the strikers were denied admission to the 
Senate gallery, they adjourned to the plaza 
in front of the State hous 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



In Massachusetts last year 43,024 children 
between fourteen and sixteen years of age 
left school to go to work. The Massachu- 
setts Child Labor Committee reports that in 
spite of the unemployment situation "the 
amount of child labor in cities and towns 
large enough to have continuation schools 
was approximately the same as in 1920." 
The bill proposed in the Massachusetts 
Legislature to increase the compulsory school 
age from fourteen to six teen has been unfav- 
orably reported by the committee on educa- 
tion. 

Dangers in industry are recalled by figures 
issued by the Pennsylvania Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board. From January 1, 1916, to 
March 31. this year, 1,171,668 industrial acci- 
dents were reported in this State. Of these 
16,661 were fatal, 3,200 involved disability 
and 1,151,807 temporary disability. During 
the first three months of the present year 
there were 495 fatal accidents, 38 cases of 
permanent disability and 35,075 cases of tem- 
porary disability. Since the inception of the 
Workmen's Compensation Act, January 1, 
1916, 403,053 compensation agreements have 
been approved, and compensations totaling 
$33,480,497 awarded for fatal industrial acci- 
dents. 

Employment is increasing in the shipbuild- 
ing and ship repairing trades. Six repre- 
sentative companies from widely separated 
points along the entire Atlantic coast report 
a total of 5,488 workmen employed as of 
April 1, 1922. against 4,782 January 1, 1922. 
This is about one-half the number of men 
employed by the same companies one year 
ago, two-thirds the combined forces of nine 
months ago and only several hundred be- 
low the total number of workmen on the 
same payrolls six months ago. The com- 
panies from whose reports these figures are 
taken consist of one shipyard and repair 
plant which formerly did extensive naval 
work, three shipyards in the New England, 
New York and Delaware River districts, re- 
spectively, one small yacht building plant 
and one ship operating concern which re- 
ports only its construction forces in classi- 
fications corresponding to shipyard labor. 
None of the figures given includes supervisory 
forces or office employes. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



has granted a concession to the Royal Mail 
Steam Packet Company of London for the 
transportation of emigrants from Hungary 
to the United States and Canada. 

It is reported that rates of pay have been 
satisfactorily settled upon in the Natal coal 
fields by amicable agreement between the 
chairmen of the Collieries Conciliation Board 
and the Mine Workers' Association. 

The Cunard liner Mauretania, which car- 
ried a crew of 446 in the engineer's depart- 
ment when she burnt coal, has only 175 
men below at present, the reduction being 
due to the elimination of stokers and trim- 
mers. 

German officers formerly employed in 
China coast steamers have been notified that 
they may get their old positions back and 
that berths will be found for an even greater 
number of them than were employed before 
the war. 

Norwegian employers state that the Com- 
pulsory Arbitration Court, by granting high 
scales of wages to workmen, in 1920, has 
practically made it impossible for Norwegian 
industries to compete with the industries of 
other countries. 

Certain vacant property in Christiania, be- 
longing to the Norwegian Government, will 
be used by it for the. erection of an apart- 
ment house for government employes. The 
building will comprise fifty-three three-to- 
four-room apartments. 

The general strike of the engineering 
trades unions throughout the United King- 
dom has afifected Belfast to the extent that 
several of its smaller concerns doing engi- 
neering work have had to cease operations, 
pending a settlement of the general strike. 

The housing problem of London has led 
to the development of flathouses as in New 
York and Paris. Whereas, twenty years ago, 
there were practically no flats in London, by 
1911 there were 15,800 flathouses with 122,- 
500 separate families and a population of 
470,000. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



The striking longshoremen in Italy went 
back to work March 30. The strike lasted 
twelve days and caused much accumulation 
of cargo. The men resumed work on the 
Government's promise to introduce changes 
in working conditions at Naples, where the 
strike began. 

Although dullness continues to prevail in 
the Irish linen industry, the total exports 
during February, 1922. from the United 
Kingdom were approximately 50 per cent in 
excess of those for February, 1921. Of the 
total linen exports in February, 1922, the 
United States took approximately one-half. 

a result of the engineers' lockout in 
Scotland, which became effective from March 
11, 1922. 35 per cent of the engineers in the 
Federation shops of Edinburgh and Leith are 
totally unemployed, while 10 per cent are 
working on short-time varying from thirty 
hours per week to five days per fortnight. 

Recent coal shipments from Wales reached 
a record mark since the reduced working 
day took effect. The double-shift system has 
been satisfactorily introduced at many of the 
pits; overhead costs have been reduced as 
the result of regular working; output per 
man has increased ; and an increase in wages 
is expected shortly. 

It is ted that the Indian Factories 

Act, which has been in effect since 1911, is 
the direct cause of the decrease in accidents 
to factory workers, to safeguard whom more 
comprehensive precautions are now being 
taken, under the Act, than ever before. The 
yearly average of 63 accidents, in 1911, had 
been reduced to 27. in 1920. 

About 90,000 Jews from Eastern Europe 
emigrated to transoceanic destinations during 
1920. according to the report of the Jewish 
Colonization Association, of whom 60,000 
came from Poland. 25,000 from Bessarabia 
5000 from the Caucasus, the Crimea and 
Bulgaria. Of the above number, 65,000 went 
to the United States. 8000 to Palestine, 5000 
to Argentina and 4000 to other countries, 
chiefly Mexico. 

In accordance with the Spanish Royal De- 
cree of December 10, 1921, providing for 
governmental aid to societies formed for the 
purpose of building workmen's homes, one 



of the workmen's societies so formed has 
proposed that capital be raised among its 
members, and that the Government be asked 
to aid it and other building societies in the 
buying of substantial wooden dwellings for 
the housing of workmen. 

Federal, Cantonal and Municipal authori- 
ties in Switzerland are taking energetic steps 
in the way of making money allotments, 
stimulating building activities, advocating the 
use of Swiss materials, extending credit to 
the Federal Council for Federal enterprises, 
and establishing educational courses, in a 
united effort to relieve the conditions result- 
ing from the unemployment of 150,550 per- 
sons, the approximate total at this time. 

A provisional agreement has been reached 
by the British National Wages and Condi- 
tions Council for the building industry on 
the question of wages and hours. The work- 
men's representatives have agreed to a re- 
duction of 2 pence per hour, commencing on 
April 1st. while the matter of a subsequent 
similar reduction is to be submitted to a bal- 
lot vote. No alteration will be made in the 
U working hours per week until January, 
1923. 

The Natal (South Africa) press is lauding 
the work of the Unemployment Committee, 
which has now been active for more than 
four months but which is now facing disso- 
lution, for want of funds. This committee 
has provided work, clothing, and financial 
aid for the relief of the unemployed persons 
in the 1 hirban district, and apprehension is 
expressed on account of the gravity of the 
conditions that will arise if the committee 
is forced to close down at the end of April. 

The engineers and firemen who operate the 
fishing vessels running out of Lisbon, to- 
gether with the seamen of the Portuguese 
Merchant Marine, have struck for incr 
compensation; the strike of the employes of 
the electric tramways of Lisbon continues 
without any immediate pn "f adjust- 

ment; and commissions from the t< 
workers, match factory employes, sugar fac- 
tor)- employes and barbers have presented 
demands for higher wages, all of which have 
made labor conditions in Lisbon very much 
perturbed during the past months. 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



International Seafarers' Federation 



C. Damm, Sec'y, 9 Dubois St., Antwerp, Belgium 

AFFILIATED NATIONAL, AND INTERNATIONAL 

UNIONS 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA 
International Seamen's Union of America 

T. A. Hanson, Sec'y-Treas., 355 N. Clark Street, 
Chicago, 111. 
[A complete list of unions affiliated with the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America will be 
found on page 2.] 



BELGIUM 
Belgische Zeemandsbond (Belgian Seamen's Union) 

30 Rrouwersvliet, Antwerp J. Chapelle, Sec'y 



DENMARK 

Dansk So-Restaurations Forening (Danish Cooks 

and Stewards' Union) 

Lille Strandstrede 20, Copenhagen. .K. Spliid, Sec'y 
Somendenes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Seamen's 

Union) 
Toldbodgade 15, Copenhagen. ... C. Borgland, Sec'y 
S6-Fyrbodernes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Fire- 
men's Union) 
Toldbodgade 13, Copenhagen. ... E. Jacobsen, Sec'y 



FINLAND 

Finska Sjomans-och Eldare Unionen (Finnish 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Circusgatan 5, Helsingfors, Finland.. C. Ahonen, Sec. 



FRANCE 
Federation Nationalle des Syndicats Maritimes de 

France (French Seamen's Union) 
4 Ave. de L'Opera, Paris. .Monsieur L. Reaud, Sec. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 

National Sailors & Firemen's Union of Great 

Britain and Ireland 

St. George's Hall, Westminster Bridge Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. 1. E". Cathery, Sec'y 
Hull Seamen's Union 

1 Railway St., Hull G. W. McKee, Sec'y 

United Kingdom Pilots' Association 
69 Queens Square, Bristol Joseph Brown, Sec'y 

GREECE 

Federation Panhellenique des Ouvriers Corpotations 

Maritimes (Greece Seamen's Federation) 

Le Pireaus, Greece T. Mallossis, Sec'y 

HOLLAND 

Zeelieden Vereeniging-Eendracht (Dutch Seamen's 
Union) 

Vestaland 22, Rotterdam D. L. Wolfson, Sec'y 



ITALY 

Federazione Nazionale di Lavatori de Mare (Italian 

Seamen's Federation) 

Piazza St., Larcellino, Genoa.. Capt. G. Gulietti, Sec. 

NORWAY 

Norsk Matros & Fyrboter-Union (Norwegian 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Grev Wedels Plads 5, Christiania. . A. Birkeland, Sec. 

Norsk Sjorestaurations Landsforbund (Norwegian 

Cooks & Stewards' Union) 

Gronlandsleret 5, Christiania. . TL Johannessen, Sec'y 

SWEDEN 

Svenska Sjomans Unionen (Swedish Seamen's 

Union) 

Fjerde Langgatan 25, Gothenburg. . E. Griph, Sec'y 

Svenska Eldare Unionen (Swedish Firemen's Union) 

Andra Langgatan 46, Gothenburg 

S. Lundgreen, Sec'y 

Nya Stewartsforeningen (New Swedish Stewards' 
Union) 

Stigsbergsgatan 12, Gothenburg 

C. Q. Johannsan, Sec'y 



International Seamen's Union 
of America 

(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Agent 

1016 First Avenue, South 
P. O. Box 875 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM MEEHAN, Agent 

613 Beacon Street. P. O. Box 574 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 166 Steuart Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 

FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 




A COPY OF AXTELLS HAND BOOK, 

"Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen" 

WILL SAVE SEAMEN TIME, LITIGA- 
TION AND MONEY. WILL PREVENT 
MUCH INJUSTICE IF SHOWN TO 
OFFICERS AND CONSULAR AGENTS. 
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH 
A POUND OF CURE. 

Y.ni can also learn much about the 
political law making and law enforcing 
institutions of your country from this 
book; equal opportunity before the law- 
is the essence of American democracy. 
Read this and lind out what equal 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES PUB. CO. 

Ivor Olbers, a. i;. Bales Manager 
4 South St., 3rd floor, New York City 



For Twenty Wars we have issued this Union Stamp for use under out 

Voluntary Arbitration Contract 

OUR STAMP INSURES: 
Peaceful Collective Bargaining. 

Forbids Both Strikes and Lockouts. 

Disputes settled by Arbitration. 
Steady Employment; Skilled Workmanship. 
Prompt Deliveries to Dealers and Public. 
Peace and Success to Workers and Employers. 

Prosperity of Shoe Making Communities 
As loyal union men and women, we ask 

you to demand shoes bearing the above 
In ion Stamp on Sole, Insole or Lining. 

BOOT & SHOE WORKERS' UNION 

246 SUMMER STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 
Collis Lovely, General Pres. Charles L. Baine. General Sec.-Treas. 




MAN-POWER 

QUARTERS and Dollars in your pockets quickly dis- 
appear, adding little to your permanent welfare. But — 
By INVESTING some of them regularly in 
United States Treasury Savings Securities 
you build a permanent asset, a reserve 
power— thus increasing your fnan-power 

Post Offices Sell Treasury Savings Securities 

25c, $1, $5, $25, $100 



SMOKERS 



See that this label (in light blue) appears on 
the box in which you are served 



_iSEPT.l880 
Issued by Authority oi tfie Ci*a/ Makers" Internationa 

Union-made Cigars 

2hlS (Jntiflrt. IW t>* Cqvi comantd MM balm>« m*dt by t MUt-UtS WofVHI 
<MtWCROrTHrCKWIIM(Q'>NT£RNATl0NALUNIONe< Amik« t* Ofumi«K» devoted t»*»»d- 
««>crn>rnl of Ike MOft* MAURlAlind iNTLUClUAl W!lf AM Of TWi Ottft IMwn.'i 

tt»M Ckhi l to III MMktra UWOUOlMMt tflt world 

A&latmg i— i v *m thu, Uftti «■!! bt dubuKxI WW ifjtrtt 




Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
tht- Pacific since Its organisation 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the rases of seafaring men 

promi)t attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marin. Firemen and 

Watertendera' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty haw ■ Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 

S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wag< and damages. 
600 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco. Cal. 



Announcement 



1 1>eg to announce that my office 
has been removed from 9 State 
street. New York, to the Inter- 
national Commerce Building, 11 
.Moore street (entrance also at 7 
Water street). This building is 
located between Coentis Slip and 
Whitehall street and a few Steps 
from South street. 

Although 1 have moved into a 
modern building where a number 
of steamship companies have their 
offices, I want you seamen to 
understand that I am still handling 
the claims of seafarers only, to 
the exclusion of all other business, 
as in the past. When seamen are 
shipowners. 1 expect to be ship- 
owners' lawyer, but not until then. 
SILAS BLAKE AXTELL. 



More Needed. — Lots of peace 
has been made; but the supply 
is -till short. — Wilkes-Barre Times 

—Tiger. 

More Mature-Faking. — Nature 
can not jump from winter to 
summer without a spring, or from 
summer to winter without a fall. 
Leader. 

New Name for ( >1<1 Trouble. — 
Despite the alleged shortage of 
money, there is no let-up in the 
business of buying and selling 
gold bricks. — Wichita Kagle. 

Bygones. — Bibbie — How did ye 
hurt yer hand? Been fightin'? 

Eddie— Yep. Those were aw- 
ful shari) teeth Sammy Jones 
used to have. —Life. 



May, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



MEMBER FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AND ASSOCIATED SAVINGS BANKS OF SAN FRANCISCO 



The San Francisco Savings and Loan Society 

(THE SAN FRANCISCO BANK) 

SAVINGS COMMERCIAL 

526 California Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

MISSION BRANCH, Mission and 21st Streets 

PARK-PRESIDIO DISTRICT BRANCH, Clement St. and 7th Ave. 

HAIGHT STREET BRANCH, Haight and Belvedere Streets 

DECEMBER 31st, 1921 

. $ 71,851,299.62 

68,201,299.62 

1,000,000.00 

- - - 2,650,000.00 

371,753.46 



BEST SMOKE ON EARTH 

RED SEAL CIGAR 

UNION MADE 

RED SEAL CIGAR CO. 
Manufacturers 

762 Valencia St., San Francisco 
Phone Park 9401 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



Assets .... 

Deposits - 

Capital Actually Paid Up - 
Reserve and Contingent Funds 
Employees' Pension Fund - 



OFFICERS 

JOHN A. BUCK, President GEO. TOURNY, Vice-Pres. and Manager 

A. H. R. SCHMIDT, Vice-Pres. and Cashier E. T. KRUSE, Vice-President 

A. H. MULLEK, Secretary WM. D. NEWHOUSE, Assistant Secretary 

WILLIAM HERRMANN, GEO. SCHAMMEL, G. A. BELCHER, 

R. A. LAUENSTEIN, H. H. HERZER and H. P. MAYNARD, 

Assistant Cashiers 
L. C. KOSTER, Manager Mission Branch 
W. C. HEYER, Manager Park-Presidio District Branch 
O. F. PAULSEN, Manager Haight Street Branch 
BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
JOHN A. BUCK A. H. R. SCHMIDT E. N. VAN BERGEN 

GEO. TOURNY I. N. WALTER ROBERT DOLLAR 

E. T. KRUSE HUGH GOODPELLOW E. A. CHRISTENSON 

L. S. SHERMAN WALTER A. HAAS 

GOODFELLOW, EELLS, MOORE & ORRICK, 
General Attorneys 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 
321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



A Dividend of FOUR AND ONE-QUARTER (4*4 ) per cent per annum wu 
declared for the six months endine December 31, 1921. 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



Do You Want the Truth? 

This year there will be stirring 
times in the Nation. Under gov- 
ernment censorship it is increas- 
ingly difficult for the average man 
to get the real meaning of the 
social and political movements of 
the day. 

LaFollette's 
Magazine 

will be specially represented at 
Washington and will analyze and 
present the news from the capital 
truthfully and fairly. Senator La- 
Follette is making a real fight to 
life some of the tax burdens from 
the common people and place them 
where they belong — on excess prof- 
its, war profits and surplus fortunes 
and incomes. Because of this he 
is being attacked more bitterly than 
any other man in public life. 
Send in your order today 
$1.00 Per Year— Agents Wanted 
La Follette's Magazine, Madison, Wis. 



Safe and Sane. — The head of 
one of the large American rail- 
road companies was making in- 
quiries with regard to acquiring 
a small branch line which be- 
longed to one old man. "Now. 
as to the state of your road," 
he asked, "is it well and safely 
laid?" "Sir," replied the old man 
indignantly, "ours is the safest 
line in the country. I may say 
we have been running for over 
twenty years, and have never had 
a collision." "That's good!" ex- 
claimed the big man. "And 
what's more, sir," went on the 
proprietor of the little line, "a 
collision would be impossible." 
"How do you make that out?" 
queried the other in surprise. "I 
know that the latest automatic 
devices are excellent, but 'impos- 
sible' is a big word." "It is liter- 
ally true with us," was the proud 
rejoinder. "In what way?" "Well, 
sir, we have only one train." — 
The Argonaut (San Francisco). 



A. A. Star Transfer 

Successor to CHRIS PETERSON 
EXPRESS— BAGGAGE 

AUGUST WALLIN, Prop. 

Retired Member Sailors' Union 

ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

EVERYTHING GUARANTEED 
UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F -Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

First and Commercial Streets 

RAYMOND, WASH. 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



Office Phone Main 2665 
Residence Phone Elliott 4271 -W 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

435-36 Globe Bldg.. First and Madison SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

Two BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 

Bonney- Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connection 
Broadway at Olive St. Seattle 



NEW LOCATION 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1S90 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GK M >l >S 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



^ 



UNITED STATES 



L ABOR 

■n»eUB0R PREs s 
orefo,mora no , k ' n 
.sconcded b y° b ' he r 
authority to b 7 e ,1 s ' 
grealestADVERT,"' 

ltreachesth eina:jS£; 



pKESS 



iiW.'A'.'-: CIHFNT 

PfaHO'' Paper puWiihed 
aonaconjtnjchvelrMi 

EMPLOYEE ERand 




Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



THE HUB 



Shoe and <"l< 



ing Company 



ASSOCIATION 



UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Ave. Opp. Totem Pole 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the P>cst in Oil Clothing and Boots 
["hem at M. Brown & Sons 
109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



S. G. SWANSON 
Established 1904 

For the BEST there is in TAILORING 

Less the Fancy Prices 
NOTE — S. <;. Swanson is not con- 
d with any dye works and has 
no solicitors. Clothes made also from 
your own cloth. Repairing, cleaning 
and pressing. Second floor. Bank of 
San Pedro, 110 W 8th St., San Pedro, 
Los Angeles Waterfront, Cal. 



SANTAL 

CAPSULES 

MIDY 



Easy to Take-Quick to Re 

CATARRH 

of the 

BLADDER 

Safe, Successful 

Each Capsule /f.nnvi 
bears name K?\^y 

Jlcna re of counterfeits 



Competition. -The Germans are 
said to be exporting to this coun- 
try toy motor-car- made from 
waste material, such as old oil- 
cans, at seven marks a dozen. 
Mr. Ford is reported to be look- 
ing thoughtful but confident. — 
Punch (London). 

Well-Named. — Co-ed — Why 

didn't you find out who he wai 
when the professor called the 

roll? 

Another Co-ed— T did try to, 
but he answered for tour differ- 
ent names. — Showme. 



SEAMEN 
You Know M< 




•YOUR HATTER" 

FRED AMMANN 

I sell 
UNION HATS 

;n the right prices. I'll tr 
wail "ii you personally and 
you ;i large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you warn your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



Navigation Laws of 
the United States 

The Seannn'- Act and all other 
features of the law applicable 
to seamen. 
Handbook, Navigation Laws of 

the United States 
Third edition. Including 
tables, department rulings, etc. 
Completely indexed. A ready 
reference work for practical sea- 
men, shipmasters and ship own- 
ers. Price £1.50. 

The Seaman's Contract 
A complete reprint of all laws 
relating to seamen as enacted 
by Congress, 1790-1918. Includ- 
ing the laws of Oleron "and a 
summary of the history of each 
law. Reprinted verbatim from 
the Statutes at Large and Re- 
vised Statutes. Tables and In- 
dex. Designed for the use of 
admiralty lawyers. Price $4.00. 
Compiled by Walter Macarthur 
Published by 
JAMES H. BARRY CO. 
1122 Mission St., San Francisco 



Ec< nomical. John— Just burned 
up a $100 bill. 

Demijohn — You must !>•■ a mil- 
lionaire. 

John — Well, it"- i burn 

them than pay them.— The Stan- 
ford Chaparral. 



May, ]922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



KELLEHER & BROWNE 

THE IRISH TAILORS 

716 Market Street, San Francisco 



SUITS AND 

OVERCOATS 

to order at popular 
prices 



at Third and Kearny 

Established 
for 20 years 



All work done in 

our own sanitary 

workshop 



Represented by 



E. Peguillan 




' 11 I 




JACOB PETERSEN & SON 
Proprietors 

Established 1880 

ALAMEDA CAFE 

Coffee and Lunch 
House 

7 MARKET STREET 

and 

17 STEUART STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 



Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing. All kinds of Watches and 
Jewelry 

676 THIRD STREET 

At 3rd and Townsend, San Francisco 

Phone Kearny 519 



Phone Kearny 693 

Argonaut Outfitting 
Company 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING, FURNISHINGS, HATS, 
SHOES, ETC. 

A Complete Stock at Most Reasonable 

Prices : : : : Union Made Goods Only 

103 EAST ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Any person knowing the ad- 
dress of Paul Raddate, formerly 
second mate of the Mary Winkle- 
man, will confer a favor by send- 
ing it to John T. Smith, Room 
708, 311 California street, San 
Francisco, Calif. 



Logical. — Tommy — Funny how 
a fellow would start a supersti- 
tion that Friday is unlucky. 

Rot — Yeah, he musta been a 
ish. 



The Only Danger. — Customer 
(with week's beard) — Do you think 
that old razor will do it? 

Barber — It will, sir — if the 
handle doesn't break. — London Tit- 
Bits. 

Where the Hole Thrives. — 
Math. Instructor — What do we 
mean when we say the whole is 
greater than any of its parts? 

Stude— A restaurant doughnut. 

The Voice of Experience. — 
Conductor (new to the job) — 
I'm sure the old boy there has 
paid his fare twice. Think I had 
better tell him about it? 

Motorman — No-o! Ask him for 
it again. — Sydney Bulletin. 



OLD RELIABLE AND 
UP-TO-DATE 

TOM WILLIAMS 

Exclusive Tailor 

For Men 

28 Sacramento Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone Douglas 48/4 



Phone Garfield 2457 

HOTEL EVANS 

ED COLL, Prop. 

SEAMEN, Remember— Our rates 
were not increased during the strike 
CORNER FRONT AND BROADWAY 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

50 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Kearny 3863 

JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 



GEORGE A. PRICE 

SAYS 

"BUY 'EM AND PROFIT— BOSS OF 
THE ROAD WORK CLOTHES— THE 
BEST FOR YOUR MONEY- 
GET THE HABIT" 



Phone Douglas 3725 

EDWIN PERSSON 

139 EAST ST., SAN FRANCISCO 

GENERAL SEAMEN'S 
OUTFITTER 

Union Made Goods 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 5343 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1922 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to Illustrate and teach 
amy branch <>f Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
uid Navigation only. Conditions 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always In view, studied several 
the Maritime Law. and is now. 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 

subjects, a regularly admitted .Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 

School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 

rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise Mm iVmn the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short Interval of time. 




TAYLOR & TAYLOR 

Henry Taylor 

500 BATTERY ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
Hezzanith's, Lord Kelvin's, WTiyte, Thomson's Compasses. 
Binnacles, Azimuth Mirrors. Sounding Machines. Sextants. 
Parallel Rulers, Pelorus, Dividers, Nautical Books, Charts 
and Tide Table-. Fully equipped department for the repair 

and adjustment of chronometers, watches and clocks. This 
work is in charge of an expert of American and European 

experience. All work guaranteed. 

COMPASS ADJUSTERS 



Estabdlished 1917 by U. S. S. 1 1 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 
PERRY BLDG., S.\N FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound Nautical 
School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. smith. 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Pugel Sound District. 

Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Pier No. 1. Rooms 37-38-39 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



^ The Popular Price Jewelry Store k 

? Sorensen Co. ^ 



Watches 

Jewelry 

Silverware 

Clocks Cut Class 

Optica! Goods Umbrellas 



715 Market Street 





A Good Place 
to Trade 

A Thoroughly 
Human Store 

Your Custom 
Cordially Invited 

Spring Goods 
Now Shown 

MARKET AT FIFTH 
San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co, 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We mint "Seamen's Journal" 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open 
the name of two lndlvidui 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw again si the account. 

HUMBOLDT 

SAVINGS BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 




Official Organ of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^5 1 j j c^ 1 1 rti ji frrwdsui iifjijfiic^ijfiiiriitiicaiiiiiiiiiirttraiiiiiiTiiiifC^iJKiiiiiiiic^iiiiiiiiiiiic^iMiiMiiiiic^riiri iiiczifMiiiEr^iiitiifiiiiic^iiriiiiiitiic^iiiiiiiiirKr^fffiiiiiiiiic^tMtiiiiiifiEr^iiiiiiitiii ic=3 iiiiiiiiiiitcsiiiniiiiit^ 

A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

BETTER DAYS AHEAD 3 

SHIP SUBSIDY AND SEAMEN 4 

WOBBLY FICTION DISSECTED 5 

EDITORIALS: 

UNION BAITING IS EXPENSIVE 6 

LABOR AND POLITICS 7 

WHEN EXPERTS TESTIFY 7 

THE VALUE OF CABLED NEWS 8 

THAT "UNDIGNIFIED WRANGLE" 8 

A RIGHTEOUS VERDICT 9 

THE A. F. OF L. CONVENTION 9 

FIXING STANDARDS OF LIVING 10 

FACTS ABOUT COAL MINING 11 

THE LABOR COST HANDICAP 11 

THE TESTING TIME OF "MEN". 13 

JAPANESE SEAMEN'S INSURANCE 14 

ARGENTINE SEAMEN'S CODE 14 

THE UNION AND "ME!" 15 

BY WAY OF CONTRAST! 15 

COMMENT ON CHINESE SEAMEN'S STRIKE 16 

DANISH SHIPPING STATISTICS 16 

THE RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR 17 

THE SECONDARY BOYCOTT 17 

WAGES AND SUBSIDIES 18 

WAGES VERSUS PROFITS 18 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 20, 21, 22, 23 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AMD ABROAD 24, 25, 26 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce 
VOL XXXVI NO 2 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
WHOLE No. 1901 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
JUNE 1, 1922 



^^niirinirflcatiiiiiHiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicsiiiiiiiiiiiicsiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicsiiiiiiiiiiiiEaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiizaiiifiiiiiiiicsiiiiifiiiiiica iiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiniimiiiiiiiniiiiiiiMioiiiiiiiimnififr; 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

THOS. A. HANSON, Secretary 

355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

X, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, X. Y ROBERT J. LEWIS, Agent 

70 South Street 

P.ALTUrORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Ya... DAN [NGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 
NEWPORT NEWS, Va. .if l.l is NELSON, Agent 

Twenty-third Street 

MOBILE, Ala VINCENT M. THORN, Agent 

69% Saint Michael Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

ARTHUR, Tex JOSEPH WARD, Agent 

132 Proctor Street 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK CITY. X. V. ...12 South Street 

H. P. GRIFFIN, President 

W. L. CARTLEDGE, Secretary-Treasurer 

Telephone Bowling Green 8840-8841 

Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Agent 

514 Greenwich Street 

iN, Mass J. A. MARTIN, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

I IRLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

228 Lafayette Street 

BALTIMORE, Md H. MEYERS, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa FRANK NOLAN, Agent 

140 South Third St. 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. F. BULLOCK, Agent 

2117^ Avenue A 

PROVIDENCE, R. I WM. BELL, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S. OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 

ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Phone John 0975 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa CHAS. AUGUSTSON, Agent 

206 Moravian Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex. ... ril AS. W. HANSON, Agent 

32iy 2 Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va PETER McKILLOP, Agent 

513 East Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala VINCENT THORN, Agent 

69% Saint Michael St. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I T. IIASSARD, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 

NEW YORK, N. Y TAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

111 South Street 

ATLANTIC CITY. N. J H. F. McGARRIGEL, Agent 

700 North Rhode Island Avenue 



BOATMEN'S BENEFICIAL ASSOCIATION 

II. ESKIX, Secretary 
HOBOKEN, N. J 316 River Street 

EASTERN MARINE WORKERS' ASSOCIATION 
NEW HAVEN, Conn 13% Collis Street 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE. Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Bridge Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

TH»>S. CONWAY, Secretary 

ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0O4S 

Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O I. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

Phone Dearborn 6413 

MARINE COOKS* AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, Til 355 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis. 162 Reed Street 

ASHTABULA, HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO, 111 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 Day Street 

TOLEDO, <) 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, N. Y 122^ Main Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

HAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSKN". Secretary pro tern. 
Telephone Kearny 1 
Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C R. TOWNSEND, Agent 

P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

Central Labor Council, 1151% Broadway 

SEAT'l P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore HANS GULLAKSEN, Agent 

Alnsworth Building, Room 81 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, Agent 

P. O. Box 314 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAX FRANCISCO Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
T.-lephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 






June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



BETTER DAYS AHEAD 




HEN the contest that raged a year ago 
between shipowners and seamen was 
finally called off, when the organized 
seamen acknowledged that they could 
not hope to win in a conflict where the 
Government (otherwise, the Shipping Board) 
made common cause with the organized ship- 
owners, then indeed, things in general did look 
discouraging for the future of American sea- 
men. 

It was not the defeat, as such, that hurt. It 
was not the frank admission of the seamen's 
inability to win in such a fight that caused dis- 
couragement. 

The spirit of dejection was, in fact, for a 
time, in the atmosphere. But it originated from 
entirely different causes. 

Organized on April 22, 1892, with a member- 
ship of only a few thousand, the International 
Seamen's Union of America had grown and 
developed, slowly but steadily until 1915, when 
the number of members had increased to 
20,000. During that quarter of a century vir- 
tually every District Union in the International 
Seamen's Union of America had ,been licked 
and routed not once but many times. A lick- 
ing in those days, however, meant little more 
than a strategical retreat. 

Moreover, every additional defeat merely 
tended to sharpen the wits of men for the next 
skirmish in the well-thought-out campaign that 
was bound to result in ultimate victor}". 

Time has always fought on the seamen's side 
for they could pick their own season for re- 
newing the fight just as long as there was 
unity of purpose and mutual confidence be- 
tween the membership and their elected officers. 

True, there always were some differences of 
opinion. But this was a help rather than a 
hindrance to the cause. With common ideals 
and the honest desire to work in harmony for 
mutual benefit, the friction of mind upon mind 
is always beneficial. 

It was in those fighting days that the Ameri- 
can seamen won their great legislative victories. 
It was because of occasional reverses and the 
constant call to duty that the Union and its 
members grew bold and ambitious enough to 



present the legislative program that has given 
freedom to seamen in America and under the 
Stars and Stripes everywhere. 

The word "discouragement" did not exist in 
the lexicon of the Union. Temporary defeat 
was often acknowledged ; failure — much less 
total failure — Never! 

With the beginning of the World War in 
Europe a great many changes took place in 
the affairs of man. And the seamen got their 
full share of the war psychology. Beginning 
with 1915 it actually became fashionable "to 
join the Union." So, in the course of five 
years, the International Seamen's Union of 
America grew by leaps and bounds until the 
20,000 membership of 1915 had more than 
quintupled and at the close of 1920 reached the 
very substantial number of 115,000. Of course, 
everybody was happy over this marvelous 
growth. 

Recent events have made it perfectly clear, 
however, that no nation, society or group of 
men can absorb five times its own number 
without the risk of fomenting internal dis- 
order. And that is exactly what occurred to 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 
The dear old Union had grown too fast and 
for a while it seemed as if tested principles 
and policies were to be swept away by sheer 
weight of the new arrivals' number. 

It must be borne in mind that the American 
Seamen's Union, because of- its conception and 
constitution, also because of its innate democ- 
racy, has always been susceptible to certain 
disaffection s and dangers from within. 

For, in such a way was it conceived and 
constituted, and in such a way did it develop, 
that, as a result, every member is entitled to 
advance ideas, or formulate plans, or conse- 
crate ideals with a surety of earnest considera- 
tion, if not always of acceptance. Inevitably 
this broad democracy gives the selfish schemers 
and even the detestable potential traitors an 
opportunity to indulge in their personal preju- 
dices, enmities, or vanities. 

Happily the danger of internecine destruction 
was always more menacing than real. In any 
event, after the struggle of 1921 in which the 



4 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



army of 115,000 was defeated, good old funda- 
mentals and common sense came to the front 
by fairly unanimous consent. There was a 
grand rallying of the forces that had stuck to 
the ship through thick and thin long before 
the war made it fashionable "to join the Union." 

Ever since the Union has gained in strength 
and stability. Mere numbers never won any- 
thing worth mentioning. Permanent progress 
has never been furthered by the use of wild and 
revolutionary phrases. But progress is always 
made when men of character, men with the 
courage of their convictions, determine to use 
collective self-help. 

Paradoxical though it may seem, today the 
International Seamen's Union of America, with 
a reduced membership, is really stronger and 
capable of greater sustained effort than it was 
a year ago. Men no longer join the Union 
because "everybody is doing it." They are in 
the Union or they apply for membership be- 
cause experience and mature deliberation has 
convinced them that it is the manly thing to do. 

Does anyone imagine that the old Union has 
lost its "pep" and vitality because a few 
treacherous would-be disrupters have been 
kicked out? Can anyone conceive that the 
'Organized seamen of America have lost any 
real strength just because some of the "pros- 
perity babies" have ceased to pay dues? 

vSurely, every rational human being desiring 
to be honest with himself will settle these 
questions without much hesitation. 

Yes, the Union is better off today than a 
year ago. Let us never forget that the Union 
was organized in times of bitter adversity. Let 
us also remember that it grew stronger and 
stronger with every temporary setback. And 
so we shall continue to gain strength through 
adversity and thrive because of stimulating 
opposition! 

Yes, better days are coming — 

A step ahead, a mile ahead, with golden hopes 

aglow — 
The hopes that only optimists in rainbowed regions 

know. 
The goal seems easy on in front, then comes a 

faltering word, 
Bringing the frightened, faltering step, also a vision 

blurr'd. 
A slow and painful march it is, now set back, now 

delay'd — 
But let us make the best of it — for so is Progress 

made! 



SHIP SUBSIDY AND SEAMEN 



Before this issue of the Journal is in the 
mail, hearings on the Ship Subsidy bill will 
probably have been concluded. 

President Furuseth, of the International 
Seamen's Union of America, effectively an- 
alyzed the many misrepresentations about 
the proposed ship subsidy legislation. He 
also replied to the shipowners' claim that 
"high" wages paid American seamen makes 
a Government subsidy necessary to compete 
with foreign ships. 

President Furuseth showed that American 
seamen's wages have been deflated more vio- 
lently than those of any other nation, and 
that the monthly cost of seamen upon a 
British ship is now much higher than upon 
an American Shipping Board vessel of the 
same class and tonnage, because of drastic 
reductions in the number of seamen in Amer- 
ican crews, under the Shipping Board's order. 

In his comparative study of wages and 
manning on American and foreign ships of 
the same tonnage and class. President Furu- 
seth said : 

"While American seamen have had their 
wages reduced by amounts ranging from $20 
to $40 per month (27 to 53 per cent), the 
wages of Japanese seamen have been in- 
creased 45 per cent, the wages of Austra- 
lian seamen increased by 9 per cent, and the 
- Of Chinese increased by 15 to 30 per 
cent. As a result of these reductions the 
wages pf American seamen are now much 
lower than the wages of Canadian and Aus- 
tralian seamen ; are practically on a level 
with British wages, and are substantially 
higher than the wages only of Japanese 
among the principal maritime nations." 

President Furuseth declared that the under- 
manning of American ships prescribed by the 
United States Shipping Board "is dangerous 
to the lives of all those who sail on them, 
and must necessarily result in a huge loss of 
vessels manned by crews which are too small 
to handle them during storms and other 
emergencies. The British do not carry sea- 
men on their ships as ornaments; they are 
there because they are necessary for the 
efficient operation of the vessel and the 
(Continued on Page 12.) 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



5 



WOBBLY FICTION DISSECTED 



Under the caption "Historical Facts," the 
New York Port Committee of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America has issued 
a circular full of pertinent matter on the 
union-wrecking record of the I. W. W. Being 
of general interest to seamen the circular is 
reproduced herewith : 

"Many seamen all along the Atlantic Coast 
are being requested to line up in the 'new 
union,' as the Marine Transport Workers is 
often called, by the canvassers who are try- 
ing to get the seamen to join this outfit. As 
a matter of fact it is very far from a new 
union. It is as old as the I. W. W. As it is 
simply the marine transport section of the 
I. W. W., perhaps the book agents that they 
have out along the waterfront think calling it 
the "Marine Transport Workers," will help 
the seamen forget their experience under the 
I. W. W. in 1912. Personally we are well 
aware that none of the old timers will ever 
forget that debacle, and for the benefit of 
the younger generation who have since that 
time started to follow the sea for a living, 
we recount the following facts for their con- 
sideration and guidance. Previous to 1911 
there was very little organization of seamen 
on the Atlantic Coast, and it seemed an ex- 
tremely thankless task that the International 
Seamen's Union of America had taken in 
hand. Nevertheless, the apparently hopeless- 
ness of the job did not in any way deter the 
International Seamen's Union from con- 
tinuing to give every possible moral and 
financial support to their seafaring brothers 
on the Atlantic Coast. 

"The result of that assistance given to the 
seamen of this coast then, was that in 1911, 
as the outcome of a strike, they were in a 
position to compel recognition and get in- 
rceases in wages and improvement in condi- 
tions in general, and an industrial agree- 
ment stabilizing the wages and conditions 
for the period of one year. When this agree- 
ment terminated there was a shipping stag- 
nation similar to the one we suffered from 
last year, and naturally the shipowners re- 
fused to have any dealings with the unions. 
This is always to be expected as no body of 



employers, as a rule, ever deals with the 
unions from choice — only when it is un- 
avoidable. 

"Having the whip hand in 1912 they had 
done the same as they did last year, locked 
out the seamen, only allowing them employ- 
ment upon their new scale and conditions, 
putting the seamen into the position of hav- 
ing to fight against reductions and altered 
conditions. At this period along came the 
world beaters, the I. W. W., and started on 
theirs. This is how-to-do-it propaganda: 
'Your unions are all wrong, you had the 
wrong form of organization, organize as we 
tell you and you will have pork chops and 
eggs three times a day, clean bed clothes 
every day, and the shipowners will get a 
chance to put on overalls and grab a marlin 
spike or a slice bar.' Now, what actually 
happened after shouting from the housetops 
for the seamen to leave the International Sea- 
men's Union and get into the I. W. W. ? 
The Firemen's Union of the Atlantic thought 
they would have a try at it. The secretary 
of the firemen at that time being an ex- 
tremely radical gentleman by the name of 
Mr. Vidal, and he as the general secretary, 
recommended that the firemen vote upon the 
proposition of turning over to the I. W. W., 
a course which he was wholeheartedly in 
favor of. The upshot of the whole matter 
was that the vote was overwhelmingly 
carried. 

"All the furniture, funds, books and records 
were turned over to the I. W. W. They were 
in full control all over the Atlantic Coast, 
from Portland, Maine, to Galveston, Texas. 
The old firemen's union, organized by the 
International Seamen's Union, was entirely 
out of commission. The entire field being 
clear of all opposition they had a wonderful 
opportunity to make good their propaganda 
promises, to better organize the men, increase 
the wages, and improve the conditions. Did 
they do it? The answer is an emphatic No. 
What happened about seven months after all 
the records, books, furniture and funds had 
been turned over to the I. W. W.? There 
was no headquarters of the firemen's union, 
no branches, all the records had either been 
(Continued on Page 19. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1S87 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH. President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK PLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GIDL. Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR. Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN, Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON, Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretarv-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago. 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



>@ 



UNE 1. 1922 



UNION BAITING IS EXPENSIVE 



It is not known (at present) just how much 
it is costing the organized shipowners to 
carry on their union-baiting campaign. Of 
course, it is known that the numerous cap- 
tains and ex-captains who serve the ship- 
owners' unions as managers, walking dele- 
gates, etc., are not working for the good of 
their health. To the contrary, it is defi- 
nitely known that the salaries and expenses 
of all these gentlemen, together with the 
general "overhead" involved in the blacklist- 
ing record books and the shipping agencies, 
amount to a very snug sum every month. 
Some day these figures will be available. 

In the meantime, we have on hand certain 
related facts and figures that should furnish 
considerable light in dark places. 

The Fred F, Field Service Company, a 
strike-breaking concern of Cleveland, has 



spilled the beans for the employers who are 
benevolently seeking to reduce wages in 
order to lower prices for the dear public. 
This strike-breaking concern has just filed a 
suit against the Telling Belle Vernon Milk 
ompany of Cleveland to collect $87,161) at SI 5 
a day plus traveling expenses, for the scabs 
employed to break the strike of the Cleveland 
milk drivers. 

The Telling Belle Vernon Company, which 
could not possibly pay its men 35c an hour. 
or reduce the exorbitant price of its milk to 
consumers, agreed to pay the Field Service 

Company the following generous scale of 
compensation for the toughs and thugs im- 
ported to break the strike: 

Strikebreakers' services, 8696' _■ days at $12 per 
day, $104,538; overtime for work after eight hours, 
$1,970; living expenses at $3 per day. $-'1.74(1; 
transportation and railroad fare (including Pull- 
mans), $6,058.72; maintaining 15 automobiles for 
strikebreakers at $50 per day, $29,700; repair^ on 
above automobiles, $1,307.35. 

In addition the philanthropic open-shoppers 
agreed to provide free medical and hospital 
care, legal services and bail for these "gentle- 
men" strikebreakers, and further contracted 
that no deduction was to be made for time 
lost by strikebreakers who were disabled, in- 
jured or arrested. The Telling Belle Vernon 
Company paid $85,000 on this generous con- 
tract, and is now being compelled to disg 
the balance. 

Is union baiting expensive? 

Is war expensh 

"W 1 11 all those who feel they must vote 
in the negative on these two questions kindly 
favor the JOURNAL with an outline of the 
mathematical or algebraic process whereby 
they have arrived at their conclusion? 



It is a fine and necessary trait to be will- 
ing to go ahead in order to achieve any 
progress, but unless this willingness to move- 
is combined with enough sense to actually 
imewhere, there are times when losses 
result instead. In other words, it is not 
enough merely to "start something," but to 
actually get somewhere. 



If all trade unionists would live every day 
as though it were their last, there would be 
a better demand for the union label, shop 
card and working button. 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



LABOR AND POLITICS 



Some folks are always willing to "let 
George do it." However, Mr. George P. 
AYest, a former San Francisco newspaper 
writer, is not in that class. Mr. West wants 
to do it himself. His ambition is to shape 
the policy and guide the destiny of the 
American Federation of Labor. Every now 
and then he breaks into print upon this sub- 
ject. Before writing his articles Mr. West 
usually interviews some totally irresponsible 
"general objector" and permits himself lit- 
erally to be "filled up." Fortified with this 
inspiration but without ever attempting to 
obtain the other side of the story, he then 
proceeds to lambast the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, Samuel Gompers, and every 
other man and woman who are not quite 
ready to: .accept the new order of things as 
outlined by himself. 

In his latest tirade Mr. West makes a des- 
perate attempt to discredit the non-partisan 
political policy of the A. F. of L., and inci- 
dentally to urge the formation of a political 
labor party. 

In many respects Mr. West and his soui- 
mates of the intelligencia are like ostriches. 
They .will not see the plain lessons of his- 
tory, nor will they admit that whatever 
gains have been made by the American labor 
movement were made by trade-union activ- 
ity, not through a partisan political labor 
party. 

The founders of the American Federation 
of Labor knew from bitter experience what 
had occurred to many other labor organiza- 
tions. They knew that* each and every na- 
tional organization of labor had been injured 
or wrecked on the treacherous reefs of par- 
tisan politics. The National Labor Union 
had a few years before, in 1872, nominated 
a candidate for President and then never met 
again. The Sovereigns of Industry, the Ju- 
nior Sons of 76, the Industrial Brotherhood 
of the United States and many others, had 
all partaken of the poison of partisan politics 
and shortly thereafter sent for the funeral 
director. Not many years later the Knights 
of Labor wanted the American Federation 
of Labor to join with it in supporting the 



Populist candidate for President. The Fed- 
eration refused to be inoculated with the 
deadly partisan political virus. The Knights 
of Labor gradually and silently disappeared, 
leaving little trace of its brief history, and 
are now buried in an unmarked grave in the 
political No Man's Land, while the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor is still moving on 
to greater victories for human achievement. 

Really, it is too bad that the American 
labor movement cannot conduct its affairs to 
please everybody. But it does appear as if 
Labor's self-styled intellectual friends (?) 
ought to be just a little charitable. The 
American Federation of Labor, in shaping 
its political course, is merely trying to take 
full advantage of the bitter lessons taught by 
actual experience. And for the commission 
of this awful crime we are vilified and slan- 
dered by our dear "friend" George! 

Evidently there is still much truth in that 
old saying: "Defend me from my friends; 
I can defend myself from my enemies." 



WHEN EXPERTS TESTIFY 



Testifying at the joint hearing on the 

pending ship subsidy bills in the committee 

room of the Senate Committee on Commerce 

on April 27, 1.922, Mr. Winthrop L. Marvin, 

vice-president and general manager of the 

American Steamship Owners' Association, 

said : 

We have been accused sometimes — the American 
shipowners in general — in a very careless and un- 
true way — of preferring Chinamen, using Chinamen 
largely in our merchant marine. 

Another nationally prominent shipowner, 

Air. A. F. Haines, first vice-president of the 

Pacific American Steamship Association, 

testifying before the Senate Committee on 

Commerce on January 22 and 23, 1921, said: 

We can and do employ Chinese whenever we can 
get away with it with the unions. That is the only 
law that we have that prevents it. 

The Journal has no desire to act as umpire 
in the quarrel between these two noted ex- 
perts on the manning question. 

Who is "careless" and what is "untrue" 
anyway? 



If there were no servile men there would 
be no despotic governments. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



THE VALUE OF CABLED NEWS 



mild and justified protest against intolerable 

conditions. 



Australian labor journals are campaigning 
for the establishment of a chain of daily labor 
papers. Incident to this campaign the labor 
editors in the Antipodes have drawn a lesson 
from the peculiar manner in which the world's 
news agencies portrayed the recent strike in 
South Africa. 

Perhaps 90 per cent of the world's popula- 
tion who read newspapers were convinced 
at the time that the South African strike was 
a revolt based upon a plot — a "Bolshevist 
plot" or a "Communist plot" — to overthrow 
the Government and to establish in its place 
a "Soviet Republic." 

Did not a cable from Johannesburg say 
that "the police had secured voluminous evi- 
dence of the existence of a Bolshevist plot 
to undermine the Government"? Did not 
another cable say that "people of all political 
convictions came forward to help the Gov- 
ernment to put down what there was no 
doubt had been a social revolution by Bol- 
shevists and Communists"? 

Now, with the "uprising" duly suppressed, 
it has become quite positive that the whole 
trouble was entirely due to the mine-owners' 
determination to kill Unionism, and to make 
the way easier for cheap labor. 

At any rate, the Australian dailies, in a 
very recent cable message from Capetown, 
tell this so different story : 

In the course of an extremely bitter speech on 
the second reading of the Indemnity bill, General 
Hertzog attributed the whole responsibility for the 
recent bloodshed to the Prime Minister, General 
Smuts, who he accused of allowing the situation on 
the Rand to develop into disturbances so that he 
(General Smuts) could smash trade unionism. 

General Smut's footsteps, he said, dripped with 
blood. The population lived in a country of mur- 
der and assassination. 

Certainly, nothing could be more definite 
than this frank statement made by a responsi- 
ble and thoroughly informed man right on 
the ground. General Hertzog, it should be 
borne in mind, knows with a first-hand 
knowledge; he has heard with his own ears; 
he has seen with his own eyes. And the 
result of his hearing and his seeing shows 
that even what the cabled news depicted as 
a red revolution was, in truth and in fact, 
the brutal suppression of the white miners' 



THAT "[ X DIGNIFIED WRANGLK" 



Our contemporary "Nauticus" thinks that 
"the subsidy agitation has degenerated into 
an undignified wrangle between the seamen 
and the shipowners, the outcome of which 
threatens to undo the good work already 
accomplished in educating the public to the 
gravity of the crisis through which American 
shipping is passing." If it should be con- 
ceded, for the sake of argument, that this is 
a correct deduction from passing events we 
may well ask: Who started the wrangle? 

Who spread all the misinformation about 
the fanciful wages of American seamen? 

Who framed the ship subsidy bill anyway ; 
and who is responsible for carefully elimi- 
nating every word which would require sub- 
sidized ships to carry American crews? 

Who has made "low wage labor" the all- 
important issue in this wrangle ; and who is 
Irving to make it appear that cheap labor can 
beat skilled and efficient American seamen ? 

If our most esteemed contemporary will 
answer these questions the Journal will be 
delighted to make further acknowledgment 
about responsibility for "the undignified 
wrangle." 

Aside from this, does anyone seriously 
contend that the organized American seamen 
should have remained silent while a national 
publicity campaign was conducted intimating 
that high-priced American seamen were 
mainly responsible for the American ship 
operators' inability to survive competition : 



There is no poorer specimen of unionism 
than the member who is always knocking 
but never boosting, always whining to be 
helped but never helping, always out for 
everything that has been gained but never 
willing to lend a helping hand to get it. 



Between Henry Ford with his voluntary 
establishment of the forty-hour week, and 
Judge Gary, with his stubborn adherence to 
seven days of 12 hours, there is the accumu- 
lated experience of the last 2000 years. 



June, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 9 

A RIGHTEOUS VERDICT THE A. F. OF L. CONVENTION 



Judge John R. Davies of the Municipal 
Court of New York, well known for his 
humane and just decisions, has just rendered 
another notable verdict. 

Daniel J. Connors, marine fireman and old- 
time member of the Union, had signed on the 
Shipping Board vessel Lake Fontana for a 
voyage to European ports. In England Con- 
nors was taken ill and placed in the hospital 
at Preston. In due time the vessel sailed, 
leaving for Connors the wages he had then 
earned. After considerable delay, Connors 
worked his way back to the United States 
and retained attorney Axtell to sue for wages 
to the end of the voyage and cost of main- 
tenance until cured. The defendant's attor- 
ney refused absolutely to settle the case out 
of court, not even for one dollar. 

When it came to trial the jury was waived 
and the judge promptly rendered this note- 
worthy decision : 

The testimony establishes that plaintiff became ill 
as part of and while in performance of his duties, 
and was placed in the hospital in England and prac- 
tically abandoned, as he was compelled to pay his 
own medical and maintenance charges as well as 
for his return trip to his port of shipment. 

Under the laws of humanity, as well as the ever- 
recognized laws of admiralty, plaintiff was entitled 
to his maintenance while ill and to his passage back, 
and I therefore find for plaintiff in the sum of $250. 

[See the Bouker, No. 2, 248 Federal, 831, and 
Saunders vs. Luckenbach, 262 Federal, 845. 1 

While the amount involved in this case is 

comparatively small, it indicates that seamen 

with small claims can still get a just trial in 

an American Court. 



JUNE 1 IN HISTORY 



1785 — John Adams, first American Ambas- 
sador, met George III, king of England. 

1812 — The United States Congress received 
a war message from the President. 

1831 — Magnetic North Pole discovered by 
James Clarke Ross. 

1860 — Total number of slaves in the United 
States reported at 4,002,996. 



Preparing for the annual convention of 
the American Federation of Labor, the Exec- 
utive Council has been in session at Wash- 
ington, formulating a report of the year's 
work and framing recommendations to the 
convention. 

While it is an unwritten law that these 
reports are never divulged in advance of the 
convention, certain phases of the work being 
undertaken are properly known. Above all in 
importance it is clear that the report will 
show that labor has maintained its lines dur- 
ing the year in the face of the most bitter 
attack by organized employers. 

As a matter of fact, it is beyond question 
that the Council's report will show that 
American organized labor has come through 
the year with flying colors, solidified and 
unified by attack after attack on the part of 
employers, courts and legislators. 

fixing. 

Without question the Council will have 
much to say about the attitude of courts 
and the almost unprecedented quantity of 
injunctions showered upon labor during the 
year. Labor cannot well overlook the recent 
Supreme Court decision on picketing, a de- 
cision that practically made picketing impos- 
sible and opened the way for all judges of 
inferior courts to make picketing impossible. 

Strikes of the year will be reviewed, show- 
ing a record of which labor may be proud 
and showing also, it may be surmised, that 
those conflicts in which labor has been forced 
to engage have been the result of employer 
aggression. 

The convention will be held in Cincinnati, 
beginning on Monday. June 12. 



The Shipping Board is determined to 
"Americanize" the American Merchant Ma- 
rine. Virtually the entire American crew 
on the Shipping Board steamship President 
Lincoln (ex-Hoosier State) was discharged at 
San Francisco during the month and Fili- 
pinos engaged to fill the vacancies. 



A guilty conscience and an insincere trade 
unionist are very similar — they never feel 
secure. Demand the label. 



If you want to help your fellow- workers — 
Join the union. 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



FIXING STANDARDS OF LIVING 



The guiding light of the California State 
Commission that recently reduced the mini- 
mum wage of unorganized working women 
from $16 to $15 per week is Airs. Katherine 
Edson. This lady has herself made regular 
drafts on the State treasury, averaging $89 
per week for her salary and expense. $15 
per week for the working girl and $89 per 
week for the social worker who poses as the 
working girl's guardian and protector. 

What a strange commentary on the ethics 
of "fixing wages by law!" 

Incidentally, it should be noted, that the 
organized girls employed in San Francisco 
as paper folders and binders have just been 
awarded an increase of $1.00 per week, mak- 
ing their minimum wage $22 per week. The 
award was made by a board of arbitration 
selected jointly by workers and employers. 

The difference in the course of procedure 
is worthy of note. In the case of the un- 
organized we have an $89 per week lady 
putting her stamp of approval on a $15 per 
week wage for working women. The organ- 
ized bindery women, on the other hand, 
although submitting their grievance to arbi- 
tration, actually secure a dollar increase on 
a $21 per week wage. 

Oh, yes, this business of fixing wages by 
law or by legal pow r er delegated to "com- 
missions" is a great stunt for the employers 
and, in particular, for the social workers who 
prescribe a "fodder standard" for working 
girls but insist upon something entirely dif- 
ferent for themselves' 



Mr. Luther B. Dow of New York, repre- 
senting the American Steamship Licensed 
Officers' Association fine), is a 100 per cent 
American. He admits it himself. But any- 
one who does not agree with Mr. Dow on 
the merit of the proposed ship subsidy 
scheme is either "an alien or is representing 
aliens." Mr. Dow lias said so, for the 
record, and that should settle it. During 
cross-examination Congressman Hardy asked 
.Mr. Dow whether or not he, if a member of 
the committee, would vote for an amend- 
ment to the subsidy bill compelling the em- 



ployment of 50 per cent Americans on each 
subsidized vessel. And then the one hundred 
percenter commenced to dodge and shift. For 
ten minutes Congressman Hardy tried his ut- 
most to get a straightforward answer to that 
question. But Mr. Dow, as an expert quib- 
bler, demonstrated a marked ability to evade 
the issue. He simply refused to commit him- 
self without an "if." Enough said! 



Percy Pryor, Fifth Vice-President of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
announces that the Eastern & Gulf Sailors' 
Association has entered into an agreement 
with the Eastern Steamship Line, Inc. 
Wages arc to be as follows: Boatswain, $70 
per month; quartermasters $67.50, abh 
men and watchmen $62.50 and ordinary 
men $47.50. Working rules are to remain 
the same as during 1920 and 1921 : overtime 
pay will be 60 cents an hour, and an extra 
day's pay will be given for Sundays and 
regular holidays when ships are at sea, as 
shown in the agreement for 1920. Last, but 
not least, it was agreed that members of the 
union shall have preference in employment 
whenever available. The agreement is to con- 
tinue in full force and effect up to April 
1. 1923. 



According to reports from the Great Lakes 
District satisfactory agreements have been 
signed up with the principal carferry man- 
agers and with all the C.reat Lakes pas- 
boat lines. Prospects are good for similar 
arrangements with minor companies When 
this is accomplished there will be an excel- 
lent opportunity to deal effectively with the 
Lumber and Lake Carriers associations in 
their attempts to still further reduce wages. 
The executive committee of the Lake Car- 
riers' Association has already announced a 
uniform wage reduction of $5 per month 
for the several grades of unlicensed seamen 
for the 1922 season. Whether or not this 
announcement will stand up in actual ap- 
plication remains to be seen. 



Many receive advice but few seem to profit 
by it, or there would be a better demand for 
union labeled goods 



June, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 11 

FACTS ABOUT COAL MINING THE LABOR COST HANDICAP 



Here are some facts about coal mining. 
Also something about the "patriotism" of 
mine owners. Congressman Meyer London 
said these things in the House the other day: 

"We have probably 10,000 mines and some 
2000 owners. They employ 700,000 workers 
and employ them irregularly. During the last 
thirty years the average number of days of 
employment was 214, so that the public was 
on a strike against the miners more than 
ninety days each year. When the public is 
not on a strike against the miners and when 
the miners are not on strike, the coal opera- 
tors and the host of parasites, the middlemen 
between the worker in the mine and the con- 
sumer, are on strike against the whole world. 

"There is a great deal of talk about the 
high rates of wages paid to the miners, but, 
as you all know, the breadwinner is not in- 
terested in the rates of wages or percentages 
or statistics ; he is interested in his total 
earning capacity. Judged by the number 
of days the miner was actually employed, his 
earning capacity during his best season was 
not sufficient to maintain a proper standard 
of living. The condition is deplorable, and 
there is no relief in sight. These 2000 greedy 
proprietors of the soil of America, without 
any ethical code to guide them, without any 
moral law to animate them, without any 
patriotic purpose — during the crisis of the 
nation, during the great war, they exploited 
the people and Government mercilessly — 
these 2000 men are in control of an industry 
upon the proper conduct of which depends 
the prosperity of the entire country. 

"It was testified by one of the leaders of 
the miners of Pennsylvania that their average 
earnings last year did not exceed the sum of 
$746." 

Mine owners have a monopoly of the facts 
about mining. They lock their books and 
even the Government can't pry those books 
open to see what's inside. 

But the public is perfectly free to speculate 
about things. The average miner's yearly 
earnings amount to about $746. What does 
the average coal mine owner get per year? 



The deadlock between the Senate and the 
House in the matter of Shipping Board sal- 
aries has been broken and an agreement has 
been reached which would permit of the em- 
ployment of six officials, or attorneys, at not 
more than $25,000 a year each, two at $20,000 
a year, and a number of others at $11,000 a 
year. The agreement will entail a reduction in 
the salaries now being paid to the head officials 
of the Emergency Fleet Corporation who, how- 
ever, are to be congratulated on the liberality 
shown to them by Congress since they were 
installed. The evidence on shipping salaries 
given before Congress resembles nothing so 
much as the statistics submitted by manufac- 
turers when they seek an increase in the tariff 
on foreign-made competitive goods. By strik- 
ing an average between the wages paid the 
highest and lowest grade employes and com- 
paring them with the wages paid to the lowest 
grade of foreign labor, it is always easy to 
prove that the American manufacturer is under 
a terrible handicap as to labor costs. Of course, 
the supplicants carefully avoid any comparison 
between the actual labor cost of the American- 
made and of the foreign-made articles. Labor- 
saving machinery makes it possible to produce 
a cheaper article with $5-a-day labor than with 
30-cent-a-day skilled manual workers. But 
such comparisons would give the game away. 

The most successful American industries 
have been built upon scientific management and 
fair wages. Western farmers pay the highest 
wages received by agricultural laborers any- 
where in the world. Yet, the profit realized 
from the sale of American agricultural prod- 
ucts at the world's market price is greater than 
that which accrues to the fanners of other 
lands. This can be verified by the most super- 
ficial observation, for the standard of living in 
the agricultural sections of the great West is 
much higher than in South America, or even 
in Australia. Many of our agricultural prod- 
ucts compete with those of India and China, 
where the lowest paid labor is employed. 
Therefore, if the cost of production were to 
be determined by the pay of the laborer, our 
agricultural and mining industries would be 
unable to find an export outlet. — "Nauticus." 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



SHIP SUBSIDY AND SEAMEN 

(Continued from Page 4.) 



maintenance of British sea supremacy. The 
British carry ten able and ordinary seamen 
on a 6,500-ton cargo ship, because a crew of 
that size has been proved by generations of 
experience to be necessary for safe and effi- 
cient operation. For the United States Ship- 
ping Board to attempt to operate a ship of 
similar size with only six seamen must be 
characterized as suicide, so far as the life 
of the vessel is concerned, and murder as 
regards the lives of the crew. No seaman 
would ship under such conditions unless he 
were driven to desperation by unemployment 
and hunger. Furthermore, a crew so greatly 
reduced in size as that provided for by the 
present standards of the United States Ship- 
ping Board cannot maintain the upkeep of 
the vessel while it is at sea. Ships which are 
not properly manned must be scrapped much 
sooner than ships which are maintained in 
proper condition. 

"Finally, there remains the broader con- 
sideration that the present policies adopted 
by the United States Shipping Board and 
the American private owners are driving 
Americans from the sea. No American who 
can find other employment will ship on Amer- 
ican vessels under present conditions. Their 
places will be filled with Orientals and the 
scum of seamen of all other nations. Thus 
American sea power is doomed, no matter 
what artificial stimulus is provided in the 
way of subsidies, unless an immediate change 
is made in the policy as regards wages and 
manning of American ships." 

Furuseth's analysis of the Administration 
Ship Subsidy bill, which provides for turning 
over millions of dollars to private interests, 
was not considered as "news" by the news- 
papers of the United States. 

For a solid month shipowners, shipping 
lawyers, financiers. Shipping Board officials 
and all sorts of experts had been on the 
stand before the joint Senate and House 
Committee on Merchant Marine. They told 
why the gates of the treasury should be 
opened. They got columns upon columns 
of newspaper space. The news columns 
of the public press were wide open to 



the proponents of this ambitious scheme. 

Then came labor, in the person of Andrew 
Furuseth, ripping away the pretense, telling 
what the bill really means. The newspapers 
couldn't hear him ! 

Those who ask for millions "'make news" 
when they tell Congress what they want. 

Labor, opening its case, saying startling 
things — facts — taking the glimmer and pre- 
tense off the thing — no news. "\"'> news 
today." 

From t lie general record and the testimony 
now available it seems to be perfectly clear 
that the subsidy bill (if enacted as intro- 
duced) will aggravate present evils and will 
not solve the Merchant Marine problem in 
any way. 

Chairman Lasker of the U. S. Shipping 
Board was exceptionally frank with the com- 
mittee. It was apparent, he thinks, Congress 
will fall in line, regardless of the merits of 
the proposition. He said: "Members of Con- 
are not expected to understand this 
bill." 

He also said: "I am not for tin- American 
shipowner holding up the Government, and I 
think he will hold up the Government if he 
gets a chance." 

The records do not indicate that the ship- 
owner has not had a chance, and it is cer- 
tain that he will get a wide open chance if 
the subsidy bill goes through as introduced. 
Mr. Lasker practically admitted there is no 
essential difference in costs in various coun- 
tries in such essentials as price of ships. 
interact on borrowed money, number of men 
in crew, wages and subsistence. He might 
have added that, in fact, American ships pay 
lower wages than some foreign ships. 

The manner in which Mr. Lasker tried to 
gain labor support was frank and original. 
He praised the Seamen's Act. He could 
afford to. The subsidy bill, if passed in its 
present form, will practically wipe out the 
Seamen's Act. Going still further, he said : 
"1 think the time will come when the Amer- 
ican shipowner will be ashamed of himself 
for the \o\\ T wages he is paying." 

Altogether, the printed hearings on the 
ship subsidy furnish most interesting if not 
always instructive literature. 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



THE TESTING TIME OF "MEN" 



In reviewing the bitter trials through 
which the American trade-union movement 
has passed during the past five years, Editor 
Frey of the International Molders' Journal 
makes certain most timely observations. 

Although Brother Frey's comment is in- 
tended principally for the metal trades work- 
ers it has a direct bearing on the organized 
seamen's problems. Moreover, his logic has 
a decidedly nautical flavor and will, therefore, 
be all the more appreciated by readers of the 
Journal. To quote: 

"The trade-union movement has passed 
through severe strains during the past five 
years, in fact it has passed through tests of 
a more strenuous character than it ever en- 
countered since the first days of its organi- 
zation. First came the demand for additional 
men in industry at a time when all of the 
younger trade unionists were in uniform in- 
stead of at work in the shops and mines. As 
a result of war-time conditions some of the 
unions which had before enjoyed but a 
moderate membership, increased from a few 
thousand to well over a hundred thousand 
members. 

"These newcomers into the movement were 
not like the apprentice joining his union upon 
becoming a journeyman. They were largely 
those who had lived a non-union life. They 
were unfamiliar with the sacrifices which 
trade unionists are frequently called upon to 
make, and they knew practically nothing of 
trade-union methods and principles. 

"They became members of the union be- 
cause of the governmental protection which 
was given to trade union affiliation, and be- 
cause they learned that through govern- 
mental agencies they could secure improved 
terms of employment much more satisfactory 
through organization than without it. 

"This enormous increase of untrained 
membership in a number of unions made it 
extremely difficult for these organizations to 
cany out their well established policies. 
After the war this newer membership began 
to consolidate with the older experienced 
trade unionists, but many of them were .of 
the opinion that mere numbers alone was 



necessary in order to secure what the 
majority might desire, and as a result 
some unfortunately unwise programs were 
launched. 

"Then came the depression, the most severe 
one which our industries have ever passed 
through. The beginning of the depression 
found the employers, and particularly those 
in the metal trades, better organized than 
ever before. In addition it found them de- 
termined to enforce reductions in wages, 
bring about radical changes in shop condi- 
tions, and prepared to use all of their 
strength for the purpose of establishing the 
so-called Open Shop or American plan. 

"The strain upon the trade-union move- 
ment during this period was necessarily 
much more severe than the problems caused 
by the unusual demand for workmen during 
the two years afterward. Many of those who 
had never been trade unionists until the war. 
and who, during that period imagined that 
their union could accomplish anything its 
members desired, lost their confidence in trade 
unionism when the storm broke. 

"They were of the fair weather sailor type, 
enthusiastic voyagers so long as the seas 
were calm, and the skies clear, but who be- 
moaned their fate and would give half their 
wealth or more when storms sweep the seas, 
and waves roll high, if they could only stand 
on firm land once more. 

"The difference between the fair-weather 
sailor and the experienced Jack Tar, who 
enjoys hearing the storm whistle through 
the rigging, is very much the same as that 
between the fair-weather unionist who be- 
came a member during the war period, with- 
out experience, discipline and knowledge, and 
the practical veteran trade unionist who 
understands that his union cannot accomplish 
the impossible. 

"Our own organization passed through a 
strain during the last eighteen months which 
has placed the greatest test upon it which it 
has encountered. In many instances foundries 
boarded up their doors. In others less than 
10 per cent of the usual number of molders 
were employed. But fortunately for our 
union the great bulk of its membership is 
made up of men who are not deceived by 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



fair days into believing that storms will never 
come, and who are not dismayed or lose their 
courage when the storm rages around them. 

"Sixty-three years of experience as an In- 
ternational organization has taught them the 
most essential lessons. They know that their 
organization has passed through other serious 
periods and emerged stronger than ever he- 
fore. Their faith in their trade union has 
been the confidence of the sailor during an 
exceptionally severe storm, and who knows 
that his ship is soundly built and able to 
successfully weather the gale, if properly 
handled. 

"Our members who weathered the storm 
with confidence in the future, can now see 
better weather ahead. Trade is beginning to 
improve materially. The prospects are 
brighter than at any time since the storm 
broke. 

"If the history of our organization teaches 
us anything, it teaches this, that the results 
of our recent experiences will mean an or- 
ganization larger in membership and better 
able to protect the interests of its members. 
From every severe experience in the past our 
union has emerged stronger than ever before, 
and this has been due principally to the fact 
that its membership was composed of men 
who were thorough trade unionists, who 
understood what the trade-union movement 
is, and what it can accomplish, and who were 
practical in applying their principles and 
carrying out their programs. 

"A bright future lies ahead of us, and as 
our union contains a larger proportion of 
veterans than most American trade unions, it 
will be able to function more rapidly, success- 
fully, and effectively as trade continues to 
improve." 



JAPANESE SEAMEN'S INSURANCE 



When the union is strong, wages rise and 
working conditions improve. When the union 
is weak, wages fall and working conditions 
deteriorate. If you are a member of the 
union you are its strength. If you are not 
a member you represent its weakness. Join 
the union. 



The Health Insurance bill, which it is pro- 
posed shall be brought before the present 
session of the Japanese Parliament, covers 
only workers in factories and mines, and 
therefore the Department of Communica- 
tions, in view of the even greater risks run 
by men in the seafaring trade, and in view, 
also, of the convention and recommendation 
adopted by the International Labor Confer- 
encc at ( ienoa, has been preparing a bill for 
the insurance of seamen. The draft has been 
submitted to the Maritime Commission, 
which is composed of government officials 
and business men. 

The main features of the bill are: 

1. The contingencies provided against are 
unemployment, sickness, accident, disability 
and death. 

2. The bill applies to registered seamen 
employed on vessels of more than 20 gross 
tons registered under the Ship Registry Act. 
and will affect approximately 70,000 men. 

3. The State, the employer, and the sea- 
man will contribute equal amounts towards 
the premium of insurance. 

The commission is now endeavoring to 
complete the work of investigation in order 
to secure action in Parliament. 



ARGENTINE SEAMEN'S CODE 



If you want to take part in determining 
the wages and conditions under which you 
work and live — Join the union. 



Mr. Ricardo Carmino. and Mr. Unsain, 
president of the Argentine Department of 
Labor, who have been charged by the Min- 
ister of the Interior to draw up a national 
seamen's code in accordance with the deci- 
sions of the Genoa Conference, have com- 
pleted their work. The proposed code con- 
tains the following sections: 

Provisions for a commercial code; com- 
pensation for accidents; collective agree- 
ments ; registration of crews ; ships' officers 
in the mercantile marine; pilots and crews 
of steamships; regulations for pilots on ves- 
sels with internal combustion engines ; wire- 
less operators in the mercantile marine; 
minimum crews for work on deck ; general 
regulations for coasting pilots ; provisions 
as to contraventions. 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



THE UNION AND "ME"! 



Certain curious types of mankind, who 
claim to be intelligent, will ask from time 
to time in pollparrot fashion : What did the 
union ever do for me? 

They might as well ask : What has civiliza- 
tion ever - done for them, or what has or- 
ganized society ever done for them? * 

These same workers laud the public school 
system, but if you told them that they 
owed their education to the labor movement 
they would pooh-hooh the idea, yet it was 
the labor movement that fought the private 
school system and brought about free educa- 
tion by making it the duty of the State to 
educate the children of the nation. 

Workers who now enjoy the shorter work- 
day would consider it preposterous to be 
compelled to work from sunrise until sunset. 
It was the labor movement that reduced the 
standard work day, yet people will ask : What 
has the union ever done for me? 

Sanitary conditions afloat and ashore are 
the result of trade union effort. The present 
generation knows but little about the bitter 
fights put up by organized labor in the past 
to get proper health laws passed. They enjoy 
better surroundings that are the direct result 
of the labor movement, yet they will ask: 
What has the union ever done for me? 

The workers in organized trades enjoy all 
the benefits that have accrued through years 
of sacrifice by those who preceded them. 
They take it as a matter of right that they 
should enjoy these conditions while they ask : 
What has the labor union ever done for me? 

The same situation applies with respect 
to countless other labor laws promoted and 
carried to a successful conclusion by the 
labor movement, but all of this is lost sight 
of by the selfish one who asks : What has 
the union ever done for me? 

The most absurd illustration of this foolish 
question is to be found in the semi-organized 
fields of industry. Men and women who 
carried a union card for a few months will 
say : I belonged to the union once, but it 
never did anything for me ! 

They can never understand that the union 
is merely a means to an end, that unionism 



is the voice of the aspirations of the working 
people and that this voice will be strong or 
weak in a given industry according to the 
strength or weakness of the union. Usually 
it is the case of where the union workers 
are in the minority in the partly organized 
trades, and is it not fair then to ask : Why 
blame the minority for trying to do some- 
thing that is worth while, in spite of the 
majority being either hostile or indifferent? 

The non-unionists have kept down wages, 
have permitted long hours, have lowered the 
standard of living, and for these things it is 
the majority and not the minority that should 
be blamed. 

The labor union is the machinery, but 
it is the membership which furnishes the 
power to move the machinery. If the non- 
union majority prevents the machinery from 
moving, why should the union minority 
be blamed? 

On the other hand, wherever the majority 
of workers have actively and persistently 
supported the union movement nobody ever 
needs to ask: What has the union ever done 
for me? 



BY WAY OF CONTRAST! 



The United States Supreme Court declares 
unconstitutional the Child Labor law, in- 
tended to protect children from the exploit- 
ers. Supreme Court judges are learned and 
honest. But did the men that wrote the 
Constitution intend to make it impossible for 
Congress to protect children against hard- 
ship? 

Interesting, by way of contrast, the Su- 
preme Court has just declared the 80-cent 
gas rate confiscatory, therefore unconstitu- 
tional. This will puzzle some that do not 
understand technicalities. The highest court 
decides that Congress has not the power to 
protect children whose lives are confiscated 
in industry and that the State of New York 
hasn't power to limit the gas rate to 80 
cents. 

To prevent confiscation of children's health 
is unconstitutional. To confiscate gas com- 
pany profits is unconstitutional. — Arthur 
Brisbane. 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



COMMENT ON CHINESE STRIKE 



The last issue of the Journal dealt at some 
length with the successful strike of the Chi- 
nese seamen. 

The official recognition of the Chinese 
Seamen's Union seems to be a "touchy" sub- 
ject with British journalists at Hongkong. 
An indication of the spirit in which the 
strike settlement has been accepted by the 
British there is reprinted herewith certain 
pertinent comment from the Hongkong 
Weekly Press for March 1 1 : 

"The strike settlement is a painful sub- 
ject for any British journalist to have to 
comment upon. Only one opinion on the 
subject prevails among people of all nation- 
alities in the Colony, and that is that it is 
deeply humiliating to the Government and to 
the foreign community generally. For the 
present we content ourselves with putting 
this general opinion on record, and await 
from the Government and the shipowners an 
authoritative account of the negotiations and 
the reasons which dictated the settlement so 
that a clearer comprehension of the present 
position may be gathered. . . . 

"It is difficult to write with restraint on 
a settlement which is so humiliating to Brit- 
ish pride and prestige, a settlement, more- 
over, which is pregnant with possibilities of 
constantly recurring trouble in the future. 
We have now the Servants' Guild putting 
forward a demand for an eight-hour day and 
a general increase of 30 per cent in the wages 
paid to domestic servants, and withholding 
sanction for the return of servants till this 
is generally conceded. . . . The domestic 
servants have shown a disloyalty to their 
employers unparalleled in the history of any 
country. Even in the Indian mutiny, native 
servants showed a loyalty to their British 
employers which puts the Chinese to shame. 

"Many years have passed since Hongkong 
had an experience comparable to what we 
have just passed through. Then the Colony 
was small and withdrawal of essential work- 
ers and the effort to starve the foreign com- 
munity were clearly directed by the govern- 
mental authorities at Canton. Then the .'gun- 
boat policy' was an effective instrument for 



securing respect for law and order. Much 
suspicion of the present Canton Government 
has been current among Europeans respect- 
ing its responsibility for the latest episode. 
but we have been repeatedly assured that 
such suspicions are entirely groundless, and 
that the most that can be alleged against 
the Canton Government is that it has adopted 
'a lib'eral policy toward labor.' In the cir- 
cumstances the movement can only be re- 
garded as a mob effort, and the conclusion 
to be drawn from it is that if so-called gov- 
ernments in China cannot, or will not, con- 
trol such boycotts, the duty devolves upon 
the League of Nations or the group of 
Powers signatory to the Washington agree- 
ments relating to China, to consider how 
organized movements of this kind are in 
future to be dealt with if confidence in 
China, politically and commercially, is not 
to be utterlv destroved." 



DANISH SHIPPING STATISTICS 



Denmark's idle tonnage has decreased from 
258.267 gross tons on January 15 to 83,000 
gross tons on April 1. It is estimated that 
the earnings of the Danish merchant fleet 
for 1921 was something over 100,000,000 
crowns, or an amount that would approxi- 
mately offset the unfavorable trade balance 
for 1921. At the beginning of 1922 the 
Danish merchant marine consisted of 797 
ships aggregating 870,000 tons. The net in- 
crease in the fleet for 1921 amounted to 36 
vessels of 85,000 gross tons. On January 1. 
1922, 72,000 tons were under construction in 
Danish shipyards, but work on part of this 
tonnage has since been suspended. 

The Copenhagen Free Harbor is reported 
to have had a profitable year in spite of the 
general depression. Since 1915 over 36,000,- 
000 crowns have been expended on exten- 
sions and improvements in the harbor. 

The State Railway deficit for April to De- 
cember, 1921, was about 32,000,000 crowns 
(the Government financial year begins April 
1), or 7,000,000 more than for the same 
period in 1920. The cost of running the 
State Railways for this period was 162,000,000 
crowns. 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



THE RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR 



For four years and a half Mr. Boris 
Bakhmetieff has been in America as the 
ambassador of a government that does not 
exist, of a regime that is dead. He has had 
no one whom he could claim to represent 
but a handful of military adventurers and 
political emigres — with on authority to ap- 
point ambassadors — and himself. Yet our 
Government continues to recognize him ; and 
in the past it has supported him with Ameri- 
can money. Senator Borah has charged on 
the floor of the Senate that Mr. Bakhmetieff 
used part of the $187,729,750 paid to him by 
the Government of the United States to 
speculate in real estate in New York and 
Chicago. This sum, let us note, is money 
originally paid into the United States Treas- 
ury by the readers of this article and the 
other people of this country. It is our taxes 
that sent the privileged Mr. Boris Bakhme- 
tieff and his retinue to Europe for the Peace 
Conference, our taxes that enabled Mr. 
Bakhmetieff to print carloads of paper rubles 
for his political friends in Russia, our taxes 
that backed Kolchak in his losing fight 
against the only real government in Russia — 
the Soviet Government. 

Senator Borah has raised questions that 
must be answered : What is Mr. Bakhmetieff 
doing in the Russian Embassy at Washing- 
ton? What has happened to our money? 
It might have been saved to us. We want 
to know more. A thorough investigation is 
needed — and after that a thorough airing. 
A House committee has reported on some 
of the uses of this money; a Senate report, 
presented by Senator Reed, has gone into 
the matter more fully. But the facts that 
have so far been brought out can be taken 
as little more than an invitation to further in- 
quiry. 

At the time of the Russian Bolshevik 
Revolution Mr. Bakhmetieff had to his credit 
approximately $56,000,000, deposited in the 
National City Bank of New York, part of a 
loan made to Russia for war purposes. This 
amount was subsequently increased by about 
$22,000,000 more of American money, derived 
from the resale of rails and other supplies 



orginally purchased in this country and from 
the chartering of Russian ships hired by the 
United States Shipping Board, the proceeds 
of which sales and charters might have been 
used to reduce his debt to us but were not. 
To all appearances this $78,000,000, covering 
a substantial part of the Russian obligations 
to America, has completely vanished. The 
Treasury Department holds a few certificates 
of indebtedness signed by Mr. Bakhmetieff 
and his aide, Mr. Ughet, long after the over- 
throw of the Kerensky Government. That 
is all. . . . 

In one way or another all Americans are 
taxpayers. From sheer self-interest, if not 
from a sense of the inherent absurdity and 
indecency of the present situation, Senator 
Borah should be backed to the limit in his 
demand that Mr. Bahkmetieff be pulled out 
of his diplomatic safe deposit vault and made 
to explain and to deliver over certain things 
that do not belong to him — some American 
millions, a handsome residence, and, not 
least, the title of Ambassador. — The (New 
York) Nation. 



THE SECONDARY BOYCOTT 



Many years ago, in the Toledo and Ann 
Arbor case, Judge Taft, afterwards President 
and now Chief Justice of the United States, 
laid down the law on second degree boy- 
cotts with a clarity that has never been sur- 
passed. He pointed out that when the boy- 
cott is a refusal to deal with a person against 
whom the boycotters have a grievance, it is 
legal and legitimate. But when a boycott is 
directed against some one toward whom the 
boycotters have no grievance, for the pur- 
pose of compelling him to boycott some 
one else against whom he has no grievance, 
it passes the bounds of law and right. 

Very good law. But let us see : A San 
Francisco building contractor employs his old 
crew, who have been working together for a 
long time. They are employed individually, 
under the miscalled "American" plan, but 
personally each of them is a union man. The 
employers' union commands this contractor 
to insert one non-union man. employed be- 
cause he is a non-union, into each craft on 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



each job. The contractor, finding that he can 
get more, better and cheaper work done by 
not antagonizing his men in this way, does 
not do it. Then he goes to his usual dealer 
and buys a load of cement. The employers' 
union and the cement trust hear of it, and 
the dealer is notified that he must sell no 
more cement to that contractor, otherwise 
they will sell him no more cement himself. 
Pure second degree boycott! 

All ! But that is different. This is our side. 
The purpose of this is to down the unions 
and help the employers. That makes it dif- 
ferent. It is right, if we do it. It is wrong 
only when the other fellow does it. — Chester 
Rowell, member of California State Railroad 
G immission. 



WAGES VS. PROFITS 



WAGES AND SUBSIDIES 



Andrew Furuseth, president of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union, told the Senate 
yesterday that sea wages no longer furnish 
the faintest shred of an excuse for a ship 
subsidy. American ocean-going wages have 
dropped from 27 to 53 per cent, while those 
of Japan have gone up an average of 45 per 
cent; and American ships carry the smallest 
crews of any vessels afloat. Therefore, de- 
clares this expert authority, the labor cost of 
handling an American ship is rather lower 
than the average of competing craft. 

Mr. Furuseth has a habit of knowing 
whereof he speaks, but if he imagines that 
his testimony blocks the Ship Subsidy bill, 
he will learn better before long. That bill 
was never intended to give subsidies to labor. 
The whole scheme is to hand the keys of the 
United States treasury, not to sea workers, 
but to a group of favored shipping interests. 
Unless public protesl is more effective in 
this instance than it has been on anything 
else with the present Congress, that scheme 
will be carried into effect. 

But Mr. Furuseth's testimony at least 
strips o'ff one mask which the subsidy hunt- 
ers love to wear. They must seek their graft 
in their own clothes, now. — The Chicago 
Journal, May 3, 1922. 



In the last generation the Pacific Textile 
Mills "has paid to its stockholders in cash 
the par value of its capitalization four and 
one-half times over," says Thomas F. Mc- 
Mahon, president of the United Textile 
Workers, in an open letter to Edwin Farn- 
ham Green, treasurer of the Pacific Mills. 
This company is attempting to lower wages 
and its employes are on strike. 

"The public who have bought the cloth and 
the operatives who have made it," said the 
trade union executive, "'have contributed to 
the Pacific Mills in profits enough to have 
bought the company outright at the par value 
of its capitalization four or five times over 
in the last generation." 

The letter calls attention to the widely 
advertised claim that southern competition 
forced the reduction in wages in northern 
mills and to the fact that the Pacific Mills 
has part of its factory property in Columbia. 
S. C, and adds: "Are you in any way using 
your influence to bring about an increas 
the wages of southern cotton mill work< : 
do you believe that the present competition 
between the North and South is the best way 
to determine what wages shall be in northern 
and southern mills?" 

President McMahon says that the position 
that wage cuts are necessary because the 
cost of production of certain goods is higher. 
is equivalent to "an assertion that the work- 
ers in Pacific Mills should bear a large share 
of the burden of depression," and asti 

"Do you believe that the workers in Pacific 
Mills are likewise entitled to a large share 
of the benefit of prosperity?" 



The pirates who recently looted 164 
Shipping Board vessels in the Hudson River 
got much bigger headlines in the papers, but 
in all other respects they are on a par with 
the eminently respectable pirates who have 
been looting Government ships wh< 
located. 



The English Channel was crossed by a 
balloon in 1785. 



"It's union made but does not bear the 
label" is a catch phrase which should not 
mislead trade unionists when making pur- 
chases. Demand the union label. 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



WOBBLY FICTION DISSECTED 

(Continued from Page 5.) 



lost or destroyed, all the books had been 
destroyed, all the furniture in all the branches 
along the entire coast had been sold, all 
the funds had either got lost, stolen or 
strayed. Anyway, they had entirely dis- 
appeared, and there was not the least vestige 
of organized protection left for the firemen 
on the Atlantic Coast. All the officials had 
disappeared the same way as the money and 
property. Such, is the history of the last 
grand sweeping line-up and organizing cam- 
paign of the I. W. W. This was the con- 
dition of affairs when the International Sea- 
men's Union of America had to step into 
the breach once again, and with the assist- 
ance of the Sailors' and Cooks' and Stewards' 
Unions on the Atlantic Coast started rebuild- 
ing the firemen's unions. Are you seamen 
going to fall for the same line of dope again? 
The present so-called organizing campaign of 
the I. W. W., under the name of the Marine 
Transport Workers No. 510, has all the 
earmarks and prominent features of the or- 
ganizing campagin of 1912-13. It has the 
same economic setting, a stagnation in 
shipping when the agreements between the 
unions and the shipowners had run their 
course. 

"The identical attempt to grab control of 
the organization, the controlling power in 
your organization is vested in the men 
through the medium of the supreme quorum, 
which is composed of the rank and file, and 
the I. W. W., tried packing these meetings 
week after week and only the tenacity of 
your officials and the sheer stupidity of their 
leaders kept them from grabbing control of 
the various headquarters, or your funds and 
property and records would now be where 
they went in 1912-13, in oblivion. Beware, 
sailor, beware ! The same subtle, insidious 
propaganda is' being circulated with the 
object of undermining your confidence in 
your officials. What is the sinister motive 
behind the publishing of the financial reports 
of the Firemen's Union, if not an indirect 
way of stating that there is something wrong 
with finances? They deliberately and inten- 
tionallv obscure the fact that all the records 



and financial transactions and all books of all 
the International Unions are open for the in- 
spection of any and all members in good 
standing at any time. They are continuously 
and assiduously shouting about the salaries of 
the pie-card artists and the general expenses. 
We are sure that it would be very enlight- 
ening to the members of the Marine Trans- 
port Workers No. 510 to see their financial 
report showing the expenditure and income. 
Is it not a fact that ex-officials of the in- 
ternational unions who found the bill of fare 
not sufficiently satisfying there, are now 
meal-ticket artists for the Marine Transport 
Workers at the rate of $28.50 per week, and 
half of all the fees that they collect? 

"The Marine Transport Workers claim to 
be lining up the seamen in droves, think of 
the soft pickings — 50 per cent of all fees. 
Oh boy, it is better than Klondike ever was 
in the palmiest days of the gold rush, eh? 
Now Sailors, Firemen, Cooks and Stewards, 
the foregoing facts ought to give you plenty 
of food for thought. It is up to you to de- 
termine in which way and in what direction 
your interests will best be served, if the 
experiences of the past are to be the lessons 
for the present. The above are facts truth- 
fully stated, and it is the duty of every 
seaman with his future w r elfare at stake to 
see to it that when the canvasser for the 
Marine Transport Workers Union No. 510 
comes aboard ship, to just ask him what 
became of the property, records and funds of 
the Firemen's Union, what became of the 
I. W. W. organization of that time, why 
could they not keep in existence when they 
did not even have any opposition, where did 
all the officials disappear to, where did the 
headquarters and all the branches go to, and 
listen carefully to his answer." 



GERMANS BUY WOODEN STEAMERS 



Messrs. Harley & Company of London 
have sold to one of their German clients the 
ten wooden steamers built for the Shipping 
Board at present tied up in Great Britain, 
namely, Cowardin, Thala, Byfield, Argenta, 
Itompa, Airlie, Zavalla, Wallowa, Birchleaf, 
Neabsco. These vessels are from 4000 to 
5000 tons deadweight and were built in 1918-19. 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



SHIPPING NEWS 



President Harding has signed the bill ex- 
tending for two years from June 30, the 3 
per cent Immigration Restriction Act. 

The Cumberland Queen (British four- 
masted schooner), 634 tons register, built 
in 1919, and owned by J. N. Pugsley, Parrs- 
boro, lying at Norfolk, waterlogged, has been 
sold to Captain C. V. Griffin. 

The sale of the steamship Rose City to the 
Admiral line by the San Francisco and Port- 
land Steamship Company, rumored many 
months, has finally been confirmed. It is 
understood that the Admiral line will keep 
tin- vessel on the San Francisco-Portland run. 

A company has been formed in the State 
Mt' Washington, according to press reports 
from Aberdeen, which proposes to make fur- 
niture for ships that will reduce seasickness. 
A bed, chair and table equipped with stabil- 
izer- will be built so that they may stand 
Upright in any kind of weather. The name 
of the company is the Marine Equipment 
> .... said to be eapitalixed at $1,000,000. 

The Shipping Hoard has issued a report 
on the condition of the affairs of the Italian 
Star line-. A legal survey has been made of 
the company's condition and it was found 
that the line owed $1,500,000, having on hand 
$2000 cash. The defunct company lost $282,- 
642.92 for the Shipping Board in 
months. Most of the expended money is said 
to have been spent in elaborate salaries and 
entertainment. 

The office of the Shipping Board at Buenos 
Aires reports that about 70 per cent of the 
passengers carried from Argentina to the 
United States during the year 1921 were 
transported in Shipping Board boats. There 
were 819 first-class. 371 second and 7?)7 third- 
passengers carried, of whom Shipping 
Board boats accounted for 631 first, 283 sec- 
ond and 427 third class. In the Brazil serv- 
ice, where three lines are operating, the 
Shipping Board is said to have carried about 
50 per cent of the total number of passengers. 

A board of inquiry has been created by the 
r. S. Public Health Service to stndv the fumi- 



gation of ships. Recently orders were issued 
to discontinue the use of cyanide for fumigation 
and resort again to sulphur. The order was 
caused by the deaths resulting from the spread 
of fumes among members of the crew of a 
-hip at San Francisco. Owners of passenger 
ships are protesting against the use of sulphur 
on the ground that it damages stores and hang- 
ings and leaves obnoxious odors lasting for 
weeks, whereas cyanide is harmless if proper 
precautions are taken before it is applied. 

The financial collapse "f Xorske Lloyd in 
Europe has been followed by powers being 
granted the New York State Insurance De- 
partment by the courts to take over the 
U. S. branch, in order to protect American 
policyholders in the event of foreign claim- 
ants taking action in this country. Accord- 
ing to the examination made at the clos 
1921, the assets of the U. S. branch had 
shrunk from $4,280,343 on January 1 to 
$2,080,954 on December 31. There were lia- 
bilities amounting to $1,247,439, of which 
$1,136,221 constituted unpaid marine losses. 

John II. Rosseter, former managing direc- 
tor of the Pacific Mail and of W. R. < xrace & 
Co., has resigned as president of the Sperry 
Flour Company, effective June 3d. He stated 
that he has other interests which will occupy 
his entire attention and that he has forsaken 
forever the management of corporate inter- 
ests controlled in the East. Mr. Ro- 
as the dominant influence in W. R. Grace & 
Co. on the Pacific Coast, took over the man- 
agement of the Sperry Flour Company when 
that concern was practically bankrupt. From 
failure Mr. Rosseter built the concern' up until 
it began to pay dividends; and later took its 
place as one of the strongest grain organiza- 
tion-, in the West. 

The Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine 
Building Co., of Philadelphia, report.-, for the 
year 1921 a net profit of $1,522,793, against 
$2,307,616 for 1920. After deducting depre 
ciation and interest, the net surplus is $1,355.- 
475. against $2, 134.554. During the war the 
company cancelled the $3,755,000 par value of 
stock held by a trustee for the benefit of the 
company and placed this sum to surplus ac- 
count, which now stands at $6,879,243, againsl 
$2,514,503 last year. Capital assets was shown 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



on the balance sheet as $17,121,309, and other 
assets bring up the total to $27,478,915, against 
which there are outstanding, capital stock 
amounting to $15,254,600, bonds and mortgages 
amounting to $3,717,444, and accounts payable, 
taxes, etc., amounting to $1,488,856. 

Authorization has been granted the Los 
Angeles Steamship Company to change the 
names of their two new liners, the Aeolus 
and Huron, to City of Los Angeles and City 
of Honolulu, respectively. The Shipping 
Board, which allocated the two steamers to 
the Los Angeles Steamship Company, granted 
permission for the change in names. The 
Aeolus will be the largest passenger liner to 
enter Los Angeles harbor, being 580 feet in 
length and having a displacement of 22,500 
tons. Both the Aeolus and the Huron are 
to be refitted before being assigned to the 
Los- Angeles-Hawaiian run. Tbey have been 
in operation for the United States Mail line 
between New York and South American 
ports. 

According to statistics gathered by a steam- 
ship agent at Seattle, between 2,000,000 and 
2.500,000 boxes of Northwest apples are 
shipped annually to the United Kingdom. 
The steamship lines secured about 100,000 
boxes of this total in 1920-1921, and approxi- 
mately 500,000 boxes in 1921-1922. The bal- 
ances went by rail to the East Coast. The 
all-water route via the Panama Canal has an 
advantage both in rates and handling. Out 
of 30,000 boxes landed at Glasgow last fall 
from the S. S. Moliere only four were broken. 
The loss on shipments by water direct is 
ordinarily about one-half of one per cent. The 
assignment of new and specialized refrigera- 
tor ships to this trade is expected to develop 
it still further next year. 

During the first half of the current fiscal 
year, July to December, 1921, the aggregate 
net tonnage of vessels using the Panama 
Canal and the tolls collected were almost the 
same as during the corresponding half of the 
previous fiscal year, the difference in each 
case being less than half of one per cent. 
But the third quarter of the fiscal year (Jan- 
uary to March, inclusive, 1922) shows a 
marked decline of traffic and revenue. Except 
through abnormal growth in the remaining 



months, the business of the complete fiscal 
year 1922, ending June 30, will be materially 
less than in the fiscal year 1921, when 2,892 
ships made the transit. It will apparently be 
about the same as for the calendar year 
1921, in which the commercial vessels using 
the canal numbered 2,783. 

A report condemning the Great Lakes-St. 
Lawrence Waterway scheme has been issued 
by the Montreal Chamber of Commerce, 
which was also strongly represented in the 
delegation which recently went to Ottawa to 
protest against the project. The main rea- 
sons for disapproval of the proposition are : 
(1) Dual control of the scheme would prob- 
ably lead to contentions between the United 
States and Canada, doubtless to the dis- 
advantage of the latter country ; (2) the esti- 
mated cost of the scheme ($252,728,200) is 
enormous, yet does not include interest which 
will accrue during the period of construction, 
nor the cost of improvements to ports on 
the Great Lakes. The standing charges on 
the Lake Ontario-Montreal section alone will 
amount to over $20,000,000 annually ; (3) more 
than 60 per cent of the hydraulic power 
available is on the Canadian side of the river, 
but all the proposed locks, dams, and other 
water-controlling devices will be placed on 
the American side. 

After a series of encounters with prohibi- 
tion agents, all the way from California to 
New York, the yacht Patricia, owned by 
James Shewan, a member of Jas. Shewan & 
Sons, ship repairers, has been seized. Early 
in the year, the Patricia, which is under the 
British flag, w r as raided off Monterey, Cal., 
and her stores of hootch w r ere removed. The 
owner secured a legal ruling for the return 
of the precious fluid, but as the yacht reached 
Miami last month, she was boarded again 
and four hundred cases of the stuff that 
cheers were taken off, the dryness enforcers 
magnanimously allowing one hundred cases 
to remain on board. However, this, too, was 
removed early this week, as the yacht lay 
at this port. Whatever may have been the 
original cost of the nectar thus seized, by 
the time the owner gets it back, if indeed 
he succeeds, lawyers' fees will have swelled 
it far beyond bootleg prices. 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The Salving Towing Institute of London 
announced it had received the exclusive rights 
to attempt to salve treasure from the Lusita- 
nia, and that it would fight the attempt of any 
other company to do so. 

It is reported that the Pacific Steam Navi- 
gation Co. will not transfer its steamers em- 
ployed on the Chilean coast to the Chilean flag 
because of the new law reserving the coasting 
trade to national vessels, but will seek employ- 
ment for them elsewhere. 

Norwegian shipowners interested in the tim- 
ber trade have formed a separate group within 
the Shipowners' Association and offers will 
be made to other Scandinavian shipowners in 
the same trade to join the group. The group 
actually consists of 153 Norwegian ships with 
a total cargo carrying capacity of 100,000 
standards. 

The Mexican Navigation Co. is reported to 
be in the market for five passenger ships, the 
order for which will probably be placed in 
Germany, where tenders have been obtained 
as low as £47,000, against £99,000 quoted 
in the lowest tender received from England'. 
It is claimed both French and Italian yards 
can now underbid Great Britain. 

From returns compiled in the Canadian 
House of Commons, it is shown that it costs 
that country almost as much to tie up the ves- 
sels of the merchant marine as it does to 
operate them, even if the latter is done at a 
loss, which, including interest, amounted to 
-.000 last year. This figure, however, 
does not include depreciation. 

The Journal regrets to note the death of 
Father Charles P. Hopkins, who has for sev- 
eral decades taken a sympathetic and practi- 
cal interest in the affairs of the National 
Sailors and Firemen's Union of Great Britain 
and Ireland. The Reverend Father was 
known and beloved wherever British sea- 
men congregated. He was a sky-pilot and 
a real man ! 

The tonnage of Brazilian merchant shipping 
on January 1, 1922, was 561,839 gross and 



338,842 net register, as against 566,154 gross 
and 340,085 net on January 1, 1921. There 
was, therefore, a shrinkage in 1921 of 4,315 
tons gross and 1.243 tons net, represented 
chiefly by the loss of the ex-German S. S. 
Uberaba, and the scrapping of one or two obso- 
lete units of the Lloyd Brasileiro. 

las. J. Walsh, postmaster of the Irish Free 
State, announces that arrangements have been 
completed for direct cable and wireless com- 
munication with America. The Commercial 
Cable Co. and Marconi Wireless will accept 
messages to and from Ireland and America 
without routing via London, as was done when 
the Irish postal service was under British 
control. 

During 1921 the Kiel Canal was used by 
19.714 steamers of 8,072,60/ tons, 8,216 sailing 
vessels of 365,064 tons, and 4.325 lighters and 
barges of 1.046,763 tons. Out of the total of 
32.2?? craft using the canal last year, 25,600, 
or 79.4 per cent, were under the German flag, 
the percentage for 1913 having been 82.6. and 
[Or l l >20, 7?. 3 per cent. The nationality of the 
remaining 6,655 ships was: American, 250: 
Belgian, 2': liritish, 671; Danish, 1,589; Dan- 
zig, 147; French, 128; Japan. 13; Dutch. 1,008; 
Norwegian. 755; Russian, 98; Finnish, 312; 
Swedish, 1.556; other nationalities, 99. 

During the year 1921, 678 vessels, aggre- 
gating 1,940,236 tons, entered New Zealand 
ports, and 678 vessels, having a total tonnage 
of 1,044,341, cleared outward. Shipping activi- 
ties were not as brisk as in the previous year, 
when 744 vessels arrived and 707 were cleared 
outward. The figures for foreign ships were 
45 and 55 in 1921, as against 79 and 71 in 
1920. An improvement in the local cargo trade 
is reported from Auckland, where seven of the 
Union Co.'s steamers, which formed part of a 
large fleet laid up during the 1921 slump, 
have again been placed in commission. 

From the information published in an official 
document issued by the British Government, it 
appears that at least three shipbuilding firms 
have obtained loans from the Government. 
They are Win. Beardmore & Co., a Clyde firm, 
who secured a loan of £600,000 for five years 
to complete the Lloyd Sabaudo liner Conte 
Verde, 18,000 tons, upon which the work was 
stopped shortly after the keel was laid ; Har- 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



land & Wolff, Ltd., who borrowed £1,493,345 
for development work on the Clyde and con- 
struction of a new ship repair plant on the 
Thames; and Palmers Shipbuilding Co., who 
secured a loan of £300,000 for twenty years 
to complete their new drydock at Swansea and 
another of £40,000 for improvements else- 
where. 

Frequent references made in the Belgian 
press to the position of the Lloyd Royal Beige, 
leave little doubt about the critical state of the 
company's finances. Like many other shipping 
ventures founded on the high crest of pros- 
perity, the Lloyd Royal Beige appears to have 
acted upon the supposition that the boom would 
never end. Accordingly, it undertook the most 
reckless speculations in tonnage, until today the 
capital of the company has been to a large 
extent squandered, and the only practical 
method of avoiding a complete disaster appears 
to be to get rid of the unsuitable tonnage for 
what it will bring, reduce the capital of the 
company to the actual amount of its assets, 
and attempt by hard work to retain a place for 
Belgian enterprise in the maritime world. 

The recent issue of the well-known German 
Naval Annual, "Taschenbuch der Kriegsflotten," 
which is the first for many years, contains some 
very interesting details of the German naval 
losses. It is the first real admission of the 
total losses suffered by the German fleet during 
the war. Owing to the fact that their battle- 
ships hardly ever left harbor, the losses in this 
respect are small, but six out of their nine 
armored cruisers were destroyed. The light 
cruisers being more actively engaged, lost 
twenty, while their destroyer losses totaled 
eighty-four. The submarine, which was the most 
used weapon of the Germans, naturally suffered 
the heaviest casualties, something over two hun- 
dred being destroyed. Among their auxiliary 
craft the losses were exceedingly heavy. 

The subject of the respective merits of the 
two-stroke and four-stroke Diesel engine for 
marine work is discussed in a paper written 
by Mr. H. Blache, of Burmeister & Wain, 
Copenhagen. Mr. Blache puts up a very strong 
case in favor of the four-cycle design, which 
admittedly has been far more widely adopted 
in the past than has the two-stroke type. In 
the first place he claimed that the employment 



of exhaust and scavenging ports in two-cycle 
engines weakens the liners and renders effective 
lubrication more difficult than with the four- 
cycle engine. He repudiated the suggestion 
that the valve-gear of the four-cycle engine is 
complicated, since by the adoption of short 
push-rods accessibility, both of valve-gear and 
of camshaft, is actually superior to that possi- 
ble with the normal two-stroke engine. 

Government control over private Italian ship- 
ping, set up during the war, continues. Al- 
though nominally free, ships are liable to tem- 
porary requisition for transporting goods for 
the Government at specified rates, which are 35 
per cent lower than the market rates. While 
on the one hand the Government is subsidizing 
shipping lines and shipbuilding, there is, on 
the other, dissatisfaction in shipping circles on 
account of the methods of arranging for the 
transport of grain and raw materials bought 
abroad on state account. These are generally 
purchased c. i. f. Italian port, with the result 
that they are usually carried in foreign vessels, 
whereas it is maintained that they should be 
bought f. o. b., and that Italian shipping should 
be employed in transporting them to Italy, even 
if the freight rates are higher. 

The train ferries of the Danish State Rail- 
ways recently celebrated the fiftieth anniversary 
of their establishment, for the first of them, 
a vessel 141 feet long, made her first trip across 
the Little- Belt, between Strib, in the island 
of Fiinen, and Fredericia, in Jutland, on March 
18, 1872. She has only just recently been dis- 
posed of as obsolete. The next service, started 
in 1883, was across the Limfjord, and later in 
the same year a train ferry, 250 feet long, 
with a double set of rails, began to run across 
the Great Belt, between Nyborg, in Fiinen, and 
Korsor, in Zealand. In 1892 the first foreign 
train ferry connection was opened between 
Elsinore and Helsingborg, Sweden, followed 
in 1895 by one between Copenhagen and 
Malmo, and in 1903 by another across the Bal- 
tic from Gjedser to Warnemiinde, for which 
a large new screw steamer is now being con- 
structed. In all there are 23 vessels employed 
in the various Danish train ferries, the largest 
having a length of over 330 feet. In the last 
financial year they carried 900,000 passengers 
and 1,200,000 tons of freight. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



LABOR NEWS 



An upward trend in the retail cost of food 
was noted in statistics made public by the 
Department of Labor. Reports from fifteen 
cities showed increases ranging up to 3 per 
cent, while four report decreases. 

After operating for a year under the open 
shop principles, the local master painters of 
Utica, New York, recently signed a contract 
with the Painters, Paperhangers and Deco- 
rators' Union, recognizing the union shop 
and granting a wage increase. 

The longshoremen of Montreal have ac- 
cepted the reduction of wages proposed by 
the steamship lines and have gone back to 
work after a two-weeks' turbulent strike on 
the basis of 50 cents an hour for straight 
time, with extra pay for overtime. 

The big Donner steel plant in North Tona- 
wanda, N. Y., will be placed in operation as 
soon as the plant can be rigged out. The 
plant has been idle for nearly two years and 
its opening will mean much to Buffalo and 
vicinity. 

Certain coal operators were scored by the 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America for refusing a recent joint appeal 
by the Council and the National Catholic 
Welfare Council for a conference to settle 
the coal strike. 

William S. Carter, president of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Engineers, in his address before the 
brotherhood convention declared the Esch- 
Cummins bill unsatisfactory to railroad em- 
ployes and said the United States Railroad 
Labor Board delayed adjustment of com- 
plaints. 

An agreement for the season lias been 
reached between the Great Lakes Towing 
Co. and the Licensed Tugmen's Protective 
Association and the Tug Firemen and Line- 
men's Protective Association, which provides 
for a 10 per cent wage reduction this season. 
Working conditions are practically the same 
as last season. 

Declaring that the present boom in build- 



ing throughout the country is menaced by 
manufacturers of brick and other materials 
wli<> are deliberately curtailing their output 
to inflate prices, Samuel Untermyer urged 
the Lockwood committee in New York to 
request Congress to reduce the tariff so as 
t" open the gates of foreign competition. 

The 44-hour week must stand and there 
must be no return to piece work. This is 
the policy that has been outlined by the In- 
ternational Ladies' Garment Workers conven- 
tion for the negotiation for a new contract 
in the cloak and suit trade in New York, 
which it is hoped may be begun in the near 
future. 

A new bill on the eight-hour working day. 
with a more exact text than the existing 
law and containing additional clauses, will 
be submitted during the next session of the 
t /echo-Slovakia Parliament. The proposed 
law will include amendments relative to over- 
time, rest periods, and night work, together 
with special provisions relative to female and 
minor workers. 

Texas is confronted today with a situation 
similar to that in tin- Dakota* when the Non- 
partisan League rose to power. Organized 
labor and the farmer- of Texas have com- 
bined to defeat Governor XetY. whom they 
oppose because he has been entirely too 
quick in calling out tin National Guard 
whenever there was a strike. The unions de- 
clare the real purpose for calling out the 
troops was to break the Oil Workers' Union. 

Improved industrial conditions, which are 
gradually translating unemployment into em- 
ployment, were noted in the monthly report 
of the Labor Department's service. Out of 
sixty-five cities where studies have been 
maintained, the month of April showed forty 
in which more workers were given more 
places on payrolls, and only twenty-five in 
which employment decreased. 

Under an agreement with the Shipping 
Federation, effective from May 1, the long- 
men of Vancouver will continue to work 
at the same scale of pay without reduction, 
but the companies will employ their own 
checkers who need not be members of the 
union. When no union men are available the 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



companies will have the right to collect 
gangs. 

A common law action to obtain the release 
from prison of Thomas J. Mooney, as a result 
of a plea made by District Attorney Brady 
to Governor Stephens that Mooney be par- 
doned, was dismissed by the District Court 
of Appeals of San Francisco at Mooney's 
request. California labor organizations are 
again petitioning' Governor Stephens to par- 
don Mooney. 

The American Engineering Council of the 
Federated American Engineering Societies 
made public recently views on the coal strike 
gathered from leading coal mining engineers 
throughout the country by the American In- 
stitute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 
"The chief fact brought back of the high 
price we pay for coal is that coal really costs 
more than it did formerly. Too many mines, 
too many miners, and a varied consumption 
are the outstanding reasons for this." 

Allegations that the Harding administra- 
tion had demanded the right to interfere in 
Mexican matters as the price of recognition 
of the Obregon Government, were repudiated 
by officials of the State Department. Par- 
ticular exception is taken to an article by 
H. G. Alsberg in the current issue of the 
Nation, in which it is alleged that the United 
States Government had demanded the right 
of supervision in some form of Mexican elec- 
tions, as well as the expulsion of all radical 
elements in Mexico. 

The House of Representatives included in 
the Department of Justice appropriation bill 
a provision that no part of that money 
should be used "in the prosecution of any 
organization or individual for entering into 
any combination or agreement having in 
view the increasing of wages, shortening 
hours or bettering the conditions of labor, or 
for any act done in furtherance thereof not 
in itself unlawful." It is also provided "that 
no part of the money appropriated by this 
Act shall be expended for the prosecution 
of producers of farm products and associa- 
tions of farmers who co-operate and organize 
in an effort to and for the purpose to obtain 
and maintain a fair and reasonable price for 
their products. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



The influx of refugees from Russia and 
Siberia has swelled the number of Peking's 
unemployed, many of whom have perished 
from either cold or hunger. 

Twelve thousand hosiery and knit goods 
workers in the Chemnitz district of Germany 
have gone on a strike for a 50 per cent in- 
crease in wages. 

Longshoremen at the port of Willemstad. 
West Indies, working on the steamers of the 
American and Dutch mail lines, have struck 
on account of the proposed reduction in pay 
by the two companies. 

Immigration into Argentina amounted to 
37,625 persons during 1921 and 22,644 left the 
country during the same year. Departures ex- 
ceeded arrivals during the period of the war 
and thereafter until the first half of 1920. 

Danish workers, locked out by their em- 
ployers, saved the eight-hour day. The set- 
tlement included a wage reduction of 12^2 
to 15 per cent. Overtime may be worked, 
up to a ten-hour day, at punitive rates. 

There has been established within the 
Prussian Ministry of Commerce and Trade 
a mine safety bureau in whose hands will 
be placed investigations of mining accidents, 
measures for accident prevention, experiments 
with new improved mine equipment, and the 
general policing of mines in Prussia. 

The request of the Chinese Carpenters' 
Guild, that the minimum daily wage of car- 
penters be increased from 50 cents to $1, and 
the employers' offer of an advance of 15 
cents, have been submitted to arbitration. 
Pending the decision of the arbitrators the 
carpenters have been given a temporary in- 
crease of 25 per cent. 

The amalgamation of the Hull Seamen's 
Union and the National Sailors' and Fire- 
men's Union of Great Britain and Ireland, 
long discussed and eagerly awaited, is now 
an accomplished fact. Hitherto they had 
existed in friendly rivalry, but now they have 
merged their forces, and the strength and 
influence which the two have hitherto shared 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



and exerted in the port is now concentrated 
in one body, with Mr. G. W. McKee, J. P., 
at its head in the position of secretary of the 
I lumber district. 

A circular issued by the Board of Educa- 
tion of Great Britain calls the attention of 
local education authorities to a condition of 
the form of license established under the 
rules issued in 1920, regulating the employ- 
ment of children in entertainments, which 
forbids the employment of a child not living 
with a parent or guardian, unless some suit- 
able person is appointed to have char 
him. The board has taken steps to secure a 
list of persons whom it considers suitable for 
this work and has appointed a committee to 
whom applications for such positions may be 
submitted. 

iet Russia's entire textile and clothing 
industry will soon be taken over and oper- 
ated by American labor and with American 
fund-, it was announced at the biennial con- 
vention of the Amalgamated Clothing Work- 
ers of America, held in Chicago during May. 
A society of American workers, to be known 
as the American-Russian Trade Industrial 
Workers' Association, with a capitalization 
of more than $1,000,000, will handle the 
project. The convention voted to authorize 
the officers of the union to form such a con- 
cern, to appropriate $10,000 for initial ex- 
. and to buy $50,000 worth of stock 
in the new company. 

Irish emigration has greatly fallen off during 
the last twenty years. During the period 1900- 
1904. the annual average number of Irish emi- 
grants was 40,356. This number was reduced 
to an average of 31,415 yearly during the 
period 1905-14. During the war years, 1915-19, 
the number of Irish emigrants was of course 
greatly restricted, the annual average being 
only 4805. However, during- 1920 only 15,531 
Irish emigrated and 13.635 in 1921. Of the 
number of emigrants leaving Ireland in 1920, 
12,288 went to the United States and 11,417 
out of a total of 13.635 had the same destina- 
tion in 1921, Canada coming next with 2109 in 
1920 and 1422 in 1921. 

An order dated March 27 provides for the 
institution at the Under-Secretariat for the 
French Mercantile Marine of a joint commit- 



ter to examine the question of amending the 
regulations of February 24, 1920. issued in 
application of the Act of August 2. 1919. 
which provides for an eight-hour dav in 
maritime navigation. The committee con- 
Mi" >jk representatives of shipowners 
appointed by the Central Federation of 
French Shipowners, six representatives of 
seamen appointed by the Seamen's Federa- 
tions concerned and including one captain 
(high seas navigation i. one captain (coasting 
trade i, <.ne engineering officer in the mercan- 
tile marine and three representatives of the 
crew (deck hands, firemen, etc.. and other 
workers on board ship). 

Proposals for legislation concerning appren- 
tices in commercial concerns have been 
drawn up by the Union of Norwegian Com- 
mercial Employes. The scheme would make 
it compulsory for all employers to draw up 
written contracts of apprenticeship for all 
employes under 18 years of age. and places 
the period of apprenticeship at four years, 
which period may be reduced for apprentices 
from commercial schools. It would require 
the employer to see to it that the apprentice 
attends a commercial school and to arrange 
his hours of work to make this possible. If 
the apprentice does not live at home with 
parents or guardian, the employer should su- 
pervise his private life. Other provisions 
regulate hours of work, ending of contracts, 
etc. 

The French League for the Prevention of 
Infant Mortality has called an international 
congress to meet in Paris, July 6-8, 1922. 
The program announced includes the follow- 
ing subjects: Protection of the mother be- 
fore and during confinement, including a dis- 
cussion of clinics; protection of the nursing 
mother in institutions during the war and of 
the wage-earning nursing mother; protection 
in institutions of the child separated from 
the mother and the care of children of tuber- 
culous parentage; assistance and instruction 
— the role of private agencies, the work of 
infant clinics in the administration of the 
laws on assistance, ami the infant hygiene 
visitor. The subject of the organization of 
an international association for the protec- 
tion of mothers and infants will be discussed. 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



International Seafarers' Federation 



C. Damm, Sec'y, 9 Dubois St., Antwerp, Belgium 



AFFILIATED NATIONAL, AND INTERNATIONAL 
UNIONS 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA 
International Seamen's Union of America 

T. A. Hanson, Sec'y-Treas., 355 N. Clark Street, 
Chicago, 111. 

[A complete list of the district unions and 
branches affiliated with the International Seamen's 
Union of America will be found on page 2.] 

BELGIUM 
Belgische Zeemandsbond (Belgian Seamen's Union) 

30 Brouwersvliet, Antwerp J. Chapelle, Sec'y 

DENMARK 

Dansk S6-Restaurations Forening (Danish Cooks 

and Stewards' Union) 

Lille Strandstrede 20, Copenhagen. .K. Spliid, Sec'y 
Somendenes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Seamen's 

Union) 
Toldbodgade 15, Copenhagen. .. .C. Borgland, Sec'y 
S6-Fyrbodernes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Fire- 
men's Union) 
Toldbodgade 13, Copenhagen. ... E. Jacobsen, Sec'y 



FINLAND 

Finska Sjdmans-och Eldare Unionen (Finnish 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Circusgatan 5, Helsingfors, Finland.. C. Ahonen, Sec. 



FRANCE 

Federation Nationalle des Syndicats Maritimes de 

France (French Seamen's Union) 

4 Ave. de L'Opera, Paris. .Monsieur L. Reaud, Sec. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 
National Sailors & Firemen's Union of Great 
Britain and Ireland 
St. George's Hall, Westminster Bridge Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. 1. E. Cathery, Sec'y 
Hull Seamen's Union 

1 Railway St., Hull G. W. McKee, Sec'y 

United Kingdom Pilots' Association 
69 Queens Square, Bristol Joseph Brown, Sec'y 

GREECE 

Federation Panhellenique des Ouvriers Corpotations 

Maritimes (Greece Seamen's Federation) 

Le Pireaus, Greece T. Mallossis, Sec'y 

HOLLAND 

Zeelieden Vereeniging-Eendracht (Dutch Seamen's 

Union) 

Vestaland 22, Rotterdam D. L. Wolfson, Sec'y 



ITALY 

Federazione Nazionale di Lavatori de Mare (Italian 

Seamen's Federation) 

Piazza St., Larcellino, Genoa.. Capt. G. Gulietti, Sec. 



NORWAY 

Norsk Matros & Fyrboter-Union (Norwegian 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Grev Wedels Plads 5, Christiania. . A. Birkeland, Sec. 

Norsk Sjorestaurations Landsforbund (Norwegian 

Cooks & Stewards' Union) 
Gronlandsleret 5, Christiania. .H. Johannessen, Sec'y 



SWEDEN 

Svenska Sjomans Unionen (Swedish Sailors' 

Union) 

Fjerde Langgatan 25, Gothenburg. .E. Griph, Sec'y 

Svenska Eldare Unionen (Swedish Firemen's Union) 

Andra Langgatan 46, Gothenburg 

S. Lundgreen, Sec'y 

Nya Stewartsforeningen (New Swedish Stewards' 
Union) 

Stigsbergsgatan 12, Gothenburg 

C. Q. Johannsan, Sec'y 



International Seamen's Union 
of America 



(Continued from 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Agent 

1016 First Avenue. South 
P. O. Box 875 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM MEEHAN, Agent 

613 Beacon Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86, Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675; 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201. 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 166 Steuart Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 





A COPY OF AXTELL'S HAND BOOK, 

"Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen" 

WILL SAVE SEAMEN TIME, LITIGA- 
TION AND MONEY. WILL PREVENT 
MUCH INJUSTICE IF SHOWN TO 
OFFICERS AND CONSULAR AGENTS. 
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH 
A POUND OF CURE. 

You can also learn much about the 
political law making and law enforcing 
institutions of your country from this 
book; equal opportunity before the law 
is th. of American democracy. 

Read this and find out what equal 
opportunity means. 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES PUB. CO. 

[ver Olbers, A. B., Sales Manager 
4 South St.. 3rd floor, New York City 



For Twenty fears we have issued this Union Stamp for use under ourj 



&5/ 
WORKERS UNION 



UNIOrW&TAMf 

Factory 



Voluntary Arbitration Contract 

OUR STAMP INSURES: 
Peaceful Collective Bargaining. 
Forbids Both Strikes and Lockouts. 
Disputes Settled by Arbitration. 
Steady Employment; Skilled Workmanship 
Prompt Deliveries to Dealers and Public. | 
Peace and Success to Workers and Employers. 
Prosperity of Shoe Making Communities. * 
As loval union men and women, we ask 
von to demand shoes bearing the above 
Union Stamp on Sole, Insole or Lining. 

BOOT & SHOE WORKERS' UNION 

246 SUMMER STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 
Collis Lovely, General Pres. Charles L. Balne, General Sec.-Treas. 



MAN-POWER 

QUARTERS and Dollars in your pockets quickly dis- 
appear, adding little to your permanent welfare. But— 
By INVESTING some of them regularly in 
United States Treasury Savings Securities 
you build a permanent asset, a reserve 
power — thus increasing your man-power 

Post Offices Sell Treasury Savings Securities 

25c, $1, $5, $25, $100 



SMOKERS 



See that this label (In light blue) appears on 
the box in which you are served 



•rs' International Union of Amenra. 



Issued by Authority oi the Cigar Make 

Union-made Cigars 

uJhlfl CfJllrf Ifd !t>it th* CifMt eom*n»d MM bo. Mw b«i> m*d« by. flGtUiSS H 

jHtHoTNOf tHr WAX tUMPa'lKURlWTlOIUl UNICWof *••'** I" o-uiwrtw devot«dt»t»»«aO- 
wcrnrnl of tht MGS VMATlRIAl jnd IN1LUC1 Wl Will AM. OF THi OUfl ItttttosmiaeaHMti 
\h*t* Ciojfi (o ill w»in UirougNxrt th* worU 

Jtt\Mxmi » m m iv9»Vu utai mlibt pvnuJitd **mt*% tolan, 




Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors'. Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 

Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
600 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Announcement 



I beg to announce that my office 
has been removed from 9 State 
street, New York, to the Inter- 
national Commerce Building, 11 
Moore street (entrance also at 7 
Water street). This building is 
located between Coentis Slip and 
Whitehall street and a few steps 
from South street. 

Although I have moved into a 
modern building where a number 
of steamship companies have their 
offices, I want you seamen to 
understand that I am still handling 
the claims of seafarers only, to 
the exclusion of all other business, 
as in the past. When seamen are 
shipowners, I expect to be ship- 
owners' lawyer, but not until then. 
SILAS BLAKE AXTELL. 



Times Have Changed. — "Do you 
remember the old stofies about 
the boy who went to the great 
city and came back home just in 
time to pay the mortgage off the 
farm?" 

"Yes," replied Farmer Corntos- 
sel. "It's different now. When a 
boy leaves the farm the home 
folks have to hold themselves in 
readiness to go to town and help 
him out with his rent and his 
grocery bill." — Washington Eve- 
ning Star. 



By the Sideshow Tent. — "Is the 
bearded lady your mamma?" 

"No, she's my daddy." — Kasper 
(Stockholm). 



June, 3922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



Standard Seamanship 

for the 

Merchant Service 

By FELIX RIESENBERG, E. C. 

Late Commander of the schoolship "Newport" 



942 Pages and 625 Illustrations — Price, $7.50 
D. Van Nostrand Company, Publishers 



Containing virtually all the knowl- 
edge extant that conquers the sea 
through seamanship 



SEND YOUR ORDERS TO 

THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

525 Market Street - - - San Francisco, Calif. 



Do You Want the Truth? 

This year there will be stirring 
times in the Nation. Under gov- 
ernment censorship it is increas- 
ingly difficult for the average man 
to get the real meaning of the 
social and political movements of 
the day. 

LaFollette's 
Magazine 

will be specially represented at 
Washington and will analyze and 
present the news from the capital 
truthfully and fairly. Senator La- 
Follette is making a real fight to 
life some of the tax burdens from 
the common people and place them 
where they belong — on excess prof- 
its, war profits and surplus fortunes 
and incomes. Because of this he 
is being attacked more bitterly than 
any other man in public life. 
Send in your order today 
$1.00 Per Year— Agents Wanted 
La Follette's Magazine, Madison, Wis. 



Anywhere but Here. — You can 
lead a horse to the water, but you 
can't make it drink. An usher 
can lead a woman to a seat in a 
motion picture house, but the 
chances are that she will take an- 
other one. — Milwaukee Journal. 



Symptomatic Treatment. — Doc- 
tor — But, my dear sir, I can't pre- 
scribe whisky for you unless I am 
convinced that you need it. What 
are your symptoms? 

Patient — What symptoms would 
you suggest, Doctor? — Life. 



Sure Sign. — Jack — Halloa, Bert, 
who's the girl? 

Bert — what d'you mean? 

Jack — Well, you're not wearing 
a collar like that for fun, are you? 
— London Tit-Bits. 



Alas, Poor Darwin! — Mr. Bryan 
should not be so bitter against 
Darwin's theory of evolution. — 
Shoe and Leather Reporter. 



BEST SMOKE ON EARTH 

RED SEAL CIGAR 

UNION MADE 

RED SEAL CIGAR CO. 

Manufacturers 

762 Valencia St., San Francisco 
Phone Park 9401 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS. 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So, F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

EVERYTHING GUARANTEED 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

First and Commercial Streets 

RAYMOND, WASH. 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



Office Phone Main 2665 
Residence Phone Elliott 4271 -W 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

435-36 Globe Bldg., First and Madison SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connection 

Broadway at Olive St. Seattle 



-^ 



UNITED STATES 



L ABOR 

■nieUB0R PREs 

ontfoTTnoratio.k" 1 

isconewUdbJ ^ 

authority to be &} 

MEDIUmntheWoR^ 
ltre a ches then , asses 



ASSOCIATION 




NEW LOCATION 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Estahlished 1S90 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



THE HUB 

shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Ave. Opp. Totem Pole 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Rest in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



S. G. SWANSON 
Established 1904 

For the BEST there is in TAILORING 

Less the Fancy Prices 
NOTE — S. G. Swanson is not con- 
nected with any dye works and has 
no solicitors. Clothes made also from 
your own cloth. Repairing, cleaning 
and pressing. Second floor. Bank of 
Pedro, 110 W 6th St.. San Pedro, 
Los Angeles Waterfront, Cal. 




CATARRH 
>f BLADDER 



Protect Your Health 

Always Use 



ISANYKIT^ 



(Sanitary KM) 

PREVENTIVE 

A Compoii'i.lf.f Hodarn Research 
Affords Complete Protection 

All Druptfistsor 
» 1 P. n. It. . v. i 99, No w York 



Natural Climax. — "Jim I'.ilkins 
is dead."' 

"How come?" 

"lie stuck his head into the Red 
Dog saloon and hollered FIRE." 

'Well?" 

"They did." — Siren. 



Not Past Hope. — Patron of the 
Arts— "Eighty-five francs? That's 
rather expensive for the work of 
a painter who's still alive." 

Art Dealer — "Well, you might 
give me the money, and I'll see 
what can be done about it." — Le 
Matin. 



SEAMEN 
You Know Me 




"YOUR HATTER" 

FRED AMMANN 

I sell 
UNION HATS 

at the right prires. I'll try and 
wall on you personally and show, 
you :> large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean lAarkei 



Navigation Laws of 
the United States 

The Seamen's Act and all other 
features of the law applicable 
to seamen. 
Handbook, Navigation Laws of 

the United States 
Third edition. Including wage 
tables, department rulings, etc. 
Completely indexed. A ready 
reference work for practical sea- 
men, shipmasters and ship own- 
ers. Price $1.50. 

The Seaman's Contract 
A complete reprint of all laws 
relating to seamen as enacted 
by Congress, 1790-1918. Includ- 
ing the laws of Oleron and a 
summary of the history of each 
law. Reprinted verbatim from 
the Statutes at Large and Re- 
vised Statutes. Tables and In- 
dex. Designed for the use of 
admiralty lawyers. Price 
Compiled by Walter Macarthur 
Published by 
JAMES H. BARRY CO. 
1122 Mission St., San Francisco 



Lenient, at That. — "The Poet 

Laureate." s; ( \s a weekly paper, 
"used t.. get a butt of sack for his 

trouble." Bui nowadays many 

people are thinking that the butt 

should lie dispensed with. — I 
ing Show. 



June, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



KELLEHER & BROWNE 

THE IRISH TAILORS 

716 Market Street, San Francisco 



SUITS AND 

OVERCOATS 

to order at popular 
prices 



at Third and Kearny 

Established 
for 20 years 



All work done in 

our own sanitary 

workshop 



Represented by 



E. Peguillan 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Anyone knowing- whereabouts 
of Fred Solberg, native of Fred- 
rickstad, Norway, please notify 
Axel Fredericksen, Box 14, Frank- 
fort, Mich. 



Members of the crew of the 
steamship Basford and barge 
Winapie, which vessels were for- 
merly owned by the France & 
Canada Oil & Transport cases, 
communicate with these offices at 
once. Funds ready for disburse- 
ment. Law Offices, Adrian F. 
Levy, Trust Building, Galveston, 
Texas. 



Members of the crew of S. S. 
Baldhill please communicate with 
this office at once. Funds ready 
for disbursement. Law Offices, 
Adrian F. Levy, Trust Building, 
Galveston, Texas. 



Any person knowing the ad- 
dress of Paul Raddate, formerly 
second mate of the Mary Winkle- 
man, will confer a favor by send- 
ing it to John T. Smith, Room 
708, 311 California street, San 
Francisco, Calif. 



Try Him with Hash. — Mrs. Jones 
was entertaining some of her son's 
little friends. "Willie," she said, 
addressing a six-year-old who was 
enjoying a plate of cold beef, "are 
you sure you can cut your own 
meat?" 

The child, who was making des- 
perate efforts with his knife and 
fork, replied: 

"Yes, thanks. I've often had it 
as tough as this at home." — The 
Christian Evangelist. 



Another Point Against 'Era.— 
Politicians know the ropes — they 
smoke so many of them.— Wilkes- 
Barre Times Leader. 



Mistaken Identity. — As a steamer 
was leaving the harbor of Athens 
a well-dressed young passenger 
approached the captain and point- 
ing to the distant hills inquired: 
"What is that white stuff on the 
hills, captain?" 

"That is snow, madam," replied 
the captain. 

"Well," remarked the lady, "I 
thought so myself, but a gentle- 
man has just told me it was 
Greece." — Kind Words. 



Eccentricities of Genius. — The 
Interviewer — "And please, sir, what 
have you to say on the subject of 
anonymous letters?" 

The Great Man — "Stupid mis- 
sives! I admit I invariably read 
anonymous letters — but I never 
answer them." — Paris LTllustra- 
tion. 



The}- Ought to Know. — "Do 
blondes have more admirers than 
brunettes?" asks a weekly journal. 
Why not ask some of the young 
ladies who have had experience in 
both capacities? — Passing Show. 



Land of the Free. — Irv Cobb 
says he prefers to live in some 
free country, if there is one. Well, 
a man with his sense of humor 
ought to be able to call this a 
free country. — R. K. Moulton in 
New York Evening Mail. 



OLD RELIABLE AND 
UP-TO-DATE 

TOM WILLIAMS 

Exclusive Tailor 

For Men 

28 Sacramento Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone Douglas 4874 



Phone Garfield 2457 

HOTEL EVANS 

ED COLL, Prop. 

LARGE SUNNY "OOMS 
Clean, Comfortable — Low Rates 

CORNER FRONT AND BROADWAY 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Kearny 3863 

JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing. All kinds of Watches and 
Jewelry 

676 THIRD STREET 

At 3rd and Townsend, San Francisco 

Phone Kearny 519 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 5348 



Phone Kearny 693 

Argonaut Outfitting 
Company 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING, FURNISHINGS, HATS, 

SHOES, ETC. 

A Complete Stock at Most Reasonable 

Prices : : : : Union Made Goods Only 

103 EAST ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1922 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
tun appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 
| The (lass of teachers of Navigation 
in tin? past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
id a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and Its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the heignt of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




^<£23**^ 



TAYLOR & TAYLOR 

Henry Taylor 
500 BATTERY ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Hezzanith's, Lord Kelvin's, Whyte, Thomson's Compasses, 
Binnacles, Azimuth Mirrors, Sounding Machines, Sextants, 
Parallel Rulers, Pelorus, Dividers, Nautical Books, Charts 
and Tide Tables. Fully equipped department for the repair 
and adjustment of chronometers, watches and clocks. This 
work is in charge of an expert of American and European 
experience. All work guaranteed. 

COMPASS ADJUSTERS 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

PERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. 8. SMITH. 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Pier No. 1, Rooms 37-38-39 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



The Popular Price Jewelry Store pf^v 

Sorensen Co. 



715 Market Street 



Watches 

Jewelry 

Silverware 

Clocks Cut Class 

Optica! Goods Umbrellas 



Third and Fourth 
Repairing Oui 




Telephone Sutter 5600 

A Good Place 
to Trade 

A Thoroughly 
Human Store 

Your Custom 
Cordially Invited 

MARKET AT FIFTH 
San Francisco 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Pre« 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 

SAVINGS BANK 



783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 




aa*g W5Trr ^^- TTT ^-v ^ ^ v i. * * aBSSBSSSm* 



Official Or^an of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^itir-c^iijfifiiiiiTirsiiiiiiiiiiiic^iiriiriiitiic^riEriiiMiiic^iiJMiiiiriicsiiiiiiriiiric^iiiiiiiMiiic^MiiiJiiifiJCSirfJi riiiitiitiMcariiiMiiiiMC^MiiiiifiJMcaMiiririifiicairiiiMiiiirc^iiiiiiiiiiiic^iifiiiiiiiiJcaftiiifiiiiiic^tiiitiTiM j^ 

c 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

Page 

THE "INTERNATIONAL" UNION 3 

THE TWICE-A-MONTH PAYDAY IN AUSTRALIA 4 

A. F. OF L RAPS SHIP SUBSIDY 4 

THE LARGEST SHIP AFLOAT 5 

EDITORIALS: 

THE MANNING QUESTION 6 

RESULTS OF THE "CHEAP" POLICY 7 

A UNION PENSION FUND 7 

THE MAN IN THE RANKS 8 

THE SEAMEN'S COMPENSATION BILL 9 

ELIMINATION OF WASTE 10 

FRENZIED SHIPPING FINANCE 11 

REGULATION OF DECK LOADS 13 

SEAMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES IN SWEDEN 13 

IS THIS THE NEXT STEP? 14 

BITS OF LABOR HISTORY 14 

THE VISION OF LABOR 15 

IMMIGRANTS IN AMERICA 15 

CHINA'S LABOR PROBLEM 16 

GERMAN COMPETITION 17 

POPULATION OF JAVA 17 

TONNAGE EXPLAINED 18 

THE FUTURE OF EUROPE 18 

RULES FOR LABOR SPIES 19 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 20, 21, 22, 23 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 24, 25, 26 



VOL. XXXVI, NO. 3 
WHOLE No. 1902 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
JULY 1, 1922 



iniiiiiiHiumiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiimiiiiiiuiii iniiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiioiii imiiiiuii iiiuiiiimiiiioiiiiii uiiiiiiuimumim a iiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiumiiiiiiiimnifrc 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y ROBERT J. LEWIS, Agent 

70 South Street 

BALTIMORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEWPORT NEWS, Va JULIUS NELSON, Agent 

123 Twenty-third Street 

MOBILE, Ala VINCENT M. THORN, Agent 

69% Saint Michael Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex JOSEPH WARD, Agent 

132 Proctor Street 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK CITY, N. Y 12 South Street 

H. P. GRIFFIN, President 

W. L. CARTLEDGE, Secretary-Treasurer 

Telephone Bowling Green 8840-8841 

Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Agent 

514 Greenwich Street 

BOSTON, Mass J. A. MARTIN, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

228 Lafayette Street 

BALTIMORE, Md H. MEYERS, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa FRANK NOLAN, Agent 

140 South Third St. 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. F. BULLOCK, Agent 

2117% Avenue A 

PROVIDENCE, R. I WM. BELL, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 

ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Phone John 0975 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa CHAS. AUGUSTSON, Agent 

206 Moravian Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. W. HANSON, Agent 

321% Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va PETER McKILLOP, Agent 

513 East Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala VINCENT THORN, Agent 

69% Saint Michael St. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I T. HASSARD, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 

NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

111 South Street 

ATLANTIC CITY, N. J H. F. McGARRIGEL, Agent 

700 North Rhode Island Avenue 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 

ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 9048 

Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

Phone Dearborn 6413 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ASHTABULA. HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO, 111 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 Day Street 

TOLEDO, 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA. N. Y 122% Main Street 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

BAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay 

GEORGE »'. LARSBN, A 

Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C R. TOWNSEND, 

P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, 

Central Labor Council, 1151% Broadway 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore HANS GULLAKSEN, 

Ainsworth Building, Room 27 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, 

P. O. Box 67 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, 

P. O. Box 314 



Street 

Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 



MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS AND WATERTENDERS" 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE "INTERNATIONAL" UNION 




^ HE component parts of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America 
are situated in the United States 
and Canada. Therefore, the Amer- 
ican Seamen's Union, in common 
with the great majority of American trade- 
unions, is "international" in name and scope. 

Of course, the vast majority of the mem- 
bership in each of these "internatonal" trade 
unions on the North American continent are 
Americans, as distinguished from Canadians. 
In the International Seamen's Union of 
America more than nine-tenths of the mem- 
bership owe allegiance to District Unions 
and Branches located in the United States of 
America. 

This much by way of introduction and 
explanation. Not that an explanation is 
needed, but just to make it perfectly clear 
that the word "international," as used in this 
sense, has no sinister tinge and cannot be in- 
terpreted to mean anti-American. It may 
seem incredible but it remains a fact, never- 
theless, that certain very prominent gentle- 
men in shipping circles have recently en- 
deavored to create just such an impression. 

Admiral Benson of the United States 
Shipping Board has frankly stated that he 
does not like the word "international" in con- 
nection with American labor unions. 

Mr. Winthrop L. Marvin, Vice-President 
and General Manager of the American Steam- 
ship Owners' Association, has gone much 
further. He has publicly sneered at the 
word "international" and in a most unjust 
and unfair manner reflected upon the prin- 
ciples and purposes of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. 

One can afford to be charitable with the 
Admiral's views on American trade-union af- 
fairs. The Admiral has a splendid naval 
record. But his knowledge of the American 
labor movement is very limited, to say the 
least. So it is not surprising that he fell 
easily into the trap set by the cheap labor 
champions among American shipowners. 

The case is different with Mr. Marvin. As 
the hired man of the organized American 
shipowners Mr. Marvin endeavors by hook 
or crook to discredit the organized American 
seamen. 



When Mr. Marvin's associates hold their 
"international" conferences to agree on mini- 
mum freight rates there seems to be no 
objection to that terrible word. To the con- 
trary, such meetings when held by ship- 
owners and their representatives, are always 
considered eminently proper. 

When Mr. Marvin's confederates import 
Oriental labor to man American ships in 
American ports that seems to be another "in- 
ternational" arrangement entirely agreeable 
to Mr. Marvin. 

When Mr. Marvin's companions in Ameri- 
can shipowners' circles charter British and 
Japanese vessels to compete with American 
ships then we have waited in vain for a 
complaint about "too much internationalism." 

Only when American and Canadian seamen 
— men of the same race and language, men 
with virtually the same standards of living 
and with almost identical aims and aspira- 
tions — only when these men get together to 
bear each others burdens, then Mr. Marvin 
says mean and nasty things about the word 
"international' 'and in particular about the 
"International" Seamen's Union of America! 

An American statesman once referred to 
his political enemies as "small souls wander- 
ing in the darkness." And this is, perhaps, 
the most, fitting appellation for Mr. Marvin. 
At any rate, a man who cannot be fair and 
decent in demeanor toward those who dis- 
agree with him stands condemned by his 
own conduct. 

The International Seamen's Union of 
America has no apology to offer for its name. 
And the organized seamen of America are 
intensely proud of the splendid fraternal re- 
lations and the ties of friendship that have 
been established with the seamen of Canada. 
Oh, yes, it is mighty comforting to know that 
the growth and development of the Brother- 
hood of the Sea does not depend upon any- 
one's permission or consent! Neither Mr. 
Marvin's slurs nor the wobblies' abuse will 
swerve the union from its course. To the 
contrary, these joint assaults from extreme 
radicals and hopeless reactionaries prove 
rather conclusively that the International 
Seamen's Union of America must be very 
nearly "right"! 



4 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL July, 1922 

THE TWICE-A-MONTH PAYDAY A. F. OF L. RAPS SHIP SUBSIDY 



One of the clauses of the recent award to 
Australian seamen was that the seamen 
should be paid twice monthly. When the 
matter was before the Federal Arbitration 
Court for final adoption, representatives of 
the shipowners asked that a case be stated for 
the opinion of the High Court. They took 
objection to the clause providing- that the 
wages of seamen should be paid twice 
monthly. 

Mr. Justice Powers declined to grant the 
application, on the ground that the award 
had been finally dealt with, and was at that 
time functus officio. He said they could 
either apply for an order of prohibition or a 
variation of the award. Addressing repre- 
sentatives of the shipowners, his honor 
added : "It is rather remarkable, don't you 
think, that the prophecy made by the sea- 
men's representatives that the employers 
would be the first to try not to carry out the 
provisions of the award, has come true so 
soon? You remember that you said the union 
would not keep the award, and that was his 
reply." 

The twice-a-month payday ultimately 
reached the High Court of Australia. Argu- 
ments were made at great length on the 
question of whether the Federation Arbi- 
tration Court possessed the power to grant 
a claim for the fortnightly payment of sea- 
men's wages when the Navigation Act pro- 
vided that payment be made monthly. 
Counsel for the Seamen's Union held that 
the Arbitration Court had power to grant 
the claim, and contended that the section of 
the Navigation Act was inserted with the 
idea of preventing shipowners from delaying 
payments beyond once a month. There was 
nothing to prevent them from paying weekly 
or fortnightly. Tt was further contended that 
the Federal Arbitration Court, unless it had 
its competency limited by Parliament, had 
authority to make an award of that nature. 

The High Court, by a majority decision, 
finally held that the president of the Com- 
monwealth Arbitration Court had power to 
order fortnightly payments — on the first and 
fifteenth days of each month. 



In view of the fact that the administration 
forces in Washington seem determined to 
rush action on the Ship Subsidy bill, the 
American Federation of Labor Executive 
Council deemed it necessary to adopt a 
strong resolution in opposition to the pending 
subsidy bill prior to the annual convention. 

A few of the many reasons for organized 
labor's opposition to the measure are suc- 
cinctly stated in the resolution, which fol- 
lows : 

"Whereas, Congress through its commit- 
tees is now conducting hearings on S. 3217 — 
'a bill to amend and supplement the Mer- 
chant Marine Act of 1920 and for other 
purposes' — which is in fact a bill to subsidize 
the shipowners of America ; and, 

"Whereas, This bill in every feature there- 
of is predicated upon the unfounded claim 
that such subsidy is needed to equalize the 
wage cost, which it is claimed runs strongly 
against the American vessels ; and, 

'"Whereas, There is no material difference 
in either wage cost or subsistence cost run- 
ning against American vessels and any real 
enforcement of the Seamen's Act will prevent 
any differential against vessels under the 
American Hag in the future : therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That acting for and on behalf 
of the trade unions of America we reiterate 
that we are generally opposed to subsidies 
of any kind and specifically opposed to sub- 
sidies being granted to shipowners, because, 
first, there is no proof that subsidies ever 
built up or materially aided in building any 
merchant marine: second, because it is pro- 
vocative of inefficiency and graft and general 
parasitism ; 

"Resolved, further, that we are opposed to 
this particular bill for reasons some of which 
we enumerate as follows : 

"First, because it presumes t<> sell the 
vessels now owned by the Government when 
in fact the so-called sale is nothing but a 
smoke screen to hide the fact that the ship- 
owners are to receive the vessels for nothing 
and then some three hundred million dollars 
over and above the purchase price for oper- 
ating the vessels for ten years, after which 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



time the ship operators may turn the vessels 
back to the Government. 

"Second, because this bill confers upon the 
Shipping Board powers such as have never 
been, so far as we can ascertain, given to any 
commisison or board in any country. Under 
this bill it can give the subsidy or withhold 
it; it can reduce the subsidy or double it; it 
can sell the vessels at any price to one per- 
son or refuse to sell to another person at a 
high bid because it is of the opinion that the 
bidder's character is such that he may not 
use the vessel to promote the interests of the 
United States ; it can lend money to one 
person at 2 per cent interest and refuse it to 
another, when both are to use it for the 
same purpose. 

"Third, because the shipowners who are 
advocating the bill and will be the recipients 
of the bounty refuse to give any real informa- 
tion about their business during the last ten 
years ; in fact, any information which might 
show whether any subsidy is really needed, 
even from the point of view of those favoring 
subsidies as a principle, unless ordered to do 
so by the joint committee conducting the 
hearings. 

"Fourth, because the shipowners are so or- 
ganized that there is not nor will there be 
any competition between them in the buying 
of the ships. 

"Fifth, because the shipowners have domi- 
nated the policy of the Shipping Board dur- 
ing nearly all of its history. They are domi- 
nating it now and there is no reason to 
believe that they will not continue to control 
it in the future. 

"Sixth, Congress has during our history, 
except in two or three instances, given the 
shipowners anything they asked; and it is, 
therefore, the shipowners and shipbuilders 
who are at least indirectly responsible for 
the decay of our seapower, and there is no 
good reason to believe that the shipowners 
and their policy will improve after getting 
the subsidies. Finally we believe that this 
is no time to sell the vessels ; but that, having 
tried to operate the vessels under agreement 
with the shipowners and having failed, we 
may now try to operate them directly in the 
manner which has proved so successful with 



the Government line of steamships running 
to the Panama Canal. 



THE LARGEST SHIP AFLOAT 



The recent entry of the White Star liner 
Majestic in the transatlantic trade is an event 
of historic importance. The Majestic is the 
largest ship in the world. She is likely to 
remain for years to come the largest ship in 
the world. Such vessels are not built nowa- 
days. Ever since the outbreak of war eco- 
nomic and financial considerations have ab- 
solutely prohibited the laying down and con- 
struction of a liner of this magnitude, speed 
and equipment. Today the world is quite 
content with something less than a gigantic 
vessel of 56,000 tons gross and 64,000 tons 
displacement, the high speed of 25 knots, and 
decorations and furnishings which challenge 
comparison with the best hotels and the state- 
liest mansion houses in either the Old or 
New World. Shipping today is in straitened 
circumstances, and so the Majestic appears 
destined to remain the limit of merchant ship 
design and construction until the world is once 
more in a position to spend freely in a spirit 
of magnificence. 

She is the last pre-war vessel to be put on 
service, for although laid down before the 
outbreak of hostilities in 1914, she was not 
completed until this year. As the Bismarck 
she was Germany's challenge to the Cunarder 
Mauretania, following in general hull design 
and in speed potentialities the famous Tyne- 
built vessel, but preserving an individuality 
of her own which makes her in many re- 
spects quite distinct from her earlier proto- 
type. She is bigger, of course ; more impos- 
ing perhaps in her superstructures ; more 
ambitious certainly in her public rooms. 
Before finally completed she was handed over 
by the German Government to the Repara- 
tions Commission, and by it sold to the 
White Star line. Hence the present owners 
have been able to superimpose British ideas 
for increasing comfort at sea and preserving 
in this Hamburg-built vessel all the things 
which go to make up the reputation of the 
White Star line among transatlantic passen- 
gers. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July. 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FL.YNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago. 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fifth Vice-President 

1*4 Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON, Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication. 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



JUL? 1, 1922 



THE MANNING QUESTION 



The sinking of the P. & O. liner Egypt 

and the behavior <»f her Lascar crew has 

evoked a great deal of editorial comment in 

shipping journals. "Xanticus," of New York, 

concludes with this paragraph: 

It is to be hoped that the question of the man- 
ning of passenger-carrying vessels will in the near 
future be removed from its present sphere. A mat- 
ter of life and death to innocent third parties can 
not be made a bone of contention between capital 
and labor, and the sooner this point of view is ac- 
cepted the better it will be for both the companies 
and the public. 

The La Follette Seamen's Act of 1915 was 
enacted in response to a pnhlic demand for 
greater safety of life at sea. 

Under the terms of that law 65 per cent 
of the deck crew must be men with at least 
three years' experience on deck. The same 
law requires that 75 per cent of the crew in 



each department of the ship must be able 
to understand the language of the officers. 

These requirements have been called union 
labor exactions. As a matter of plain, com- 
mon sense, however, these are safety p 
-ions, pure and simple. 

The fact remains that American shipowners, 
with but few exceptions, have never taken 
kindly to these safety natures of the Sea- 
men's Act. As a result the enforcement of 
this law has always been lax. The organ- 
ized American seamen have frequently pro- 
tested, but without avail. 

American seamen, through their interna- 
tional affiliations, have endeavored to per- 
suade the organized seamen of other coun- 
tries to demand the enactment of similar 
laws. This effort has not met with the an- 
ticipated success, because neither irresponsi- 
ble radicals in the seamen's unions nor reac- 
tionaries in shipowners' circles can find any 
merit in laws for greater safety of life at sea. 

So it is gratifying to know that at least 
one other American shipping paper will join 
the JOURNAL in the fight for the compulsory 
employment of skilled seamen and for a 
manning policy that will make safety of life 
the first and primary consideration. 



Tlie existence of the United States Ship- 
ping Board introduces int.. the present strug- 
gle a factor not present <luring any of the 
previous efforts to enact subsidy legislation. 
Tlie United States Shipping Board is a Gov- 
ernment agency and a- such can not prop- 
erly interest itself in a campaign to secure 
the adoption of legislation. The Shipping 
Board, however, is actively campaigning 
the adoption of the Ship Subsidy bill, and 
there are indications that the campaign thus 
being conducted is widespread in its scope 
and is costing the people of the United States 
a considerable sum of money.— Samuel Gom- 
pers. 



A good reputation is more valuable than 
money. Establish your reputation as a tx 
for the label, shop card and button. 



Unions are like muscles. They gel stronger 
when they are exercised. 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



RESULTS OF THE "CHEAP" POLICY 



mitted the employment of the same type of 
men on ships owned by the American people? 



Every now and then some disaster at sea 
forcibly directs attention to the fact that 
cheapness and inefficiency go hand in hand. 
The British steamship Egypt, which sunk 
recently off the Island of Ushant with a 
loss of a hundred lives, was one of those 
reminders. 

Manning of the ship by Lascars, generally 
rated among the cheapest and most inefficient 
kind of seamen, caused the heavy loss of 
life. The Hindu coolies took the boats. They 
fought for them while women and children 
were permitted to drown. 

Manning of American ships by Chinese, 
Filipinos and other cheap labor with which 
the United States Shipping Board and Amer- 
ican shipping interests are replacing de- 
pendable American seamen, is likely at any 
time to bring about a repetition of the 
horrible scenes on the steamer Egypt in case 
of accident at sea to an American ship. 

All available reports agree that the Egypt 
was rammed but remained afloat for twenty 
minutes. This was ample time for a skilled 
crew to swing the lifeboats free from the 
sinking ship and rescue every passenger. Of 
course, with a Lascar crew this was out of 
the question. 

By courtesy of the International Labor 

News Service the Journal is enabled to 

quote Mr. Robert Bevan, a survivor of the 

Egypt disaster, regarding the panic among 

the seamen after the ship collided with the 

French steamer Seine : 

It was a frig-htful scene. Panic-stricken Lascars, 
screaming at the top of their voices, rushed up 
and down the decks. Some threw themselves on 
their faces and prayed. Others ran aimlessly back 
and forth. They bumped into me in the darkness 
time and again. The Lascars in the crew were 
the greatest cowards I ever saw. They crowded 
to the lifeboats, fighting to get inside and pushing 
the women back. I saw that it was impossible 
to fight off the crew or to get a place in a life- 
boat, so I got a life-preserver and put it on and 
jumped overboard, taking a chance in the fog and 
darkness. 

To be sure, this is an old, old story. Simi- 
lar scenes have taken place in various parts 
of the world wherever efficient seamen have 
been displaced by cheaper, and more docile 
labor. Under the circumstances is it not 
strange that the Shipping Board has per- 



A UNION PENSION FUND 



The International Printing Pressmen's 
Union of America is assembling a pension 
fund at the rate of twenty-five cents per 
month per member; this being a part of each 
member's dues. When the amount has 
reached $750,000 the members who are in- 
capacitated and unable to follow their trade, 
and who have been in continuous good stand- 
ing for twenty years, will receive a pension 
of one dollar a day — the pensions to be paid 
from the interest upon the $750,000 and the 
future payments of twenty-five cents per 
month per member. 

Commenting on this tax, the Printing 

Pressmen's official journal says to the 

members : 

You may not at this moment appreciate the 
value of a dollar a day, but it is quite probable 
that the time will come when you will be happy 
to receive a pension of one dollar a day in your 
old age. This can only come by conserving your 
continuous good standing, i. c., the prompt pay- 
ment of your financial obligations monthly. It is 
a mighty small investment for the protection that 
it will give those who will need it in old age. 

A requirement of continuous good standing 

for twenty years is quite exacting. On the 

other hand, it is a certainty that old age 

insurance of a dollar a day cannot be purchased 

anywhere else for ten times the amount fixed 

by the Printing Pressmen's Union. 



Andrew Furuseth's piercing analysis of the 
I. W. W. preamble seems to have ruffled 
the nerves of the wobbly editors. As usual, 
their impotent rage finds only one outlet, 
and that is plain billingsgate. When they 
have exhausted their vocabulary denouncing 
Furuseth a few parting yelps are always 
aimed at the International Seamen's Union 
of America. The I. W. W. preamble asserts 
that "the working class and the employing 
class have nothing in common." Yet, the wob- 
blies and the shipowners appear to have a 
very "common" hatred for the grand old man 
who lias given his whole life to the seamen's 
cause. Oh, "Solidarity," what crimes are 
committed in thy name ! 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



THE MAX IX THE RANKS 

It is generally agreed that the Labor Move- 
ment attracts many different minds from a 
wide diversity of standpoints. Unfortunately, 
it cannot be denied that the Labor Movement 
also draws to itself a number of adventurers 
whose main objective is to "use" the move- 
ment as a ladder for the realization of their 
ambitions. Those who join its ranks from 
motives of sheer self-interest will desert it 
at the first opportunity of gratifying their 
personal ambition. They merely seek power, 
personal glory, and improvement of their own 
worldly positions, and not the achievement 
of a distinct, difficult, and altogether altruis- 
tic objective. 

Some of them may have been enthusiastic 
at the beginning, but, finding that the path 
of the genuine reformer has more thorns 
than roses, fall out disheartened, or go on 
with the determination of sacrificing the 
party to their personal benefit rather than 
immolating themselves for the benefit of 
humanity. 

Those who give their best to the Labor 
Movement for the sake of its ideals will 
never cease from striving for the realization 
of those ideals, despite rebuffs, till their tired 
eyes close in death and clods of mother earth 
rattle on their coffins. The Labor Movement 
has many such noble souls; men and women 
who work night and day, obscurely, without 
reward or fame, devoting every spare moment 
to placing just another stone in the grand 
edifice wherein humanity shall one day find 
security and happiness. The inspiration of 
resistance to oppression naturally fires the 
heart, steels the mind, and stimulates the 
imagination of the born fighters. It produced 
the martyrs of every great movement in the 
world's history, and, while it once called for 
suffering and the supreme sacrifice, it now 
demands mostly self-abnegation, which is a 
phase of self-sacrifice. 

The rewards of the real workers in the 
Labor Movement are practically non-existent, 
for, strangely enough, the heat and burden 
of the struggle are not borne by those who 
are called leaders, but by the unobtrusive 
men and women who do the propaganda 



work, who win the converts. It is the un- 
assuming, persistent worker in the ranks who 
brings home to the unthinking the simple 
but glorious truths of labor unionism and, by 
his own conduct, illustrates the practical ap- 
plication of collective self-help. 



Shipowners in New Zealand are agitating 
for a reduction of seamen's wages to the 
1917 rate — about $23.40 per month less than 
present rates, except in the case of ordinary 
seamen, of whom a reduction of $16.20 is 
demanded. They propose the following rates: 
Boatswain, lamp trimmer, able seamen, $57.60 
per month; quartermaster, S52.80 ; ordinary 
seamen (T8 years and over), $36; under 18 
years, $30; donkeyman, $67.20; fireman, 
greaser, storekeeper, $62.40. The Seamen's 
Union has made counter claims for $3.20 a 
month higher than they are paid at present. 
The seamen's proposed scale is as follows: 
Boatswain, leading seamen, lamp trimmer 
and able seamen, $2.80 per day; fireman. 
greaser on single engineer vessels. $3.04; 
donkeyman, $3.12; greaser, fireman, store- 
keeper, $2.96; quartermaster, lamp trimmer. 
able seamen, trimmer. $2.64; ordinary sea- 
men, $1.82: seamen under 18 years of age, 
$1.60. 



Organized labor is raising the standards of 
working men by compelling them to think 
rapidly and to speak clearly. The trade 
union movement has developed a company 
of speakers who are abundantly able to pre- 
sent the cause of the toilers. This is con- 
stantly being demonstrated at the national 
meetings of labor bodies, where statesman- 
ship of the highest order is demanded and 
where some of the addresses would easily 
rank with the best that are delivered in the 
conferences and conventions of other national 
bodies. 



There are new moves that are foolish 
moves, but we should never forget that evwy 
sensible move ever made by labor was also 
at one time a new and untried idea. The 
fact that an idea is new or untried neither 
proves nor disproves its merit. Only actual 
and genuine experiment can do that. 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE SEAMEN'S COMPENSATION BILL 



That the final enactment by Congress of 
the Longshoremen's and Ship Repairmen's 
bill, restoring to them the protection of State 
Accident Compensation laws — of which they 
have been twice deprived by closely divided 
opinions of the United States Supreme Court 
■ — may be regarded as one of the outstanding 
legislative advances of the year, is the con- 
clusion of the American Association for 
Labor Legislation, which drafted the new 
law in co-operation with some twenty trade 
unions vitally affected. In a statement issued 
by the association it is pointed out that this 
much needed new law was secured as a 
result of months of organization and co- 
operation. An appeal is now made for an- 
other united drive upon Congress for the 
passage of the Seamen's Accident Compen- 
sation bill introduced by Senator Johnson of 
California. The Johnson bill is a second 
measure drafted by the Association for Labor 
Legislation in close co-operation with the 
Legislative Committee of the International 
Seamen's Union of America. The American 
Federation of Labor and numerous officials 
administering State Workmen's Compensa- 
tion laws have heartily endorsed the Seamen's 
Compensation bill. Considering the fact that 
compensation legislation has spread from State 
to State, and Congress has adopted the prin- 
ciple for the Government's own employes, it 
is certainly strange that American seamen, 
who are supposed to be the wards of Con- 
gress, have been entirely neglected. District 
unions and their branches can hasten matters 
by adopting suitable resolutions and forward- 
ing copies of same to their respective Sena- 
tors and Congressmen. 



Patrick O'Brien, representing the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, made a 
splendid argument at the recent Washington 
hearings on Ship Subsidy. He was one of 
the few witnesses who knew their subject 
from A to Z. O'Brien pointed out that busi- 
ness men generally recognize skill and effi- 
ciency of the human element as the determin- 
ing factor in success or failure. The Sub- 
sidy bill, the purpose of which is to create a 



merchant marine for this country, disregards 
this fundamental fact. The policy of the 
Shipping Board and most American ship- 
owners seemed to him to fly in the face of 
the experience of every maritime nation. Not 
only are the plain lessons of history ignored, 
but a policy has been introduced to reduce 
the number of men employed, so that it has 
become impossible to take care of the vessel 
and her gear, even if the men were real sea- 
men. The organized American seamen, said 
O'Brien, "know that such policy is sure to 
end in failure, no matter what amount of 
money may be expended. With proper crews 
on the vessels there would be no need of any 
subsidy, so far as physical operation is con- 
cerned ; without proper crews on the vessels 
no amount of money expended will bring 
success." 



Commenting on the Chinese Seamen's suc- 
cess in their first strike, a New York ship- 
ping journal says : 

It is probable that, except in Chinese waters, the 
usefulness of Chinese seamen is about ended. 

Yes, indeed, if "usefulness" can be inter- 
preted to mean abject submission to exploita- 
tion, the end is in sight. Awakening from a 
slumber of centuiies the workers of China 
have at last begun to experiment with collec- 
tive self-help. It must be a glorious feeling 
for the despised coolie to realize that he, too, 
can improve his condition by united effort, 
by unionism ! 



The Japanese birth rate in California dur- 
ing 1921 was the highest of any year in the 
history of the State, according to L. E. 
Ross, registrar of the Bureau of Vital Sta- 
tistics. The estimates show a total of 5257 
Japanese births, or 344 births per thousand 
Japanese married women. As a comparison, 
the figures showed 65,583 white births, or 
127 births per thousand white married 



Organization brings education — join the 
union. You will know more, you will get 
more, you will accomplish more for your- 
self, for your calling and for your ship- 
mates. 



10 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

ELIMINATION OF WASTE 



July, 1922 



The number of wage earners who remain 
away from employment every day in the 
year because of illness is 1,150,000, or a 
total of 345,000,000 days for a working year 
of 300 days. So says the report of the 
Engineers appointed by Herbert Hoover to 
investigate waste in industry. 

The Engineers' report on the Elimination 
of Waste in Industry states that in 1919 in 
all industries 23,000 fatal accidents occurred, 
about 575,000 non-fatal accidents causing dis- 
ability for four weeks or more, about 3,000,- 
000 accidents caused at least one day's dis- 
ability. 

Time lost due to these accidents is esti- 
mated at 296,000,000. 

In 1919, in 2399 strikes, the number of per- 
sons involved were 3,950,411, according to 
the Monthly Bulletin of the Department of 
Labor. The average duration of the 2399 
strikes was 34 days. If every striker in 1919 
lost 34 days, then the 3,950,411 strikers lost 
a total of 134,313,974 days' work. 

This would be less than 40 per cent of the 
days lost by illness. 

There are, therefore, more than 60 per cent 
more days lost by illness in the year than 
by strikes, and during the year 1920 and 1921 
the strike figures were reduced. 

From these figures it is plain that the 
loss of time due to strikes is approximately 
one-half of that due to accidents and one- 
third of that due to industrial sickness and 
about one-fifth of that due to both accidents 
and sickness. 



The American Alcohol Education Associa- 
tion is flooding the country with literature, 
the avowed object being the conversion of 
the skeptical multitude to the glories of pro- 
hibition. It may be impertinent to make sug- 
gestions but here is one, nevertheless: Why 
not first convert some of the shining lights 
in the Prohibition movement to the funda- 
mental principles of social justice. For ex- 
ample, Congressman Volstead, the luminous 
star of the "Prohi's." voted for a reactionary 
amendment to the Seamen's Act last year so 
that firemen, oilers and watertenders on the 



Great Lakes could again be compelled to 
work twelve instead of eight hours a day. 
Education is sadly needed in many dark spots 
but nowhere quite as much as in antideluvian 
minds of "dry leaders" who seek to establish 
a twelve-hour workday by law. 



There is no unmixed good in human af- 
fairs; the best principles, if pushed to excess, 
degenerated into fatal vices. Generosity is 
nearly allied to extravagance; charity itself 
may lead to ruin; the sterness of justice is 
but one step removed from the severity of 
oppression. It is the same in the political 
world; the tranquillity of «K--j p< >t i-'i resembles 
the stagnation of the Dead Sea; the fever of 
innovation the tempests of the ocean. Tt 
would seem as if. at particular periods, from 
causes inscrutable to human wisdom, a uni- 
versal frenzy seizes mankind; reason, experi- 
ence, prudence, arc alike blinded: and the 
very classes who are to perish in the storm 
are the first to raise its fury. — Sir A. Alison. 



Organized labor is raising the standards of 

working men by lighting the battles of all 
the people. It is carrying with it even the 
lowest and most degraded. Every victory 
won for the men and women at the top 
means a higher level for those lower down. 
While the trade unionist may for a time 
belong to the aristocracy of labor, ho soon 
makes of that aristocracv a democracy for 
all. 



The working and living conditions and 
wages are the shadows of the organiza- 
tion. The substance is the union. The 
ship owners have the light in their favor at 
present, and they are using the light to 
make the shadows fall as suits them. Build 
up the substance. Make it strong again and 
then we will let them know that the sub- 
stance, the UNIOX. controls the shadow. 



The union label, shop card and working 
button are good companions on a journey 
of the industrial field for any trade unionist. 



If you want to help yourself -join the 
union. 



July. 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



FRENZIED SHIPPING FINANCE 



Recently the United States Shipping Board 
steamship President Lincoln (ex Hoosier 
State) discharged her American crew at San 
Francisco and engaged Filipinos ; the only 
white men retained, besides the officers, being 
quartermasters, oilers and water-tenders. The 
President Lincoln is operated by the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company, one of the ship- 
ping concerns that is always pleading pov- 
erty and shouting lustily for financial aid 
from the Government in the shape of ship 
subsidy. 

Now it so happens that no American ship- 
ping concern has a more interesting financial 
history than this particular company. A few 
of the facts in connection with the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company's earnings have 
just been brought to light by Mr. Phillip 
Manson of New York City, who has been 
in the shipping business for a number of 
years. Mr. Manson, a recognized expert on 
shipping finance, was on the witness stand 
in the Joint Merchant Marine Committee 
hearing, in Washington, D. C, on May 10. 
He was questioned about the financial con- 
nections of the International Mercantile Ma- 
rine Corp. Upon this point the printed offi- 
cial record reads, in part, as follows : 

Mr. Ewin L. Davis, M. C. — Insofar as the 
International Mercantile Marine Corp. is an 
American company, and insofar as it owns 
and operates American ships, either those 
now owned or those hereafter acquired, and 
in view of the enormous profits it made and 
the enormous surplus it has, is there any 
reason it should be given a subsidy on the 
ground of the large initial investment? 

Mr. Manson — None whatever I may say 
to you on that point that the International 
Mercantile Marine bought from the old Pa- 
cific Mail Steamship Co. five ships, compris- 
ing practically their whole transpacific fleet. 
They paid for those five ships about $5,500,- 
000 in 1915. The Pacific Mail carried out 
their threat to abandon the service. They 
sold one old ship of that fleet of five for 
$350,000. They brought the other four, the 
Mongolia, the Manchuria, the Korea and the 
Siberia -to the Atlantic and put them in the 



war zone traffic, ran two of them, the Siberia 
and the Korea, for many trips, and made 
colossal profits on each ship, and then sold 
those two magnificent American ships to the 
Japs at a price which practically totaled what 
they paid for the whole fleet, and leaving 
them with the profits that they had earned 
on the Korea and the Siberia, during the 
many months that they had them, and the 
Mongolia and Manchuria as clear profit, be- 
cause the Mongolia and Manchuria had been 
running in that war zone traffic during all 
the period that they were able to do, before 
they were commandeered by the Government, 
and that was a considerable period — it was 
nearly two years, or a year and a half — and 
during that time they made colossal profits. 

So that to claim any subsidy upon the 
capital charge of those ships is, of course, 
the height of absurdity. The only other 
ships they have or had were the old ships of 
the American line, and they had some Amer- 
ican-built ships which they were running 
under the Belgian flag by the Red Star line. 
Those ships have paid for themselves during 
the war traffic and before, over and over 
and over again. 

Mr. Davis — Speaking of the Pacific Mail, 
this resume here shows that they have an 
outstanding capital stock of $1,500,000, and 
during the years 1915-1920 made a net profit 
of $8,067,133. In other words, during those 
five years they made over five times their 
total capital stock and they paid dividends 
to the amount of $3,997,500, and passed to 
surplus $5,224,383. In other words, their 
surplus was over three and a half times their 
capital, and, of course, they have got no 
initial investment upon which to figure those 
charges. 

Mr. Manson — No, sir. The only initial in- 
vestment that the present Pacific Mail has 
is three small ships that had been built for 
Dutch owners, which they bought during the 
war and ran transpacific, and those ships 
have paid for themselves fully. 

Mr. Davis — Now, what do you know about 
the Pacific Mail disposing of their vessels and 
then operating Shipping Board vessels, as 
they do now? 

Mr. Manson — Well, here is what happened : 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



The old Pacific Mail Steamship Co. was con 
trolled by the Southern Pacific Railroad Co. 
Mr. Schwerin, the head of that line, was one 
of the most bitter opponents of the Seamen's 
Act and of the Shipping bill when it was 
before Congress. He made speeches and pub- 
lished articles and interviews at considerable 
length against those bills. When the Sea- 
men's Act was passed he said : "That drives 
me out of business; we are going to quit." 

I went to China just about that time. At 
Shanghai I was called upon to say a few- 
words to the American Chamber of Com- 
merce there — they called it the Tiffin Club— 
and it so happened that Congressman Ed- 
monds was there at the same time. I got up 
and I told them there — they were all very 
much exercised over the threat of the Pacific 
Mail to abandon the Pacific — and I told them 
the Pacific Mail would not abandon the Pa- 
cific. I said: "They are making money hand 
over fist ; they could not make any more 
money; there is not enough in the Seamen's 
Act to affect them." I gave an analysis of 
what the difference in that Act would repre- 
sent to the gross operating cost of the line 
and showed it would be comparatively a mere 
trifle to the earnings. 

But I was a poor prophet. The big argu- 
ment that they made was the language test. 
They said it made it impossible for them to 
operate ships under the American flag except 
with a crew that could speak English. That 
was not a truthful statement and I told them 
that. I said that "the language of the Act 
is that a certain percentage — I think 75 per 
cent — of the crew in each department must 
be able to understand the ordinary orders of 
the officers, and the officers can address them 
in Sanskrit, Hebrew, or anything they choose, 
and, if they understand it, according to the 
Act they would be qualified." The Pacific 
Mail Steamship Co. knew that was the case. 
On the ship I came back on — and I came 
back on a Pacific Mail ship — they were car- 
rying on classes and teaching the crew who 
were in the engine and deck departments and 
the stewards' department — Chinese — a little 
English so as to qualify under the Act. How- 
ever, to my surprise, a few months after I 
got back they sold their whole fleet of trans- 



pacific ships to the International Mercantile 
Marine. And here is the reason why, as I 
have stated it, and they have never denied 
it — and I stated it advisedly, after talks with 
people in a position to know — the head of 
the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., Mr. Schwerin. 
was so ignorant of the value of their ships 
at that time that when they got an offer of 
five and a half million dollars for a lot of 
ships that stood on their books at very much 
less, they thought, "That is a fine chance to 
clean up and to carry out our oft-repeated 
threat that because of the Seamen's Act we 
are going to abandon the Pacific." and they 
sold the ships. 

And one of the men who participated in 
the negotiations for the International Mer- 
cantile Marine stated that the International 
Mercantile Marine were on pins and needles 
all the while until the deal was closed, fear- 
ing that the Pacific Mail would tumble to the 
value of the ships they had. They could have 
gotten, if they knew it, if they knew enough, 
from $10,000,000 to $15,000,000 for that fleet 
just as easily as $5,500,000. But the fact is, 
they sold the ships, and that left them with- 
out any transpacific business, except just a 
little coastwise business down to Mexico. 

About that time I came back from China 
and my company prepared to put on a trans- 
pacific service. I never hoped that we would 
have the advantage of the Pacific Mail aban- 
doning that service. We began to get busy ; 
but, of course, the war was making things 
worse and worse in the matter of obtaining 
tonnage, and it made it impossible at that 
time, and when the Pacific Mail saw that we 
were about to get our ships, to get ships 
under way, they quickly bought three little 
ships that were totally unsuited to the trade, 
only 4,000 tons gross or a little over 4,000 
tons gross, for that lengthy voyage across 
the Pacific. * * * And the paradox is that 
the trade that was declared to be impossible 
of operation by magnificent ships — the Mon- 
golia, the Manchuria, the Siberia and the 
Korea — ships which they said they could not 
run, and they abandoned the service; then 
their successors brought three little unsuit- 
able ships and made big money in that trade. 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



REGULATION OF DECK LOADS 

The proposal of foreign maritime powers 
for the limitation or total prohibition of deck 
cargoes, and the establishment of an inter- 
national load line, is of the greatest impor- 
tance to American shipping. 

According to dispatches received from 
Geneva, Switzerland, by Ernest Greenwood, 
American correspondent of the International 
Labor Office, representatives of foreign gov- 
ernments, shipowners and seamen on the 
Joint Maritime Commission of the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization, are in unanimous 
agreement as to the need of international 
action in the matter. Whether this action 
will take the form of regulations based on 
the present British rules, as is desired by the 
seamen, or whether modified regulations will 
be adopted, as the shipowners prefer, remains 
to be settled. It is said that a radical diver- 
gence of opinion also exists among the 
delegates as to whether regulations should 
authorize specific rules restricting the height 
and weight of deck cargoes, or whether they 
should permit the certification of vessels as 
fit for the carriage of deck cargoes, accord- 
ing to type, and with or without a special 
load line. 

It is contended by the seamen's organiza- 
tions that many lives have been lost and 
many men injured at sea each year by the 
carriage of deck cargoes. It is the hope of 
the seamen to have the British regulations 
used as a basis in the adoption of interna- 
tional regulations. On the other hand, the 
opinion seems to prevail among shipowners 
and shippers that the British regulations are 
too stringent and that elasticity might use- 
fully be introduced into the rules. The 
shippers point out certain anomalies arising 
out of the strict application of the British 
rules, and mention two specific cases, one 
the case of a turret-deck ship which could 
only be safely sent to sea with a deck cargo ; 
the second case was that of a ship being 
penalized at Hamburg for being insufficient- 
ly loaded, owing to her having rejected a 
deck cargo in America, because of the penal- 
ties she would incur in Great Britain for 



overloading. Obviously, this state of affairs 
calls for appropriate international regulation. 

This is the first time the question has been 
discussed by both shipowners and seamen. 
It has long been a matter for discussion 
among shipowners, conferences having been 
held at Paris in May, 1921, at Madrid in 
October, 1913, and at The Hague in August. 
1921. The seamen themselves have gone into 
the matter at meetings at Washington and 
Antwerp. 

The present joint conference is made possi- 
ble by the establishment of the Joint Mari- 
time Commission by the International Labor 
Organization, an autonomous association of 
fifty-four nations established under the Peace 
Treaty of Versailles. The present negotia- 
tions involve Belgium, Japan, Great Britain, 
Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, Norway and 
Germany, these countries being represented 
on this commission. 



SEAMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES 



According to statements in the press, the 
Swedish Government has taken steps to 
apply the provisions of Article 2 of the Genoa 
Convention, held under the auspices of the 
League of Nations, for establishing facilities 
for finding employment for seamen, to which 
it is a party, in the following manner : 

As soon as possible and in no case later 
than July 1, 1922, the licenses granted to 
private fee-charging agencies for finding em- 
ployment for seamen under the decree of 
May 5, 1916, are to be revoked. Where the 
finding of employment for seamen is only 
a part of the general activities of an em- 
ployment agency, it is laid down that the 
license shall be limited to exclude the placing 
of seamen. The local governments are further 
instructed to furnish a return, if possible, be- 
fore July 1, 1922, showing the number of 
licenses still in force, together with certain 
information as to the condition in which each 
license was granted. A special return of the 
number of licenses granted or revoked during 
each of the years 1919, 1920 and 1921 is also 
called for. 



The people of the earth speak 3,424 lan- 
guages or dialects. 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



IS THIS THE NEXT STEP? 



Now that the gentlemen who direct our 
foreign policy have succeeded in piloting our 
affairs into the storm-swept, reef-strewn seas 
of foreign alliances, they appear to be pre- 
paring the public mind for the prohibition of 
criticism of any foreign government with 
which they have associated themselves. In a 
recent speech on the Pacific Coast, Mr. Elihu 
Root hinted at the propriety oi punishment 
for Americans who indulge in such criticism. 
Mr. Hughes, addressing the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, that organization which 
is conspicuous for its distrust of any revolu- 
tionary idea later than those of the eighteenth 
century, was more cautious than Mr. Root, 
but he dwelt with Kaiserlike emphasis on 
the enormity of any plain citizen speaking 
harshly of governments abroad. "Let it be 
understood," declared Mr. Harding's master 
statesman, "that those who indulge in dia- 
tribes against foreign peoples and their gov- 
ernments, who hold them up to ridicule, who 
impute to them base motives and asperse 
their honor, are enemies first of their own 
country, and as such deserve universal 
censure." 

Coming down to case-, one wonders what 
Mr. Hughes would propose to do, for in- 
stance, with the editor who might intimate 
that the actions of the Japanese government 
in Shantung and Eastern Siberia are not 
inspired wholly by altruism ; that the policies 
of the British government in Egypt, India 
and Ireland have not always been directed 
by the spirit of brotherly love; that the 
maintenance by the French government of an 
army of nearly a million men does not wholly 
represent benevolence. Old-fashioned Ameri- 
cans, if any are left, may well believe that 
the control of our foreign policy is already 
sufficiently irresponsible, without the setting 
up of a ukase against animadversions di- 
rected at governments other than those of- 
ficially designated as fair game. Since the 
piping times of war, when our higher job- 
holders appropriated to themselves the prin- 
ciple of divine right, they have shown an 
increasing impatience with articulate oppo- 
sition from those whose function, in their 



view, is merely to ante up for their vicious 
extravagances. This is natural and inevi- 
table ; for how can our statesmen properly 
conduct the international dickers, deals, bar- 
gains and arrangements necessary to Amer- 
ican privilege and imperialism, unless Amer- 
ican citizens are reduced to the status of 
mute and docile American subjects? — The 
Freeman. 



BITS OF LABOR HISTORY 



Plymouth and Jamestown are the two 
starting points of the labor movement in this 
country, Plymouth representing free and 
Jamestown chattel labor. For nearly 250 
years these systems contended with each 
other for mastery. 

The first historical mention we have of a 
craftsman in America is found in the History 
of Plymouth, in which it is stated that in 
1621 a carpenter and a saltmaker were sent 
to the colony by the adventurers. 

Ebenezer Ford is the first union man of 
record to be selected to public office in the 
United States. He was chosen for the New 
York Legislature by the Workmen's Party 
in 1829, and an effort was made to unseat 
him, which failed. 

Tlie movement against prison labor was 
inaugurated at Utica, X. Y., on August 20, 
1834, at a convention of mechanics called 
from every city in the state. 

Tlie first central labor body was organized 
at Boston in March, 1834. Delegates from 
16 unions of mechanics were present. It 
observed tin- first "Labor Day" July 4 of the 
same year. A big dinner was served at 
Fanieul Hall. 

Boston carpenters went on strike in 1836 
for a reduction in the working day from 12 
to 10 hours. They lost, as did most of the 
workers that year. 

The first Western union was organized by 
the Ship Carpenters in California in 1856. 
Immediately after organizing they moved for 
the eight-hour day, and they got it. 

Horace Greeley understood the American 
way. At an eight-hour meeting held in New 
York in 1866 he stated that he had little 
faith in legislation for reducing the hours of 
labor. He thought labor should take a little 
more responsibility upon itself. 



July, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

THE VISION OF LABOR IMMIGRANTS IN AMERICA 



15 



The day will dawn when a world-wide 
net of fine roads, great, steady trains on 
renewed and broader tracks, long-distance 
aeroplane flights of the securest sort, splen- 
did and beautiful towns, a park-like country- 
side, studded with delightful homes, will be 
the scene and frame for a population of 
well-grown, well-trained, fully adult human 
beings. All the world will be accessible to 
them, mountains to climb, deserts to be alone 
in, tropics to explore in wonder, beautiful 
places for rest. And they will be healthy 
and happy in the way that only health makes 
possible. For surely it is no news to any- 
one that a score of horrible taints and dis- 
eases that weaken and cripple us, a number of 
infections, a multitude of ill-nourished and 
under-nourished states of body can be com- 
pletely controlled and banished from life, they 
and all the misery they entail, given only a 
common effort, given only human co-operation 
instead of dissension. The large visible material 
harvest of peace is the least harvest of peace. 
The great harvest will be health and human 
vigor and happiness. 

Think of the morning that will some day 
come when men will wake to read in the 
papers of something better than the great 
5 — 5 — 3 wrangle, of the starvation and dis- 
order of half the world, of the stupid sexual 
crimes and greedy dishonesties committed by 
adults with the undeveloped intelligence of 
vicious children, of suggestions of horrible 
plots and designs against our threadbare 
security, of the dreary necessity for "pre- 
paredness." Think of the morning when the 
newspaper has mainly good news of things 
discovered and of fine things done. 

Think of the common day of the common 
citizen in a world where debt is no longer 
a universal burden, where there is constant 
progress and no retrogression, where it is 
the normal thing to walk out of a beautiful 
house into a clean and splendid street, to pass 
and meet happy and interesting adults in- 
stead of aged children obsessed by neglected 
spites and jealousies and mean anxieties, to 
go to some honorable occupation that helps 
the world forward to a still greater and finer 
life.— H. G. Wells. 



Some years ago Joe Cannon, the Repub- 
lican leader of the United States House of 
Representatives, was orating on the enor- 
mous expansion of the country under Repub- 
lican rule. Especially did he stress the fact 
that from a mere handful of people along the 
Atlantic Coast, the population had grown to 
100,000,000, when a Congressman on the 
opposite side rose to remark: "Good God, 
didn't the Democrats have anything at all 
to do with that increase?" 

Not only the Democrats, but also the im- 
migrants have had something to do with the 
increase. How much in population the coun- 
try owes to newcomers from other countries 
is interestingly shown in a chart issued by 
the Bureau of Immigration, covering the 
entire ninety-nine years from 1820 to 1918. 
The figures are : 

Great Britain and Ireland 8,198,404 

Germany 5,494,487 

Italy 4,098,856 

Russia 3,310,003 

Denmark, Norway, Sweden 2,128.824 

British North America 776,688 

France 520,427 

Greece 352,497 

Turkey 311,375 

China 288,398 

Switzerland 256,326 

West Indies 234,905 

Japan 218,966 

Netherlands 213,410 

Mexico 187,438 

Portugal 158,480 

Belgium 76,319 

Countries not specified 2,088,590 

Ninety-nine year total 33,058,971 

In six of the ninety-nine years the total 
immigration was more than a million, namely, 
in 1905, 1906, 1907, 1910, 1913, and 1914. The 
highest number of immigrants was reached in 
1907, the number arriving in that year being 
1,285,349. By 1918, due to the war, the num- 
ber of those coming to make their homes and 
contribute their labor to America had dropped 
to 110,618. 



You can't teach a "new" trade unionist old 
tricks. He insists upon learning in his own 
way at the cost of his own bumps. 



Too many persons set about reforming 
the world before informing themselves. 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



CHINA'S LABOR PROBLEM 



The labor problems of modern China, be- 
side China's other problems, are of small 
magnitude. They are, however, fully keep- 
ing pace with the country's rapidly develop- 
ing capitalism, and in recent years Chinese 
business men, and foreigners doing business 
in China especially, have seen the sigtis of a 
conflict coming which is entirely alien to the 
standards of ancient China. 

There are now, roughly speaking, half a 
million Chinese workers organized in trade 
unions or in modernized guild associations 
which to all intents and purposes are their 
equivalent. More than 200,000 of these are 
factory workers ; about 185,000 of them are 
miners, railwavmen. salt workers and similar 
outdoor tradesmen, and the rest are composed 
of seamen, dock workers, and other classes 
of labor in the coast and river port cities. 
The unions to which they belong are legion. 
There is no really national labor association, 
nor can there be said to be a compact body 
comprising a strong proportion of the work- 
ers in any one trade. Effective organization 
does not yet go beyond city or at most pro- 
vincial limits. Their leaders are unknown to 
most Chinese and have so far played no part 
in national life. Their activities have been 
spontaneous and sporadic, although, like the 
recent shipping strike in Hongkong, they 
have had profound and far-reaching effects. 

The most typical working class community 
in China is Shanghai, where in recent years 
one of the greatest manufacturing cities in 
the East has come into being. Along the 
waterfront of the Whangpoo, in the formerly 
unheard-of factory districts of Yangtscpoo 
and Pootung, a veritable miniature Manches- 
ter has sprung up. The main industry is 
cotton manufacturing. Here British, Japa- 
nese, and a rapidly increasing proportion of 
Chinese capital has developed an industry, 
largely with the aid of American machinery, 
it is interesting to note, which has enjoyed 
an amazing success. Some of the mills have 
paid an average of 25 per cent dividends for 
the past eight years. The workers are en- 
tirely Chinese, and a great proportion of them 
are women and children. The extent to which 



the industry is booming may be measured by 
the fact that since the war the number of 
spindles has increased from 1,500,000 to about 
2,500,000, with fifteen new mills, most of them 
under Chinese management, in process of 
construction. Over and over again the atten- 
tion of the foreign community has been called 
to the primitive working conditions in these 
mills. The wages range from 30 to 50 cents 
a day — one of the secrets of their competitive 
power; night work and child labor still pre- 
vail in many plants, and practically no reme- 
dial legislation is enforced. 

Under these conditions labor organization 
among the helpless workers, most of them 
recruited from the country districts, has pro- 
ceeded apace. There was a great strike in 
1913-14 which practically initiated labor con- 
flict on a large scale in modern China and 
laid the foundation for the union which now 
exists. 

Generally speaking, the Chinese working 
community finds its defenders among the stu- 
dent classes, who have been responsible for 
practically all the organization which has 
been accomplished. The labor newspaper is 
no novelty in China ; there are three of them 
in Shanghai alone and others in Canton, Han- 
kow, and other cities, while the tone of the 
Chinese press in . general is rarely intran- 
sigeant and class conscious when it comes to 
deal with a labor problem. This is largely 
due to the fact that so many industrial en- 
terprises are in the hands of foreigners, so 
that the struggle of Chinese employes of all 
sorts and conditions readily enlists the sym- 
pathy of the Chinese business community. 

In disputes between Chinese employers and 
their workmen, foreigners are frequently 
amazed at the frequency with which the 
terms of settlement are arrived at by arbitra- 
tion. Thus, while the foreign shipowners of 
Hongkong resisted the demands of the sea- 
men in an acrimonious struggle of more than 
eight weeks early this year, the Chinese ship- 
ping community came to an agreement in 
the early weeks of the strike, leaving the 
successive developments of the strike to as- 
sume a more and more anti-foreign character. 

The workers' unions in the mines and rail- 
ways are still local and rudimentary. They 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



are much more like the guild organizations 
of old Chinese life, with welfare ambitions 
and community self-improvement ideas super- 
imposed on the traditional guild structures. 
The Ministry of Communications has a well- 
defined welfare program which provides 
lectures, courses in social welfare, and read- 
ing rooms for China's 125,000 railway work- 
ers. So far, this seems to be sufficient to 
meet the situation, for the railway system 
has been freer from strikes than any other 
large industry. 

China is just emerging from an industrial 
boom, and unemployment and widespread 
business dislocation are accentuating the 
growing pains of labor organization. In the 
two years following the war, in the Yangtze 
Valley alone almost 200 industrial enterprises 
were started with $75,000,000 Chinese capi- 
tal. They included mills of all kinds, mining 
companies, etc., and twenty-six electric 
plants. The top of the wave has now been 
passed, and it is computed that 100,000 un- 
employed workers are faced with the choice 
of going back to the country or competing 
with each other for jobs in the large ports, 
In these circumstances the Chinese labor 
problem is bound to become rapidly more 
acute. — Gardner L. Harding, in The Nation. 



GERMAN COMPETITION 



A rather gloomy view is expressed by 
"Syren and Shipping," the British shipping- 
paper, on the seemingly irresistible growth 
of German competition. Says our British 
contemporary : 

"Unemployment is almost unknown in 
Germany. During 1921 the average of the 
unemployed was only 1.4 of the number en- 
rolled in the unions, while in Great Britain 
in November last the unemployed members 
of trade unions numbered 228,484, and the 
total of legally insured unemployed 1,865,- 
170. The revival of German trade is still 
more strikingly illustrated by its mercantile 
marine. The policy of 'Ton for ton' which 
was embodied in the Treaty of Versailles 
deprived Germany of its foreign-going ton- 
nage, and a start had to be made de novo. 
The 200,000 tons which had to be built each 



year for the Allies was a further handicap. 
The situation, however, was resolutely faced, 
and then in 1920 relief came when it was 
discovered that the world had a surplus of 
10,000,000 tons of merchant vessels. Thus the 
Germans could build for themselves, and, 
thanks to a deflated currency, build very 
cheaply. They could also charter at low 
rates or even buy foreign vessels owing to 
the world glut of tonnage. Thus they have 
been enabled to carry an increasing proportion 
of their exports in their own bottoms. The 
shipbuilding industry was probably brisker 
at the close of last year than at any period in 
its history, the 509,000 tons launched during 
1921 being 44,000 tons in excess of the total 
for 1913. The same story of intensive and 
extensive effort characterizes the whole of 
German shipping business. Money has been 
readily forthcoming to develop the old and 
establish new shipowning and shipbuilding 
undertakings. Fleets have been consolidated 
to prevent any waste of energy or effort. Its 
shipowners have joined the great conferences 
and the State has concluded agreements spe- 
cially formulated to advance its shipping and 
oversea trade. And side by side with this 
Teutonic prosperity, England declines, and 
its unemployed are playing the German game 
by starving our foreign markets and keeping 
their ship repairing establishments full to 
repletion with British jobs." 



POPULATION OF JAVA 



The population of Java is about seven 
times that of Australia, although the island 
is only about 600 miles long and 250 miles 
wide. Its tea estates and factories and build- 
ings erected thereon are much better and 
cleaner and more modern than those of 
Ceylon and India. The sugar industry is 
run on the best and most scientific lines, 
although the output is not so large as Cuba's. 
The rubber industry is rapidly approaching 
the high standard reached in the Federated 
Malay States. The government telephone 
system is infinitely better than those in 
Singapore, Colombo and Sydney, and com- 
pares very favorably with that of London 
and New York. 



18 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL July, 1922 

TONNAGE EXPLAINED cargo. Displacement "loaded" is the weight 

of the vessel plus cargo, fuel, and stor 

There are five kinds of tonnage in use in For a modern freight steamer the following 

the shipping business. They are deadweight relative tonnage figures would ordinarily be cor- 

lonnage, cargo tonnage, gross, net, and dis- rect approximately: 

placement tonnages. Net tonnage 5 

1. Deadweight tonnage expresses the maxi- Gross tonnage 

mum number of tons of 2240 pounds of cargo, Deadweight carrying capacity .10 

stores, fresh water, and bunker fuel that a ves- Displacement, loaded, about 13,350 

sel will carry at her deepest load draft. Dead- A vessel's register tonnage, whether gross 

weight tonnage is used interchangeably with or net. is virtually the same under the Amer- 

deadweight carrying capacity. A vessel's ca- ican rules as under the British rules. 

pacity for weight cargo is less than its total 

deadweight tonnage by the amount of stores. THE FUTURE OF EUROPE 

fresh water, and fuel needed for a given 

voyage. Mr. p. .\. Vanderlip in his latest book, 

2. Cargo tonnage is either "weight" or "What Next in Europe?" gives a vivid pic- 
"measuremeiu." The weight ton in the United ture of the frightful demoralization and dis- 
States and in British countries is the English tress that has resulted from the inflation of 
long or gross ton of 2.240 pounds. In France the currencies. His account OUght to be 
and other countries having the metric system, a read by all the people, by no reason tew in 
weight ton is 2.204.6 pounds. A "measure- number, who have a lurking idea that somc- 
ment" ton is usually 40 cubic feet, but in some thing might be done to stimulate the busi- 
l"or a ton. Most ocean package freight is taken ness situation in this country by direct gov- 
fora ton. Most ocean package freight is taken eminent currency issues. II I quota- 
at weight or measurement (W-M), ship's op- tion : 

tlon - "These fluctuations (of the currencies) 

3. Cross register tonnage applies to vessels, niar k a chapter <»1 financial horrors which is 
not cargo. It is determined by dividing bv without parallel in the history of human soci- 
100 the contents, in cubic feet, of the vessel's ( . tv . They have introduced a period of social 
closed-in spaces. A register ton is 100 cubic injustice, a time of industrial disarrange 
feet. The register of a vessel states both nients, and an epoch in which moral char- 
gross and net tonnage. acter and the sound virtues of honesty, in- 

4. Net register tonnage is obtained by de- dustry, thrift and provision lor the morrow 
ducting from the gross tonnage the cubic ca- have been rendered valueless. Worse than 
pacity of the crew's <|uarters, and spaces re- that, all that has happened is only half tin- 
served for navigation, steering gear, anchor measure of the evils that have flowed ,r,mi 
gear, propelling machinery, shafts, and tunnels. the printing press with the endless stream of 
The variations in the allowances made for paper money. For the time must come when 
these spaces account for the differences in the deterioration of the money standard cat] 
net register tonnage of a vessel as measured ,, n further, when some readjustment toward 
under the l.ritish and American rules and the firm values will be made. Then there will 
Sue/, and I'anama Canal rule-. Under the be re-enacted another series of injustice-. 
latter the net register tonnage of a vessel is another period of painful readjustments that 
generally higher, owing to the restrictions im- will be discouraging to enterprise. BecailSi 
posed upon machinery spaces. of the blind misunderstanding of the causes 

5. Displacement of a vessel is the weight, there will probably be futile political action 
in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its by which unscientific means will be sought 
contents. Displacement "light" is the weight to remedy evils, the origin of which is ob 
of the vessel without stores, bunker fuel, or scure to the ordinary mind." 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



RULES FOR LABOR SPIES 



The following' rules are taken from the in- 
struction book furnished to labor spies by 
one of the large detective agencies: 

You are entering into a business which 
requires the utmost secrecy, so let none of 
your methods or actions indicate that you are 
in any way watching or investigating in any 
way whatsoever. 

Do not carry any cards or letters bearing 
the name of this office on your person, nor 
permit yourself to mention detective agencies 
or detectives while working with your fellow 
employes, or while in any other position with 
them on any occasion. 

Do not endeavor to do a whole lot of 
secret service work during the first few days 
of your employment, but observe closely your 
surroundings and the employes, and familiar- 
ize yourself most especially with your own 
particular line of work on the premises, thus 
enabling you to do your work capably and 
well. In this way you will be in a position 
to give us a concise report of the informa- 
tion desired. 

In reporting to us, put in all questions 
which may be discussed among the employes 
as to whether or not they are dissatisfied 
with the working conditions, the number of 
hours employed, the amount of their earnings 
(and if piece workers, the price paid), etc. 
Also report in detail all matters of agitation 
regarding strikes or other labor troubles of 
that kind. 

Also notify us if the foreman or superin- 
tendent is in any way unfriendly towards any 
of the employes, and if the employes seem 
to be satisfied and act agreeably toward the 
foreman. 

Be as friendly with everyone as possible, 
and upon leaving the premises after work, 
try to gain their confidence and accompany 
them to their various places of entertainment 
and amusement. Be most cautious and ob- 
serving, should they meet any official of 
Organized Labor and discuss with him the 
conditions at their place of employment. 

Be in a position to communicate with us 
promptly should any matter come to your 
attention leading you to believe that any 



organizer of labor unions is secretly work- 
ing in the plant assigned you, who may be 
attempting to form a union among the em- 
ployes under your supervision. 

Have your reports cover clearly your entire 
daily routine and operations, and the current 
happenings, regardless of whether or not 
they appear of any importance to you ; as 
very often this is exactly the sort of infor- 
mation of most importance to us and our 
client. 

Should you encounter any agitator who 
may be attempting to cause a "walk out," 
listen to his line of talk, appear to agree with 
him, and should you be requested to join 
the movement, do so, and follow any lead 
they may suggest. Then notify us imme- 
diately. 

Should any employe be lax in the perform- 
ance of his duty or be turning out inferior 
work, include this in your report, as we are 
paid to raise the entire standard of efficiency. 

You will receive all communications from 
this office direct to you, using a code name 
(which we will give you later), and you are 
to sign all reports and communications with 
this code name, and do not at any time use 
your full name. 

If the foreman appears unfriendly towards 
you, treat him as well as possible, and as an 
employe, and do not permit him or any other 
employe to suspect your especial business 
there. Remember that no one there knows 
that you are connected with us and furnishing 
service to us. 



When the open-shoppers have done a little 
more union smashing, union men will know 
a whole lot more than they ever knew before 
about what it will be necessary to do to 
cope with their organized enemies. 



The average individual seems to be much 
more concerned about digging up a few extra 
pennies a month for his union than he is 
about having his wages cut several dollars 
a day. 



Are you helping to make your union better 
and stronger? If not, where do you get any 
license to growl over the way those members 
who do take a hand are running it? 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Red D line, operating- between New 
York and Venezuela, is reported to be con- 
sidering the construction of two passenger 
and cargo vessels of 6,000 to 7,000 tons. 

The concrete ship Faith, built three years 
ago by the San Francisco Shipbuilding Co. at 
a cost of $600,000, was sold by the U. S. 
Government a few weeks ago for $5,000 to 
junk dealers! 

The steamship Camden. 6,870 tons gross, 
4,952 net, 9,820 tons deadweight, steams 11)4 
knots, built at Camden, N. J., in 1921, and 
owned by United Fruit Co., Inc., New York, 
has been sold to United Fruit Tanker Corp. 

The Norwegian steamship Pacific, 5,862 
tons gross, 3.557 net. built at San Francisco 
in 1915, and owned by A/S D/S Pacific (V. 
Torkildsen, manager), Bergen, has been sold 
to the Argonaut Steamship Co., Inc., New 
York, for $218,065. 

The American Shipbuilding Company has 
received an order to build a 600-ton lake type 
steamer for account of the Franklin Steam- 
ship Company at a cost of $800,000. The 
steamer is the third one of its class to be 
ordered since the opening of 1922 navigation. 

The former U. S. naval auxiliary Astoria, 
ex Nor. S. S. Peter Jebsen, 3,078 tons gross, 
1.921 net, built at Sunderland, Eng., in 1902, 
and former British schooner Marion ( i. Doug- 
las, 438 tons register, built at Fox River, 
X. S., in 1917, have been admitted to Amer- 
ican registry as the Astoria and Cynthia J. 
Criffin, respectively. 

The American Bureau of Shipping has 
under preparation a set of rules to govern 
the construction of river, harbor and canal 
vessels so as to facilitate their classification. 
A number of ships of these types have al- 
ready been classed, to the resultant advantage 
of their owners in obtaining proper insurance 
on hulls and cargoes. 

The United States Whaling Company, 
which makes its home port in Seattle, with 
Balfour, Guthrie & Co. as managing agents, 
has resumed operations after keeping its fleet 



idle since the end of the 1920 season. Its 
three steam whalers, Star I, Star II, and 
Star lir, were overhauled at the yard of the 
Todd Dry Docks, Inc., prior to sailing. 

The Atlantic Intercoastal Conference has 
decided to restore Tacoma. San Diego and 
Astoria as ports of call pending a Shipping 
Board hearing to determine the justification 
for the former action of the conference in 
eliminating those ports. Vancouver and Vic- 
toria, B. C, remain off the sailing lists of the 
intercoastal lines, as originally intended. 

The Shipping Board is preparing Cor plans 
and specifications for the reconditioning and 
conversion of the steamships Agamemnon 
and Mount Vernon from coal to oil burners. 
The two vessels were formerly German liners. 
It is estimated that $7,000,000 will be re- 
quired for the work. The vessel-. on com- 
pletion, will be placed on the run to English 
and German ports. 

Hull insurance- of approximate!) $ 20,000 
was carried on the Alaska-Portland Packers' 
Association bark Berlin, which went ashore 
at Ugagak, Alaska, and is reported a total 
loss. Most of the cargo of stores winch the 
vessel was taking to Alaska canneries has 
been saved. The cargo was insured in the 
local market lor $130,000. The Berlin, of 1216 
tons, was built in 1882 at Pittsburgh, Me. 
Fuel oil burning equipment has been 
ordered for installation on a United States 
Army dredge located at Porto Rico. The 
equipment selected is the Bethlehem (Dahl) 
mechanical system built l>\ the Bethlehem 
Shipbuilding Corporation, Limited, and the 
installation is being made at Porto Rico. The 
order was placed through tlu- office of tin- 
Second District, United Suites Arm) Engi- 
neers, Xew York. 

The National City Bank of New York has 
petitioned the Federal Court for an order 
directing the Green Star Steamship Co. to 
sell it the steamers Maine. Woo n socket and 
Sagadahoc for $300,000. The Shipping Board 
has been made a party to the proceedings on 
account of its equity in the vessels arising 
out of the transaction whereby they were 
transferred to the Texas S. S. Co. and then 
to the Green Star. 

After all, the giant liner Leviathan is to 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



retain her name, the President having tact- 
fully declined the honor that the Shipping- 
Board sought to confer upon him. The Pres- 
ident's action has caused another reshuffling 
of names and, therefore, the Hawkeye State, 
which was to be named President Cleveland, 
will now be named President Harding, and 
the Golden State will be named after Presi- 
dent Cleveland, instead of President Taylor. 

The Rockport Steamship Company, of She- 
boygan, Wisconsin, has awarded a contract 
to the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Corporation 
for the construction at a cost of $700,000 of 
a self-discharging cargo carrier of 7,500 tons 
deadweight. The vessel is to be 450 feet 
long, with a 56-foot beam and a 30-foot 
depth of hold. She is to be employed in 
discharging coal, broken stone or gravel at 
Great Lake ports not equipped with modern 
discharge facilities. 

A mystery of the sea, recalling that of the 
naval collier Cyclops, which disappeared four 
years ago while en route from Barbadoes to 
New York, was unfolded in suits totaling 
$1,200,000 filed in the New York Supreme 
Court by Attorney Arthur Lavenburg. The 
ship, whose vanishing at sea matches the 
Cyclops case, is the Hewitt, bound from 
Sabine, Texas, for Boston and Portland. She 
disappeared over a year ago" and no trace 
of her has since been found. 

Ship construction, which received a tremen- 
dous impetus in Nova Scotia during the war, 
practically ceased in 1921. In 1919 there were 
47 yards in operation, which turned out a 
combined product of 110 ships of 28,964 net 
tons. The output in 1920 declined to 58 
ships of 11,454 tons, built in 29 yards; while 
in 1921 only 11 vessels, aggregating 2,135 net 
tons, were built in the 9 yards employed. 
At present all work contracted for has been 
completed, and there are no new contracts 
in sight. 

Twelve of the warships to be scrapped by 
the Navy under the agreement reached at 
the disarmament conference would be filled 
with concrete and used to extend the break- 
water at San Pedro if a plan proposed by 
Admiral McKean is adopted. Samuel Gom- 
pers has suggested that the Government 
aleviate unemployment by scrapping the 



ships at Navy yards and selling the material. 
The Navy board recommended to Secretary 
Deinby that they be offered for sale by 
sealed proposals. 

The following vessels have been purchased 
by the Luckenbach Steamship Co., Inc., from 
the Shipping Board : Eastern Soldier, 6,749 
tons gross, 4,211 net, 10,600 tons deadweight, 
steams 11 knots, built at Hiega, Japan, in 
1920; Edellyn, 8,713 tons gross, 5,489 net, 
12,130 tons deadweight, steams 14 knots, 
built at Chester, Pa., in 1919; Marica, 8,738 
tons gross, 5,453 net, 12,130 tons deadweight, 
steams 14 knots, built at Chester, Pa., in 
1919; and South Bend, 8,738 tons gross, 5,453 
net, 12,000 tons deadweight, steams 14 knots, 
built at Chester, Pa., in 1919. 

The Shipping Board is said to be making 
very earnest efforts to rid itself of its worst 
white elephant — i. e., the United States lines 
— that was forced upon it by the inability of 
the United States Mail S. S. Co. to finance 
itself. The enterprise was started as a result 
of an arrangement with the Norddeutscher 
Lloyd, which has since inaugurated a Bremen- 
New York service of its own. It is said that 
a tentative scheme has been drafted, whereby 
a private concern is to take over the outfit 
without financial obligations to the board as 
to payment of charter hire, such as ruined 
the United States Mail, the operations being 
placed under the control of the German con- 
cern. 

As compared with pre-war figures, the per- 
centage of America's foreign trade carried in 
American bottoms has increased very con- 
siderably. It is not generally realized, how- 
ever, that the growth in the size of the Amer- 
ican tanker fleet is mainly responsible for this 
better showing and that only a small part of 
the water-borne miscellaneous cargo move- 
ment from and to this country is transported 
in ships flying the Stars and Stripes. Thus 
in March American vessels handled 77 per 
cent of the total tanker trade, but only 3,5 
per cent of the combined import and export 
trade in dry cargo. Were it not for the over- 
whelming preponderance of American ton- 
nage in the tanker trade, the part played by 
vessels of the United States in our oversea 
trade would not be nearly so important. 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The Hansa Steam Navigation Co., of Bremen, 
declared a dividend of 10 per cent for last year, 
the same as for the previous year. 

The shipbuilding yard at Cockatoo Island, 
Australia, has been closed and most of the 
employes dismissed. Two thousand men were 
employed at one time. 

The coal trade between England and Ham 
burg- has revived considerably and about 
twenty cargoes a week have been arriving at 
the German port. Shipments by towing 
barges are to be inaugurated by means (it 
concrete lighters from Newcastle. 

Five of the cargo steamers owned by the 
Holland-America line are laid up, among 
them being two new vessels. The company, 
which has three steamers under construction, 
intends to sell its old steamers, some of which 
are between eighteen and twenty years of 
age. 

The ferry service vessel Jufuku Maru lias 
been launched at the Mitsubishi plant in 
Kobe. The Jufuku Maru is a sister of the 
Keifuku Maru, recently launched in the same 
yard. Each is of 3.500 gross tons. Both 
vessels will run between Shimonoseki and 
Fusan. 

The largest marine Diesel engine in the 
world is now under construction at the plant 
of" Sulzer Bros, in Switzerland. The engine 
will have 3,500 shaft horsepower. However, 
there are larger engines contemplated. The 
same plant is building three naval engine- of 
4,000 shaft horsepower* 

Inchkeith. the island in the middle of the 
Firth of Forth, has got a "wireless light- 
house" from which signals are sent out dur- 
ing fog to all ships within a radius of 
nautical miles, telling them how to navigate 
stuary. The installation is. as yet. ex- 
perimental, but it promises well. 

In spite of the Swedish Railway Board's 
recommendation against the further use of 
Spitsbergen coal, the Government of Sweden 
has ordered the board to conclude an agree- 
ment with the Svenska Stenkolsaktiebolaget 
Spitsbergen for the delivery of a further 



17.000 tons this summer and 50.000 tons in 
1923. 

The Societe Proven^ale de Constructions 
X a vales, La Ciotat. near Marseilles, has just 
launched the tank steamer Merope, the first 
of her type to be built at this yard. The 
principal dimensions of this vessel are: Length 
between perpendiculars, 432 feet; breadth, 57 
feet; and depth, 35 feet; while her displace- 
ment is 14,470 tons. 

Freight rates on the Upper Elbe have re- 
cently been raised, owing to the increases in 
the wages of the crews of vessels engaged 
in the traffic; but as railway goods rates were 
also raised by 40 per cent at about the same 
time, inland water transport is still the 
cheapest method of getting goods from Ham- 
burg to Berlin, Magdeburg. Breslau or 
1 Dresden. 

The Danish Government transport Ibr- 
mod, 1.950 gross tons, built at the Royal 
Dockyard, Copenhagen, recently underwent 
successful sea trials, maintaining an average 
speed of nine knots. This vessel is 266 feet 
long. 38 feet wide, and 18 feet deep, and is 
fitted with triple expansion engines developing 
800 i.h.p. She is designed for the purpose 
of supplying the fleet with coal, of which 
she can carry 2,200 tons. 

The cargo steamer Molendijk. of 6,700 tons 
carrying capacity, was launched on the 6th 
instant from the Rotterdam yard of the Bur- 
gerhout Shipbuilding and Engineering Com- 
pany. The vessel, which is of the shelter- 
deck type, has been built for the Stooinvaart 

Maatschappij Solleveld, van der Meer en 

T. H. Van Hattum. of Rotterdam, and her 
principal dimensions are: Length, 360 feet; 
breadth, 50 feet; and depth. 32 feet 6 inches. 

The Norwegian press is accusing the Ger- 
man lines, including the Hamburg- Amerika 
and Norddeutscher Lloyd, of unfair competi- 
tion in respect of traffic originating in Scan- 
dinavia for North American ports. It is 
charged that the Germans, through controlled 
subsidiaries, are taking freight at through 
rates under the present low tariffs, which 
hardly pay the costs of operation, with trans- 
shipment at German ports, while officially dis- 
claiming that they cut rates. 

A regular freighl service has been estab- 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



lished between Christiania, Bergen, and Sta- 
vanger in Norway and ports in Iceland. The 
steamer Sirius, 838 gross tons, sailed from 
Christiania with a full cargo on April 5, and 
will be followed by the Tordenskjold, 3,572 
gross tons, about the end of the month. It 
has been stated that a full cargo has been 
booked for the second steamer, made up of 
accumulated freights at Bergen and Stavan- 
ger which the Sirius was unable to load. 

The following ship sales are announced 
from Norway : S. S. Audny, 2,039 register 
tons, built in 1892 and owned by Einersens 
Shipping Company, of Christiania, to M. A. 
Halvorsen, Christiania, for 125,000 kr. ; the 
Ester, a steel ship with auxiliary motor, 450 
tons deadweight, built in 1903, owned by H. 
T. Realfsen, of Skien, sold to Sweden for 
60,000 kr. ; the iron barque Thekla, 851 reg- 
ister tons, built in 1881, sold by Samuelsen 
and Olsen, of Farsund, to Norwegian buyers 
for 30,000 kr. 

The harbor of Petrograd is said to have 
been officially opened to commercial traffic, 
and the Bolshevik paper, Krasnaj Gazetta, 
announces that the Hamburg-Amerika Linie 
intends to establish a regular service between 
New York and Petrograd. The harbor has 
been deepened to twenty-six feet and the 
quay accommodates sixty steamers. Only 
twenty-one, however, can unload at one time. 
The sheds will hold 4,600 carloads of goods, 
but the railway cannot move more than 300 
carloads from the harbor daily. 

The former sloop-of-war Shearwater, which 
for many years operated as a fishery protec- 
tion trawler in British Columbia waters, has 
been offered for sale and purchased by the 
Western Shipping Company, Vancouver. The 
Shearwater was built for service in the Per- 
sian' gulf and was long obsolete. In the last 
days of her ''naval service" the sloop convoyed 
two submarines built at Seattle for the 
Chilean Government but sold to Canada, in 
the halcyon days of war, 1914, forming in a 
measure Canada's protection on this coast. 

The report for 1921 of the Veloce Com- 
pany, a shipping firm at Genoa, states that a 
loss of 3,474,303 lire was incurred owing to 
reasons of a general character resulting from 
the world crisis and to the writing down of 



the value of the fleet, the reduction in the 
value of the ships having amounted to 11,- 
587,000 lire. It has been decided to cover 
the loss by the complete absorption of the 
extraordinary reserve fund of 2,339,000 lire, 
and by the appropriation of the amount of 
the difference from the ordinary reserve fund. 

With a grand total of $27,282,223 for the 
year 1918, the entire output of British Co- 
lumbia fish for 1921 fell to $13,953,450, it is 
learned from the statistics of the Dominion 
Bureau. For the past four years the total 
value of the fish taken in these waters has 
been dropping, but last year presents the 
greatest slump noted since 1911, when the 
industry was but half-organized and under- 
developed. Now it is overdeveloped, some 
say, and underorganized, with too much fish 
being taken from the water at the wrong 
time and place, it is held in many quarters. 

Another Diesel passenger liner, the Du- 
renda, a sister ship of the Domala, has been 
launched at Port Glasgow for the account of 
the British India Steam Navigation Com- 
pany. The new motorship will be equipped 
with a twin screw four-cycle Diesel machinery 
of 3,200 i. h. p. manufactured by the North 
British Diesel Engine Works. Instead of 
being driven by separate Diesel motors, as 
in the cas£ of the Domala, the compressors 
for the supply of injection and starting air 
to the main engines in the new ship are to 
be driven from a single crank at the end of 
the crankshaft of each propelling engine. 

In the first four months of 1921 traffic in 
the port of Hamburg amounted to about 58 
per cent of that in the same period of 1913; 
in 1919 the proportion was 14 per cent, in 
1920, 33 per cent. In September and Octo- 
ber, the best months, traffic reached 80 per 
cent and 82 per cent of the 1913 quantity; 
the average for the whole year is nearly 67 
per cent of the pre-war figure. Formerly 
German tonnage participated to the extent 
of from 50 to 55 per cent in this traffic, but 
at present its share only amounts to 20 per 
cent. It is particularly noteworthy that 
American shipping, which was rarely seen 
in Hamburg before the war, now occupies 
the third place after the British, who are first, 
and the Germans, who are second. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



LABOR NEWS 



Officials of the Associated Industrie 
Kansas announce that they will resist the 
recent wage order of the State Industrial 
Court which raised rates for women 50 cents 
and $1 a week. The law was splendid when 
used to jail workers, but when used to raise 
wages, liberty is jeopardized. 

The Socialist party of the United States 
broke away from its traditional policy of 
standing aloof from alliances or affiliations 
with other political organizations by author- 
izing its State organizations, if they so de- 
sire, to co-operate with labor and farmer 
organizations in political activity. 

Diesel engineers on the Atlantic Coast, 
members of the Ocean Association <>i Marine 
Engineers, have adopted a separate wage 
scale. Vessels have been divided into 
classes, ranging from 150 tons upward to 
12,000 tons, the wage scale for chiefs being 
$300 a month for the A class, down to $150 
in the smaller craft. 

The Washington State Supreme Court re- 
fused a writ of habeas corpus to a Seattle 
contractor who was fined and sentenced to 
serve thirty days in jail because he violated 
the city's minimum wage ordinance. The 
court told the contractor that the Superior 
Court could relieve him, if he were wronged. 
Underpaid employes swore out the warrant. 

Last year there were but five coal mine 
accidents resulting in five or more deaths 
each, and the total number from such acci- 
dents was only thirty-four, says the United 
States Bureau of Mines. This number of 
accidents is smaller than for any preceding 
year since annual accidents of coal mine fatal- 
ities has been published by the Federal Gov- 
ernment. 

Low wages paid common labor in the steel 
industry is shown by the report from Buffalo 
that the Lackawanna Steel Company has 
raised wages from 23 cents an hour to 26 
cents. Rates for the steel trust are slightly 
higher. When the latter made its first re- 
duction it assured workers that the quick 



return t«i prosperity and lower living prices 
would equalize their losses. 

A joint resolution proposing an amendment 
to the Federal Constitution, giving Congress 
the right to regulate or prohibit the employ- 
ment of children under eighteen years of 
age, has been introduced in the Senate by 
Mr. Johnson of California, who said it is an 
effort to meet the situation resulting from 
the recent decision of the Supreme Court 
holding the Child Labor law unconstitutional. 

A bill, said to be designed to protect New 
England manufacturers and enable them to 
compete with southern competition, has been 
introduced into the Senate by Senator Moses 
of New Hampshire. The bill limits to eight 
hours the labor service in any mine, quarry, 
mill, workshop, factory or manufacturing es- 
tablishment situated in the United States, and 
engaged in the production of wares which 
enter into interstate commerce. 

Mill and lumber owners at Klamath Palls, 
Oregon, are now "inducing*' business men 
to urge mill workers to accept tile nine-hour 
day. The State Board of Conciliation ruled 
that the eight-hour day should prevail, but 
the bosses rejected the award and are at- 
tempting to develop a public opinion that 
will justify their course. The owners have 
assumed an air of injured innocence and 
"express regret that politics had to play its 
part in the board's proceedings." 

The recent convention of the Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Firemen and Lnginemen re- 
jected a proposal to create a $5 .000,000 fund 
for the establishment of a daily newspaper 
to be published in the interests of organized 
labor. Officers were instructed to join with 
other labor organizations so disposed in con- 
sidering the establishment of a labor-owned 
paper mill. The committee reported that 
such an ownership would "eliminate enor- 
mous excess profits to the paper combine." 

During the first four months of this year 
the number of third-class passengers leaving 
the United States in steamships exceeded 
the number of immigrants of the same class 
by nearly two to one. The total number of 
third-class arrivals between January 1 and 
April 30 was 28.122. compared with 48.870 
departures. During the corresponding period 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



last year, the immigrants totaled 166,088 and 
the emigrants 82,238. Immigration restric- 
tions seem to be serving their purpose well. 

The Central Labor Union of Toledo, Ohio, 
has started suit against Mayor Brough and 
other officials to compel them to pay city 
laborers the wage scale set by the City Coun- 
cil. The council's minimum rate of 50 cents 
an hour has never been repealed, but this 
does not affect the mayor, who was elected 
by the "law and order" element on an "econ- 
omy" platform. The unionists are demand- 
ing that the mayor set an example for law 
and order, and if he thinks wages are too 
high, let him ask the council to make the 
change, as provided by law. 

Striking miners have exposed the Tamaqua 
(Pa.) Courier because it published letters 
alleged to be signed by miners who pro- 
tested against the miners' strike and who 
complained against officers of the Miners' 
Union. In a letter to the editor, the trade 
unionists declare they have investigated and 
found the documents to be false. "We be- 
lieve," the miners say, "that these letters are 
inspired by interests unfriendly to the mine 
workers, and by your paper publishing the 
same without investigation you are only fol- 
lowing out your attitude of unfairness, as 
you have done in previous strikes and sus- 
pensions." 

Few locomotive firemen ever win a place 
on the right side of the cab, and but six in 
every 100 ever get placed in the passenger 
service, according to information furnished 
by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- 
neers. "The training, skill and physical per- 
fection required of an engineer is such that 
the great majority of engine wipers, hostlers 
and firemen who spend years of labor pre- 
paring for the opportunity to grasp the throt- 
tle fall by the wayside in the thorough elim- 
ination of the less fit. Even after rejecting 
all who cannot measure up to the strictest 
tests for height, perfect vision, heart action, 
blood pressure, etc., 17 per cent of the fire- 
men who aspire to become engineers are 
rejected at the end of three years because 
their eyesight becomes impaired by the fierce 
glare of a grate of coals throwing off 2,800 
degrees of heat. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



The Chilean Minister of the Interior has 
signed a contract to transport mail matter 
between Chile and the United States on 
board steamers of the Grace Line. The 
service will include two despatches monthly. 

The British Governor of Fiji has stated 
that plans are being worked out for the in- 
troduction of the cattle industry in Fiji, in 
connection with which it is proposed to have 
a returned soldiers' settlement and the de- 
velopment of dairy interests. 

The direct loss to the community, due to 
the strike in the coal and gold mines and in 
the power stations and engineering shops at 
Johannesburg, South Africa, together with 
the loss occasioned by the subsequent mili- 
tary movements, which covered a period of 
ten weeks, is estimated at $35,000,000. 

A reflex of the American coal miners' 
strike is seen in the coal output of the 
United Kingdom in the first quarter of this 
year. The output during those three months 
was 61,000,000 tons, or 7,000,000 tons more 
than in the first quarter of last year ; and 
exports were 13,250,000 tons, or 7,750,000 tons 
more than in the first three months of 1921. 

The woolen textile industry of New 
Zealand is' said to have large possibilities for 
development. Consequently, interested com- 
mercial bodies who are desirous of making a 
manufacturing center of Auckland have 
brought about the erection of a woolen carpet 
and rug factory which will be put into opera- 
tion in the near future, pending successful 
endeavors to attract skilled textile workers 
from England. 

A cut in the wages of stevedores and 
porters and the steadily increasing rentals 
were the subjects of discussion at a large 
meeting of laborers, recently held at George- 
town, British Guiana. A vigorous demonstra- 
tion was made and although it was decided 
to continue work, several thousand laborers 
proceeded to the government building and 
petitioned the Combined Court, which was 
then in session, for legislative relief. 

The first private building and construction 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



company in Soviet Russia has recently been 
formed and registered. Its object is to re- 
construct semi-demolished houses and build- 
ings, to complete half-finished buildings and 
to carry out building repairs, etc. Shares in 
this company may be held by building firms, 
co-operatives and private individuals. The 
company will begin operations with the capi- 
tal subscribed by shareholders, but State 
subsidies are expected in the future. 

An institute for workers' education has 
been formed at Tokyo, consisting of five de- 
partments. Mr. Bunji Suzuki, formerly hon- 
orary president of the Yuai Kai, is concen- 
trating' on making the project a success, and 
already a Japanese labor school has been 
started, with 160 students, whose ages vary 
from 19 to 60. The subjects taught include 
industrial politics, factory management, juris- 
prudence, labor, legislation, psychology, po- 
litical economy, sociology, social politics, 
social theory, history of trade unionism and 
the labor movement. 

An agreement has been made to fix the 
wages of all sections of workers in the 
cotton industry of England for the next thir- 
teen months. If, at the end of twelve months, 
either employers or operatives desire a re- 
vision they are required to give a month's 
notice to the other side. The effect of the 
agreement is that there is to be an immediate 
reduction in wages to the extent of 40 per 
cent on what are known as the standard 
piece-price list rates, and at the end of six 
months a further reduction of 10 per cent 
to last for the next six months. 

The Stevedores' Union of Tampico, Mexico, 
arranged to take over, on May 1, the work 
of loading and discharging freight handled 
by the Tampico custom-house. For the past 
ten years this work has been performed by 
an American company, which had a conces- 
sion for the work from the Mexican Gov- 
ernment and a contract with the National 
Railway system for equipment to move 
height from the custom house. The Steve- 
lores' Union was awarded a loan of 100,000 
pesos ($50,000) by the State of Tamaulipas 
to enable it to purchase equipment for carry- 
ing on the w<.rk. 

It is said that in spite of the very low 



of operation under the German flag, due 
chiefly to the small wages paid the crews 
when converted into foreign exchange, there 
is no longer any incentive for Swedish owners 
to run their ships under German registry. 
The matter, however, seem- controversial. 
for while one of the Swedish ore companies 
is making arrangements to put its ships back 
under the Swedish flag, other owners will 
adhere to the present status. About twenty 
former Swedish ships, ranging between 2,000 
and 5,000 tons each, are said to be running 
under the German flag at present. 

The current issue of the British Labor 
Gazette (published by the Ministry of Labor) 
reports further substantial reductions in 
wages. In the industries and services for 
which statistics are collected by the depart- 
ment, the changes in rates of wages reported 
during the month resulted in a reduction of 
approximately £700.000 in the weekly full- 
time wages of 3.200,000 workpeople. The 
increases reported amounted to only .about 
£7,000 per week in the wages of 150,000 
workpeople. The principal bodies of work- 
people whose wages were reduced were build- 
ing trade operatives, workpeople in the cotton 
and wool textile industries, coal miners, and 
railway servants. 

The Social Department of Norway is con- 
sidering whether to submit the question of 
seamen's wages agreements to the recently 
established arbitration court for settlement. 
The seamen's organization-, having failed to 
induce tin- owners to make agreements, main 
tain that this constitutes a labor dispute and 
is a case for the application of the arbitra- 
tion law. In a general discussion on the sub- 
ject before tin- Norwegian Shipowners' A v sso 
ciation, it was stated that, while conditions 
had no doubt improved to some extent, the 
position at pre -cut was, generally speaking, 
worse than in 1914. A resolution was car- 
ried to the effect that there i> no dispute 
between the seamen and the shipowners: the 
position of the shipping industry is at pi 
so uncertain that it is impossible to fix wages 
by tariffs; the Government is strongly urged 
to refrain from authorizing official interfer- 
ence with the wages question. 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



International Seafarers' Federation 



C. Damm, Sec'y, 9 Dubois St., Antwerp, Belgium 



AFFILIATED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL 
UNIONS 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA 
International Seamen's Union of America 

Thomas A. Hanson, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

[A complete list of the district unions and 
branches affiliated with the International Seamen's 
Union of America will be found on page 2.] 



BELGIUM 
Belgische Zeemandsbond (Belgian Seamen's Union) 
30 Brouwersvliet, Antwerp J. Chapelle, Sec'y 



DENMARK 
Dansk S6-Restaurations Forening (Danish Cooks 

and Stewards' Union) 
Lille Strandstrede 20, Copenhagen. .K. Spliid, Sec'y 
Somendenes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Seamen's 

Union) 
Toldbodgade 15, Copenhagen. .. .C. Borgland, Sec'y 
S6-Fyrbodernes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Fire- 
men's Union) 
Toldbodgade 13, Copenhagen E. Jacobsen, Sec'y 



FINLAND 

Finska Sjomans-och Eldare Unionen (Finnish 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Circusgatan 5, Helsingfors, Finland.. C. Ahonen, Sec. 



FRANCE 
Federation Nationalle des Syndicats Maritimes de 

France (French Seamen's Union) 
4 Ave. de L'Opera, Paris. .Monsieur L. Reaud, Sec. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 
National Sailors & Firemen's Union of Great 
Britain and Ireland 
St. George's Hall, Westminster Bridge Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. 1. E. Cathery, Sec'y 
Hull Seamen's Union 

1 Railway St., Hull G. W. McKee, Sec'y 

United Kingdom Pilots' Association 
69 Queens Square, Bristol Joseph Brown, Sec'y 

GREECE 
Federation Panhellenique des Ouvriers Corpotations 

Maritimes (Greece Seamen's Federation) 
Le Pireaus, Greece T. Mallossis, Sec'y 

HOLLAND 

Zeelieden Vereeniging-Eendracht (Dutch Seamen's 

Union) 

Vestaland 22, Rotterdam D. L. Wolfson, Sec'v 



ITALY 

Federazione Nazionale di Lavatori de Mare (Italian 

Seamen's Federation) 

Piazza St., Larcellino, Genoa.. Capt. G. Gulietti, Seci 



NORWAY 

Norsk Matros & Fyrboter-Union (Norwegian 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Grev Wedels Plads 5, Christiania. .A. Birkeland, Sec. 

Norsk Sjorestaurations Landsforbund (Norwegian 

Cooks & Stewards' Union) 

Gronlandsleret 5, Christiania. .H. Johannessen, Sec'y 



SWEDEN 

Svenska Sjomans Unionen (Swedish Sailors' 

Union) 

Fjerde Langgatan 25, Gothenburg. .E. Griph, Sec'y 

Svenska Eldare Unionen (Swedish Firemen's Union) 

Andra Langgatan 46, Gothenburg 

S. Lundgreen, Sec'y 

Nya Stewartsforeningen (New Swedish Stewards' 
Union) 

Stigsbergsgatan 12, Gothenburg 

C. Q. Johannsan, Sec'y 



International Seamen's Union 
of America 

(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Agent 

1016 First Avenue, South 
P. O. Box 875 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM MEEHAN, Agent 

613 Beacon Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 8"6 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P.. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 166 Steuart Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



75,000 Friends 

TTH1S bank, through its various departments and branches, serves 
A more than 75,000 customers. These customers are our friends 
and it is our endeavor to render an efficient and complete banking 
service to them at all times, flwe cordially welcome you to our 
ever-growing list of customers. One splendid way to become a 
depositor in this bank is to open a savings account. Savings 
accounts may be started with $1 or more and the same courteous 
friendly service is given to both small and large depositors. 

Anglo-CaliforniaTrust Cot 



COMMERCIAL 



SAVINGS TRUST BOND 



DEPARTMENTS 




CThe CUy^Wide Bank* 

Market to Sansome Streets 
San Francisco 





A COPY OF AXTELL'S HAND BOOK, 

"Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen" 

WILL SAVE SEAMEN TIME, LITIGA- 
TION AND MONEY. WILL PREVENT 
MUCH INJUSTICE IF SHOWN TO 
OFFICERS AND CONSULAR AGENTS. 
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH 
A POUND OF CURE. 

You can also learn much about the 
political law making and law enforcing 
institutions of your country from this 
book: equal opportunity before the law 
is the essence of American democracy. 
Read this and find out what equal 
opportunity means. 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES PUB. CO. 

Iver Olbers, A. B., Sales Manager 
4 South St.. 3rd floor, New York City 



For Twenty Years we have issued this Union Stamp for use under our 

Voluntary Arbitration Contract 

OUR STAMP INSURES: 
Peaceful Collective Bargaining. 
Forbids Both Strikes and Lockouts. 
Disputes Settled by Arbitration. 
Steady Employment; Skilled Workmanship 
Prompt Deliveries to Dealers and Public. 
Peace and Success to Workers and Employers. 
Prosperity of Shoe Making Communities. 
As loyal union men and women, we ask 
vou to demand shoes bearing the above 
Union Stamp on Sole, Insole or Lining. 

BOOT & SHOE WORKERS' UNION 

246 SUMMER STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 
Collis Lovely, General Pres. Charles L. Balne, General Sec.-Treas. 




SMOKERS 




See that this label (In light blue) appears on 
the box In which you are served 



ci the Cigar Makers' International Union or America. 



, fades total 



Union-made Cigars. 

U* Cqwt eom»mtd mthu box »»»« I 
«MlMKR0f TH[rjGMIUMia , 'IIUIlMTIO«AlUMlO*ol A«tr<* in orunuoo* devoUd MOUHl- 

t of tU HORAl JUURlUind IN1UUCTUM. WW AM Of TMl Ottfl I 
tkttt Ci«*re to til smoMn Uwouanout tut worid. 

M *Ub« puwlwd *<x«ifa<« to IMA. 



9. W- fiLvkCtut. to**** 

V CM / l/oj 



«-WAWv -*" "V*(. ,«•,'.■«!• *»&•, ■':?**. 0*»»V*«*> 




DEMAND THE UNION LABEL 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg.. Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 

Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"If you want a becoming 

hat, be coming to '" 



Largest Exclusive Hatters in the West 

MAIN STORE 1082 MARKET 

26 THIRD 605 KEARNY 

3242 MISSION 2640 MISSION 

cAlto in Lot Angela 
cAgencies in other California Cities 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal' 



Insuring the Cheers. — "Your 
constituents cheer your speeches 
enthusiastically." 

"Why shouldn't they?" replied 
Senator Sorghum. "I always take 
care to avoid saying anything 
that is not in line with their 
present sentiments." — Washington 
Star. 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



Standard Seamanship 

for the 

Merchant Service 

By FELIX RIESENBERG, E. C. 

Late Commander of the schoolship "Newport" 



942 Pages and 625 Illustrations — Price, $7.50 
D. Van Nostrand Company, Publishers 



Gontaining virtually all the knowl- 
edge extant that conquers the sea 
through seamanship 



SEND YOUR ORDERS TO 

THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

525 Market Street - - - San Francisco, Calif. 



SAILORS ! ATTENTION ! 
When in Eureka, drop in at — 

BENJAMIN'S 

The old reliable Clothier and Shoe Man 

Fourteen years of square dealing with Seamen 

325-329 Second Street, EUREKA, California 






Do You Want the Truth? 

This year there will be stirring 
times in the Nation. Under gov- 
ernment censorship it is increas- 
ingly difficult for the average man 
to get the real meaning of the 
social and political movements of 
the day. 

LaFollette's 



Maga 



zine 

will be specially represented at 
Washington and will analyze and 



present the news from the capital 
truthfully and fairly. Senator La- 
Follette is making a real fight to 
life some of the tax. burdens from 
the common people and place them 
where they belong — on excess prof- 
its, war profits and surplus fortunes 
and incomes. Because of this he 
is being attacked more bitterly than 
any other man in public life. 

Send in your order today 

$1.00 Per Year— Agents Wanted 
La Follette's Magazine, Madison, Wis. 



BEST SMOKE ON EARTH 

RED SEAL CIGAR 

UNION MADE 

RED SEAL CIGAR CO. 
Manufacturers 

762 Valencia St., San Francisco 
Phone Park 9401 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

EVERYTHING GUARANTEED 
UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

First and Commercial Streets 

RAYMOND, WASH. 



.11 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie' 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



Office Phone Main 2665 
Residence Phone Elliott 4271- W 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

435-36 Globe Bldg., First and Madison SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connection 

Iroadway at Olive St. Seattle 



UNITED STATES 



^ 



L ABo& 

"rheUB0Rp REs 
onefonnoran n rL ln 
lsconcededtl ,h "' 
authority to b 7 e £\ 

lt re ach esl h einass£S 



pKESS 

^.;aldf..llcfmfnt 
gfabor Paper published 

.- ' ■■ 

EMPLOYEE UIERan4 



K^ 



ASSOCIATION 



NEW LOCATION 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Ave. Opp. Totem Pole 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 

For the BEST there is In TAILORING 

Less the Fancy Prices 
NOTE— S. G. Swanson is not con- 
nected with any dye works and has 
no solicitors. Clothes made also from 
your own cloth. Repairing, cleaning 
and pressing. Second floor. Bank of 
San Pedro, 110 W 6th St., San Pedro, 
Los Angeles Waterfront, Cal. 



^jgS2^ 




CATARRH 
of BLADDER 



Protect Your Health 

Always Use 



SANYKITg 



(Sanitary KM) 

PREVENTIVE 

A Compound of Modern R<-<<riirch 
Afford* Complolo Protection 

All Druggists or 
IIP.O, Boy. 199. Now York 



Natural Climax. — "Jim Bilkins 
is dead." 

"How come?'' 

"He stuck his head into the Red 
Dog saloon and hollered FIRE." 

"Well?" 

"They did." — Siren. 



Xot Past Hope.— Patron of the 
Arts — "Eighty-five francs? That's 
rather expensive for the work of 
a painter who's still alive." 

Art Dealer — "Well, you might 
give me the money, and I'll see 
what can be done about it." — Le 
Matin. 



SEAMEN 
You Know Me 




I am 
"YOUR HATTER" 

FRED AMMANN 

I sell 
UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If vou want vour Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



Navigation Laws of 
the United States 

The Seamen's Act and all other 
features of the law applicable 
to seamen. 
Handbook, Navigation Laws of 

the United States 
Third edition. Including wage 
tables, department rulings, etc. 
Completely indexed. A ready 
reference work for practical sea- 
men, shipmasters and ship own- 
ers. Price $1.50. 

The Seaman's Contract 
A complete reprint of all laws 
relating to seamen as enacted 
by Congress, 1790-1918. Includ- 
ing the laws of Oleron and a 
summary of the history of each 
law. Reprinted verbatim' from 
the Statutes at Large and Re- 
vised Statutes, Tables and In- 
dex. Designed for the use of 
admiralty lawyers. Price $4.00. 
Compiled by Walter Macarthur 
Published by 
JAMES H. BARRY CO. 
1122 Mission St., San Francisco 



Lenient, at That.— "The Poet 

Laureate." says a weekly paper, 
"used to get a butt of sack for his 

trouble." But nowadays many 

people arc thinking that the butt 

should be dispensed with. — Pass- 
ing Show. 



July, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



KELLEHER & BROWNE 

THE IRISH TAILORS 

716 Market Street, San Francisco 



SUITS AND 

OVERCOATS 

to order at popular 
prices 



at Third and Kearny 

Established 
for 20 years 



All work done in 

our own sanitary 

workshop 



Represented by 



E. Peguillan 



The United States Government 

offers you a 

COMPLETE SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT 
SERVICE 

:;: :;: * 

POSTAL SAVINGS 

for the deposit of your money; 

Treasury Savings Certificates 

for investment 

AT THE POST OFFICE 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Anyone knowing whereabouts 
of Fred Solberg, native of Fred- 
rickstad, Norway, please notify 
Axel Fredericksen, Box 14, Frank- 
fort, Mich. 



Members of the crew of the 
steamship Basford and barge 
Winapie, which vessels were for- 
merly owned by the France & 
Canada Oil & Transport cases, 
communicate with these offices at 
once. Funds ready for disburse- 
ment. Law Offices, Adrian F. 
Levy, Trust Building, Galveston, 
Texas. 



Members of the crew of S. S. 
Baldhill please communicate with 
this office at once. Funds ready 
for disbursement. Law Offices, 
Adrian F. Levy, Trust Building, 
Galveston, Texas. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Any person knowing the ad- 
dress of Paul Raddate, formerly 
second mate of the Mary Winkle- 
man, will confer a favor by send- 
ing it to John T. Smith, Room 
708, 311 California street, San 
Francisco, Calif. 



Any one knowing the where- 
abouts of William Parkins, for- 
merly a member of the Marine 
Firemen's Union, last heard of 
when he left the S.S. Memaha in 
New York, June 9, 1921, please 
communicate with Ralph Rivers, 
335 Eddy St., Providence, R. I. 



Correct Impression, Too. — Jud 
Tunkins says a thoroughly self- 
satisfied man always gives the im- 
pression of being easily pleased. — 
Washington Evening Star. 



TOM WILLIAMS 

UP-TO-DATE TAILOR 

Also Ready-to-Wear Clothes 

28 SACRAMENTO STREET 
Phone Douglas 4874 San Francisco 



Phone Garfield 2457 

HOTEL EVANS 

ED COLL, Prop. 

LARGE SUNNY ROOMS 
Clean, Comfortable — Low Rates 

CORNER FRONT AND BROADWAY 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Kearny 3863 

JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing. All kinds of Watches and 
Jewelry 

676 THIRD STREET 

At 3rd and Townsend, San Francisco 

Phone Kearny 519 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 5348 



Phone Kearny 693 

Argonaut Outfitting 
Company 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING, FURNISHINGS, HATS, 

SHOES, ETC. 

A Complete Stock at Most Reasonable 

Prices : : : : Union Made Goods Only 

103 EAST ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



A Dotty Reply. — Captain Jef- 
fords hailed two of the craft and 
asked them if they needed assis- 
tance, but the hardy skippers an- 
swered "..o." — New York Times. 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1922 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL, is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
I any branch of Navigation. 
] The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION MADF ^ complete line of seamen's shirts and 

garments of all kinds, union made right 

CUIDTC here in California, sold direct from factory 

to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street. San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Eagleson & Co, 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH. 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Pier No. 1. Rooms 37-38-39 
SEATTLE, WASH. 





Telephone Sutter 5600 

Women Are 
Invited to Visit 
Madame Richet 

Madame Richet is a FOUNT 
OF INFORMATION! You 
will find her in the Pattern 
Department ready to solve 
YOUR particular problems 
on Dress Construction, De- 
signing, Embellishment, Pat- 
terns, Etc. 

FREE OF CHARGE 

Let Madame Richet show you 
how to make a Paper Strip 
Dress Form! In fact, ask 
her anything pertaining to 
DRESS and she will answer 
you — gladly and wisely. 

No Charge 

SECOND FLOOR 

MARKET AT FIFTH 
SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished- Hard wearing 

$QQ WORSTED 
OO SUITS 

See Them in our Windows - 




fl5?-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 

una of two individuals, for 

instance, man and wife, either of 

whom may deposit money for or 

draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 

SAVINGS BANK 



783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 




^^w- s=r^rr --—-— j^-^-rerft^Braggis* .. ^, ■' '^, ;^,.,n. -,^»»»y^; ., v.. . . ...OTX^; 



Official Or^an of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^IIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIM 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Gontents 

Page 

STEEL TRUST CHALLENGED 3 

MISLEADING PROPAGANDA 4 

WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING DATA 5 

EDITORIALS: 

THE INDUSTRIAL CRISIS 6 

WILL AMERICANS GO TO SEA? 7 

ASIATIC SEAMEN'S UNIONS 8 

REGARDING THAT "HANDICAP" 8 

SHIP SUBSIDY BILL AMENDED 10 

WAGE THEORIES 10 

THE QUESTION OF DUES 11 

SEAMEN'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS 11 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR MEMBERSHIP ., 12 

THE AGE OF MERCHANT VESSELS 13 

SHIP SUBSIDY AND PUBLICITY 13 

THE IMPORTANCE OF LIQUOR 14 

INSURANCE OF BELGIAN FISHERMEN 14 

LEGISLATIVE ABSURDITIES 15 

SEAMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES IN JAPAN 15 

CANADIAN SEAMEN'S DISCHARGE BOOK 15 

COMPULSORY ARBITRATION IN NORWAY 16 

A GLIMPSE AT HIGH FINANCE 16 

CENSUS OF BRITISH SEAMEN 17 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 18 

EXALTING THE INEFFICIENT 18 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 20,21,22,23 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 24, 25, 26 



VOL. XXXVI, No. 4 
WHOLE No. 1903 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
AUGUST 1, 1922 



SfllllllllllHIIIIIllllllOIIIIIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIII OIIIIIIIIIIOII ■ II I Jll I ■ IC^ I II I f 1 1 1 ■ ■ ■ I C3 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 II C3I II II 111 ■ 1 II C3 1 II 1 1 II I II ■ I C2 1 II 1 ■ 111 ■ 1 II C31 1 1 II I II II 1 1 C3 ■ I ■• f 1 1 1 ■ ■ IIC3 1 1 1 f 11 f ■ III If 3 f I f IT^ 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

70 South Street 

BALTIMORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN 1NGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

MOBILE. Ala E. A. OLSEN, Agent 

69% Saint Michael Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex P. MONAHAN, Agent 

132 Proctor Street 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK CITY, N. Y 12 South Street 

H. P. GRIFFIN, President 

W. L. CARTLEDGE. Secretarv-Treasurer 

Telephone Bowling Green 8840-8841 

Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Agent 

514 Greenwich Street 

BOSTON, Mass J. A. MARTIN, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

228 Lafayette Street 

BALTIMORE, Md H. MEYERS, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa FRANK NOLAN, Agent 

140 South Third St. 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. F. BULLOCK, Agent 

2117% Avenue A 

PROVIDENCE, R. I WM. BELL, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 

ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Phone John 0975 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa CHAS. AUGUSTSON, Agent 

206 Moravian Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. W. HANSON, Agent 

321% Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va PETER McKILLOP, Agent 

513 East Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala VINCENT THORN, Agent 

69% Saint Michael St. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I T. HASSARD, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mas? 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 

NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

111 South Street 

ATLANTIC CITY. N. J H. F. McGARRIGEL, Agent 

700 North Rhode Island Avenue 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 

ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis _ 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

Phone Dearborn 6413 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ASHTABULA. HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO, 111 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 Day Street 

TOLEDO, 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, N. Y 122% Main Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

BAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C R. TOWNSEND, Agent 

P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

Central Labor Council, 1151% Broadway 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

Alnsworth Building, Room 27 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS. Agent 

P. O. Box 314 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



STEEL TRUST CHALLENGED 




HE Lake Carriers' Association is 
dominated by the Steel Trust. The 
guiding star of the Steel Trust 
(otherwise known as the United 
States Steel Corporation) is Judge 
Gary, the recognized world's champion of 
the twelve-hour workday. 

The latest available data shows that no less 
than 69,284 workers, employed by this trust 
in the manufacture of steel, still work the 
twelve-hour turn. 

All the deck crews on Lake Carriers' Asso- 
ciation vessels are still required to work 
twelve-hour shifts. 

All other Great Lakes vessels have for 
years past operated under an eight-hour 
workday. 

This tells the sordid story in brief and 
will serve as an introduction to the strike 
resolution which has just been adopted by 
a general referendum vote of the three 
Great Lakes District Unions chartered to 
the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica. The self-explanatory strike resolution 
follows : 

Strike Resolution 

"Whereas, Labor-saving machinery has 
made it possible for the worker ashore to 
produce much more in eight hours than he 
formerly produced when working twelve 
hours, and the shore worker, by constant agi- 
tation through his union, has derived some of 
the benefit of this labor-saving machinery 
by getting his working day reduced to eight 
hours ; and 

"Whereas, The ships of the Lake Car- 
riers' Association — the machines with which 
the sailor works — have been so perfected 
within the past few years that they carry 
approximately five times the cargo they then 
did with very little or no increase in the 
number of sailors required, and the loading 
and unloading facilities have been so per- 
fected that one of these large ships has a 
quicker turn-around in port than was for- 
merly given ships one-fifth as large, all of 
which has brought about a condition whereby 
a given number of sailors, using modern 



Lake bulk freighters, will bring down in a 
season at least five times as much iron ore 
as could be brought down by the same num- 
ber of sailors a few years ago ; and 

"Whereas, Despite these facts the Lake 
Carriers' Association still requires the sailors 
on their ships to work twelve hours a day, 
seven days a week, which was the workday 
in effect for sailors when Christopher Co- 
lumbus discovered America, and which lead- 
ing authorities pronounce to be injurious to 
the mental and physical wellbeing of all 
people who work it ; and 

'"Whereas, The Lake Carriers' Association, 
in declaring for the Open Shop policy imme- 
diately following the season of 1907, led the 
sailors to believe that they did not have to 
be organized or to have yearly collective 
bargaining agreements with that association 
in order to obtain decent wages ; and 

"Whereas, The cost of living, according 
to United States Government figures, has in- 
creased 103^ per cent from 1907 until May, 
1922, and therefore the sailors, in order to 
be obtaining the same relative wage that they 
had in 1907, should now be receiving SI 11.90 
per month, and the ordinary seamen should 
be receiving a proportionate wage, and at 
those figures they would not be receiving- 
one cent more in real wages, based on the 
purchasing power of money, than they had 
in 1907; and 

"Whereas, All these things plainly show 
that the Welfare Plan Open Shop policy of 
the Lake Carriers' Association is a snare and 
a delusion, cunningly designed to lull the 
sailors into a false sense of security while 
it is at the same time deliberately robbing 
them ; therefore be it 

"Resolved, That the Executive Board of 
the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes is 
hereby authorized to call a strike on the 
ships of the Lake Carriers' Association at 
such time during the season of 1922 as the 
board may deem it advisable, for the purpose 
of obtaining an increase in wages and better 
working conditions on those ships." 

Anent the foregoing resolution it may be 
said that the labor policy of the Steel Trust 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



and its subsidiary companies presents a glar- 
ing example of plutocracy's indifference to 
basic human rights. Everything is sacrificed 

to maintain a high rate of dividends. 

The average net income of the corporation 
from 1901 to the end of 1920, after deducting 
all operating expenses, ordinary maintenance 
and repairs, and generous appropriations for 
depreciation, depletion and sinking funds, was 
approximately $118,000,000 per year. This 
means that the returns on the $868,000 of 
common and preferred stock have been at the 
rate of approximately 13'j per cent an- 
nually — this in spite of the fact that orig- 
inally more than half of this stock was "pure 
water." 

If the rate of return on capital stock had 
been reduced to 10 per cent, the additional 
amount available for wages would have been 
more than $30,000,000 annually; and if the 
rate had been reduced to 7 per cent, the ad- 
ditional amount available for wages would 
have been more than $56,000,000 annually. 
Either of these sums would have gone a long 
way toward making possible the abolition of 
the twelve-hour day, and raising the wages 
of unskilled workers to a point where they 
could maintain a decent standard of living, 

Kirby Page, writing in the Atlantic Monthly, 
submits the foregoing figures together with 
other startling facts bearing upon the business 
methods of the steel octopus. 

The organized seamen of the Great Lakes 
District are making a gallant fight. They 
know the difficulties confronting them, but 
they also know that right and justice when 
backed by grit and perseverance will triumph 
in the end. No doubt. Judge Gary will des- 
perately cling to his l.W. per cent. Never- 
theless, industrial autocracy of the Steel Trust 
variety is heading straight for the ash can. 
To be sure, the judge is not expected to 
observe the drift of the tide. Some folks 
challenge a windmill and others are skeptical 
about the truth of the old adage which tells 
US that '"time and tide wait for no man"! 



MISLEADING PROPAGANDA 



It is reasonable to assume that a man's 
affiliation with an organization of any kind 
would be followed by attention to its theory 
and practice. In studying the individual atti- 
tude of labor union members toward their 
organizations, however, it is discovered that 
little effort is made to acquire this knowl- 
edge. To dwell Upon the causes for this neg- 
ligence would be a waste of time. A few- 
facts should suffice. 

fhe intent of unionism is to make collec- 
tive bargaining beneficial to employers and 
employes. Attempts on the part of either 
to destroy the other retards social and in- 
dustrial development and prevents mutual ad- 
vantages that would otherwise accrue. 

Union workers have never reached that 
>tage of proficiency in managing their work 
so apparent in the organization of employers. 
Corruption wrought by the illicit u- 
weaith has poisoned the public mind and 
sapped the vitality of the union spirit. If 
employers had been content to work out the 
problems of industry by facing the issues 
squarely with those directly concerned, there 
would have been no industrial crisis. Those 
untold millions surreptitiously diverted from 
profits to submerge the union spirit would 
have stabilized industry on an equitable basis. 

These sinister influences are largely respon- 
sible for the apathy of the workers and the 
estrangement of public sentiment and are 
the outward manifestations of hidden disease. 

Xo other movement in the history of the 
world has been subject to so much misleading 
propaganda. It has become an impression- 
istic form of education requiring no effort 
in assimilation. The effects, then, of any 
study of the theory and practice of organized 
labor depend Upon the sources of information. 
A false structure lies invitingly before us. 
Indeed, it is on every hand. I'>ut the truth 
lies hidden. Diligent search will be required 
to uncover it. This is the problem facing 
organized labor. 



Thought precedes action, but there appears 
to be an alarming number of people in this 
world who seem incapable of getting beyond 
the thought stage. 



If the workers would break their chains 
they must first learn to use their brains. — 
Maoriland Worker. 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN 



WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING DATA 



World shipbuilding today is actually below 
the pre-war level, says a statement just issued 
by Lloyd's Register of Shipping. The de- 
crease in production has been steady since 
the fall of 1919, and the volume of new 
orders continues to be far below the com- 
pletion of orders in hand. 

While the returns for the quarter ended 
July 1 show that the aggregate of contracts 
in hand is nearly 800,000 gross tons more 
than the total at July 1, 1914, so many sus- 
pensions of work have been directed by those 
who placed the orders that the actual volume 
of construction actively under way is slightly 
below the pre-war figure. 

The actual construction under way at pres- 
ent, as compared with that just before the 
war. is given below: 

July 1, 1914 July 1, 1922 

Gross tons Gross tons 

United Kingdom 1,722,000 1,438,504 

United States 148,000 150,632 

Other countries 626,000 875,303 

World total 2,496,000 2,464,430 

The gross aggregate of tonnage on July 1, 

as compared with the previous quarter, was 

as follows: 

July 1 April 1 

United States 1 50,623 136,266 

United Kingdom 1,919,504 2,235,998 

Other countries 1,165,303 1,307,358 

World total 3,235,430 3,679,622 

Stoppages ordered on this work fell more 

heavily on British shipyards than on those of 

all the other maritime nations combined. 

This is shown in the following table: 

Britain Others 

Gross tons Gross tons 

Work contracted 1,919,504 1,315,926 

Less suspensions 481,000 290,000 

Actual work 1,438,504 1,025,926 

Although there has been a sharp shrinkage 
in the gross aggregate of tonnage in hand 
during the past three months, the total for 
the shipyards of the United States shows a 
small gain. On April 1 the American aggre- 
gate was lower than before the war, but on 
July 1 it was slightly above the pre-war 
figure. This country, however, was practi- 
cally the only one in the world to show a 
gain during the past quarter. 

The world construction now actually under 



'S JOURNAL 5 

way shows a decline of nearly 5,600,000 gross 
tons from the peak, which was attained in 
September, 1919, when 8,048,000 tons were 
being built. This country's present total of 
150,000 tons, compared with the high level 
of 4,186,000 tons reached in the first quarter 
of 1919, shows a decrease of more than 95 
per cent. It is interesting to note that the 
relative proportions of the w r orld's shipbuild- 
ing have changed considerably since the pre- 
war period. Great Britain, which then had 
69 per cent of the total, now has only 58 
per cent ; the United States has still its 6 
per cent as in 1914; and the other countries 
have increased their share from 25 per cent 
to 36 per cent. 

Declines continue to be shown in the re- 
turns covering the construction of tankers 
throughout the world, but more than 500,000 
gross tons of this type of vessel are still 
under construction. The decrease since the 
first of this year is shown in the following 
table (figures in gross tons) : 

Jan. 1 July 1 

United States 103,000 60,880 

United Kingdom 536,000 383,221 

Other countries 154,000 85,810 

World total 793,000 529,911 

Returns of launchings and new work for 
British shipyards show that the output still 
continues markedly in excess of the volume 
of new w r ork. During the three months 
ending July 1, launchings in the United 
Kingdom aggregated 148,606 gross tons, com- 
pared with w^ork begun on new vessels which 
will have a total tonnage of only 37,987 tons. 
A slowing down in output, however, is indi- 
cated by a comparison with the returns for 
the previous quarter, when launchings repre- 
sented 333,000 tons, as against new work- 
totaling 49,000 tons. 

The total of w r ork now under way in Ger- 
man shipyards is estimated by Lloyd's Reg- 
ister to be 500,000 gross tons, or over 200,000 
tons more than for any other country in the 
world except Great Britain. 

If labor knew it all and knew how to stand 
together and pull together, there would not 
be a labor problem. It is just because labor 
has so much left to learn that the enemies 
of labor are still able to retain control. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK PLYNN. First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 TV. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, X. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

S4 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fifth Vice-President 

iy 2 Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWX, Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSOX. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, Xew York. N. Y. 

THOMAS A. HAXSON, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 X. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL, SCHARREXBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPOXDEXTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



►® 



AUGUST 1, 1922 



Till-; INDUSTRIAL (KISIS 



More than a million men and women in the 
United States are on .strike protesting wage 
reductions, according to figures just made pub- 
lic by the Department of Labor. 

Eighteen week- ago 600,000 coal miners 
found themselves without jobs. Their employ- 
ers had refused to meet them to negotiate new 
working contracts although the old contracts 
specifically provided for such meeting and nego- 
tiation. It should l»e distinctly understood that 
the coal miners are not striking for shorter 
hours or higher pay. They are striking for 
more work! They insist that coal mines can 
be so operated as to give them at least six 
hours' work a day and thus permit them to 
earn sufficient to enable their families to live 
without constant privation. 

During the past month 4CO.0C0 railroad simp 
men have ceased work because the Railroad 



Labor Board has made an award putting into 
effect terms and conditions of employment 
sought by the railroads and which these workers 
are unable to accept. 

The decision at this time to still further 
reduce the wages ,,f the railroad shopmen is 
an effort to take from their pocket- the enor- 
mous sums hitherto provided by the Govern- 
ment to cover the- cost of railroad waste, ex- 
travagance and high financing. 

When these workers struck a- resort 

the Railroad Labor Hoard in a public state- 
ment attempted to sanctify and purify strike 
breaking. Yet il is a matter of historical record 
that this board never made the effort 

to coerce railroad managements into acceptance 
of displeasing awards. Xo less than 92 rail- 
roads, in 104 cases, have previously ignored 
.'•wards made by the Railroad Labor Board. 
Rut there always seems to be a difference when 
the boot is on Labor's foot. When "Big 
Business" ignores an award, why that is not 
even worthy of note. When the workers re- 
fuse to abide by an award that lowers their 
standard of living beyond endurance then, we 
are told, a crime is committed against the 
1 <>\ eminent ! 

President Harding lias come out in strange 
colors during this crisis, lie has taken a hint 
from the Railroad Labor Board and attempted 
in his own way to glorify the scab. 

In urging governors of coal producing 
States to join with him in breaking the strike 
of coal miners. President Harding aroused the 
ire of Samuel Gompers who made ; is very 
fitting reply: 

The miners who are on strike are not goinp to 
dig coal until the strike is ended. The nbn-nnion 
miners are and have been at work and their num- 
ber cannot be increase d materially. The army may 
KO to the mining districts, but the army is not 
composed of coal miners. The fact is that there is 
no one to mine coal until the coal miners now on 
strike return to the mines. They will return to the 
mines gladly and quickly as soon as the mine own- 
ers agree with them on terms and conditions of 
employment. 

When half a million men are ag it is a 

poor time, indeed, for the roll of drums, the rattle 
of sabers and the pounding of the ma 

Samuel Gompers was not the only one to 
take exception with the country's chief execu- 
tive. Two governor- sent back word that is 
worth listening to. 

Governor Albert C. Ritchie of Maryland 
sent the President a lengthy tel- plain- 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



ing carefully his reasons for declining to 

agree to the President's program. A few 

choice excerpts follow: 

The traditions of this state (Maryland) are those 
of a people who have settled such matters as these 
without the aid of bayonets and rifles. It is nearly 
30 years since our militia has been used for a pur- 
pose of this kind The presence of troops 

is often not the assurance of security, but the 
provocation of serious trouble. 

Governor Morrison of North Carolina was 
equally emphatic. He said: 

Your position is practically to use the power of 
the government against the strikers, and in the 
enforcement of police regulations and the uphold- 
ing of the law the strikers will naturally have 
little confidence in the impartiality or fairness of 
soldiers or other agencies of force directed by a 
government which has taken a decided stand 
against them, however good the reason such a 
stand may be. 

More power to the governors of Maryland 
and North Carolina. Their utterances prove 
that real men and genuine patriots always come 
to the front during a crisis. 

All credit to Samuel Gompers, whose vigor 
does not seem to diminish with age, and who 
has so ably called President Harding's bluff. 
Here's hoping that America will soon fully 
understand that saber rattling does not run 
trains and that the pounding of the mailed 
fist in Washington, D. C, will not mine coal! 



WILL AMERICANS GO TO SEA? 



It is reported that the Pacific Mail, Osaka 
Shosen Kaisha, Struthers & Barry, Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha, Toyo Kisen Kaisha and the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad have agreed on a 
freight rate of $6 on new tea from Asia to 
Vancouver. Upward of 16,000,000 pounds of 
Asia tea were transported across the Pacific 
to United States and Canadian Pacific ports 
last year. So far the Journal has failed to 
note any protest against this international 
freight rate fixing. Indeed, it is evident that 
when American, Canadian and Japanese ship- 
owners arrange for such minimum rates "all 
is well." But when the organized^eamen of 
America hint at the desirability of establishing 
minimum international sea wages and confer 
with the organized seamen of other countries 
upon the subject then some of our super- 
patriots turn red in the face with indignation. 
International freight agreements are eminently 
sane and proper. International wage agree- 
ments are anti-American in principle, Bolshe- 
vistic in purpose, etc., etc. Do you get that 
fine distinction, Mr. Marvin? 



A New York contemporary, claiming to be 
America's oldest shipping weekly, devotes its 
leading article to a discussion of American 
seamen's wages. Thoughts that have been 
freely and frankly expressed in the columns 
of the Journal have at last found an echo. 
Without equivocation our contemporary ad- 
mits that "if wages of American crews are 
reduced much further the time will come 
when it will be impossible to induce Amer- 
icans to adopt the sea as a profession." 

As a matter of fact it should be duly re- 
corded that "the time" is already with us. 
We need not wait for a "much further" re- 
duction of wages. The wage-cutting policy 
officially inaugurated by the United States 
Shipping Board on May 1 of last year has 
been carried on with a vengeance ever since. 
American seamen have been virtually driven 
out of American ships. Only cheap and serv- 
ile labor is wanted — none other need apply. 

The custom of employing Chinese crews 
on American ships in the foreign trade has 
become general. It received a setback only 
when the Chinese seamen struck for higher 
wages and won their point to the extent of 
receiving half wages for the time they had 
been on strike. 

It will be recalled that the importation of 
Chinese crews to American ports and their 
transfer from vessel to vessel has been sanc- 
tioned by one of those incomprehensible de- 
cisions of the United States Supreme Court. 

Emboldened by this ruling, one American 
shipping company has gone a step further. 
Chinese are now being imported to displace 
American seamen in the coastwise trade. 
Fifty Chinese seamen w r ere recently brought 
over from the Orient on the Shipping Board 
steamship Wolverine State, recently renamed 
the President Harrison. These Chinese were 
transferred in the harbor of San Francisco 
to the Pacific Mail Company's steamship 
Equador and are now employed on said vessel 
in the coastwise trade between San Francisco 
and New York. Neither the Contract Labor 
law nor the Chinese Exclusion Act have any 
terror for the American shipowner. As far 
as the language test and the "able seaman*' 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



certificate are concerned, it seems that even 
a wooden man would satisfy the inspectors. 
"Everything goes" is apparently the slogan 
of the present administration when it comes 
to the manning of American ships. 

Safety laws, rules and regulations were all 
thrown overboard in the wild scramble, a year 
ago, and anyone who has the temerity to 
mention such matters or suggest a gradual 
return to sanity and safety is promptly 
branded as a union agitator. 

The policy of discrimination against the 
Seamen's Unions finds expression in devious 
ways. For example, the United States Ship- 
ping Board has signed trade agreements with 
at least a dozen Longshoremen's Unions. 
These agreements specify wages and working- 
conditions. Moreover, nearly every one of 
these trade agreements contain a clause giv- 
ing preference of employment to members of 
the respective Longshoremen's Unions. 

Just why the Shipping Board should point 
blank refuse such preference to members of 
the Seamen's Unions is not easy to under- 
stand. Still, that is only one of the many 
Shipping Board mysteries. 

The reader will probably ask, "How long 
is this state of affairs to continue?" Well, 
sunshine always follows a storm; besides, it 
is a certainty that the American Merchant 
Marine will not be able to stand the strain 
much longer. Many shipowners are utterly 
disgusted with the situation, but they deem 
it a duty to stick to their "associations*' 
which determine the labor policy. 

The I. W. W. converts aboard ship, too, 
are pretty sick of it all. They arc beginning 
to realize that the impotent ravings of mouth 
revolutionists are but "tecble substitut* 
the sound old-time trade union activity that 
always brought results. So the outlook for 
the future is not nearly as black as it ap- 
pears on the surface. 

In the meantime, does any rational, red- 
blooded x'Xmerican with the slightest knowl- 
edge of the facts as outlined herein want his 
boy "to adopt the sea as a profession"? 



ASIATIC SEAMEN'S UNIONS 



Asiatic seamen seem to have become imbued 
with the spirit of organization. The extra- 
ordinary success of the recent strike of Chinese 
seamen at Hongkong may have been respon- 
sible for the recent outbreak at Calcutta, where 
10,000 Indian sailors, Bremen and stewards 
walked out after some of them had refused 
to sign on again until increased wages had 
been granted. Virtually all shipping in Ual- 
cutta is said to have been affected. 

News of this character is gratifying indeed. 
Apparently the frequent publication of such 
press dispatches from the < )rieut during recent 
months has given rise to the mi-information 
that Asiatics are to be admitted to membership 
in the International Seamen's Union of 
America. If the economic status of < »riental 
seamen continues to improve the day may come 
when the American Seamen's Union will fol- 
low newspaper suggestions and admit the 
brothers from the ( )ricnt. For the present such 
a step is, of course, out of the question. The 
standard of living of Asia's teeming millions 
is still far below the minimum American 
standard and any opening of the gate- would 
mean certain swamping of the American 
unions. This does not mean lack of sympathy 
or refusal of co-operation with the seamen's 
unions of the < )rient. To the contrary, the 
International Seamen's Union of America re- 
joices in every forward step and each addi- 
tional victory won by the organized seamen in 
China, Japan, India and anywhere else. 



REGARDING THAT ''HANDICAP" 



Money spent by trade unionists for non- 
union goods or for non-union labor of any 
kind gives aid and comfort to the "open 
shoppers." 



The two main reasons or excuses usually 
advanced by the proponents of a ship subsidy 

bill are (1) the higher wages paid to Ameri- 
can crews and (2) the higher cost of subsist* 

ence for American crew-. 

Hearings on the subsidy bill have been 
closed and a mass of data in refutation of the 
before mentioned allegations is available in 
the published evidence. Additional evidence 
is constantly piling up. 

According to the Norwegian nev spaper, 
1 Jandelstidende. American ships were formerly 
known for their large crews, but th 
affairs has obviously been altered in recent 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S TOURNAL 



times, as is shown by a report made by the 
master of a Norwegian ship of 3600 tons trad- 
ing with America, who stated that some of the 
vessels the Shipping Board has placed in the 
sugar trade with Cuba employ two men less 
than the same size Norwegian ships. More- 
over, the Christiania newspaper states Ameri- 
can wages have come down to about the level 
of those paid Norwegian seamen. When it is 
considered that before the war American 
wages were twice as high as the Norwegian, 
it will be understood, the same newspaper 
concludes, that Norwegian shipping is spe- 
cially handicapped as a consequence of the 
manning rules which are said to be rigidly 
enforced on Norwegian ships. So much for 
this handicap. 

French owners, too, claim part ownership of 
this poor orphan "Handicap." In a recent 
letter to the Academie de Marine on the status 
of the French merchant marine, M. de Rousiers 
states that it comprises 3,500,000 tons of ship- 
ping. Although this total would seem to place 
France in the front rank of maritime states, 
it is pointed out that a large percentage of 
this tonnage is not modern and that many 
vessel units are not serviceable. But aside 
from obsolete and unfit units the French 
merchant marine is said to be out of the 
running for other reasons. The main reason 
being the French seamen's eight-hour work 
day. Hence, the impossibility of French ship- 
owners to compete for foreign freights "so 
long as they are handicapped by the eight-hour 
day and other heavy crew charges" from 
which foreign shipowners are exempt. 

The Norwegians and the French evidently 
feel that the handicap is on their backs, 
although American shipowners have always 
insisted and still claim that baby "Handicap" 
is their own exclusive pet child. 

As regards the higher subsistence standard 
the spokesmen for the American Steamship 
Owners' Association have maintained that the 
best figure which can be obtained in the opera- 
tion of an American ship under ordinary con- 
ditions is 70 cents per day per man for food, 
while British ships carrying white crews feed 
for about 50 cents per man per day. If a 
typical 8800-ton vessel manned by a crew of 
40 men be taken as a basis for comparison, a 
subsistence differential of 20 cents a day for 



each man would amount to $240 a month or 
$2640 per year, assuming the ship to be oper- 
ated eleven out of every twelve calendar 
months. In an effort to confirm these state- 
ments, R. T. Merrill, director of the Shipping 
Board's Bureau of Research, testified at the 
hearings before the Joint Congressional Com- 
mittee on the ship subsidy bill that American 
seamen's rations cost 25 per cent more than 
those doled out to British seafarers, and that 
the subsistence costs on an ordinary American 
cargo ship could be conservatively assumed to 
be in normal times at least $50 per man per 
year higher than those on a similar British 
vessel. 

Andrew Furuseth challenged these figures but 
Mr. Merrill stood pat. And now the truth 
has leaked out. The Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion has lowered the subsistence allowance of 
its vessel operators 20 cents per day per man. 
In announcing this reduction, acting Vice- 
President Sheedy stated that this action had 
only been taken after a thorough investigation 
had revealed the fact that crews on both pri- 
vately owned and Shipping Board* cargo 
carriers had been satisfactorily subsisted at 
prices ranging from 48 to 51 cents per day. 
As the feeding of British seamen costs the 
same amount according to the Shipping Board's 
own experts, where in the name of common 
honesty is that subsistence handicap? 

Almost simultaneously with the Shipping 
Board's official reduction of the seamen's 
standard of living the majority of the Com- 
mittee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries 
issued its report, obviously prepared by propa- 
gandists without regard to facts, saying in 
part : 

It is for the country a proud boast that its 
seamen are better paid and better fed than are 
those of any other nation, but obviously the ship- 
owner cannot afford to bear the cost of such pay 
and of such food while he is competing for cargoes 
in the world's market against vessels manned by 
cheaper labor. 

What a strange campaign ! 

Will they get away with it? 



Andrew Furuseth, president of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, is due 
at New York the first week of August. Furu- 
seth has been in Europe attending the execu- 
tive board meeting of the International Sea- 
farers' Federation. 



10 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL August, 1922 

SUBSIDY BILL AMENDED WAGE THEORIES 



Organized labor's protest against the enact- 
ment of the ship subsidy bill as drafted by the 
Shipping Board has had at least one gratify- 
ing result. The bill has been amended in 
committee so that subsidized vessels will 
have to carry at least a certain percentage 
of American citizens in the crew in addition 
to the licensed officers who are required to 
be citizens under existing law. 

Following is the new section of the amended 
subsidy bill providing for the employment of 
American citizens : 

Subsidy shall be paid only for mileage 
covered while the vessel "carries a crew 
(exclusive of licensed officers reciuired by law ) 
at least two-thirds of which are citizens of the 
United States, and the remainder of which are 
individuals eligible to United States citizenship. 
During the first year after the enactment of 
this Act the required number of citizens of the 
United States shall be one-half instead of two- 
thirds ; and, during the second year, six-tenths 
instead of two-thirds. In the case of passenger 
vessels the provisions of this paragraph shall 
apply only to the deck and engine departments. 
If the vessel is deprived of the services of any 
member of the crew by desertion, casualty, or 
other cause beyond the control of the master, in 
any port outside the United States or on the 
high seas, the right of the vessel's owner to 
compensation, during the period prior to the 
next arrival of the vessel at a port in the United 
States, shall not be impaired by failure to com- 
ply with the provisions of this paragraph, 
provided the owner and the master of the 
vessel exercise reasonable diligence to procure 
the necessary individuals to comply with such 
provisions. If the vessel is outside the United 
States at the time of the enactment of this 
Act, or on the first day of the second or third 
year after the enactment of this Act, the owner 
shall not be required to comply with the pro- 
visions of this paragraph applicable to such 
year until her first arrival at a port in the 
United States, if he complies with the pro- 
visions of this paragraph applicable to» the 
previous year." 

'Die real significance of this section (if? 
enacted) is that Orientals "only" will serve 
in the stewards' department on subsidized 
American passenger vessels. 



According to the terms of an agreement 
said to have been negotiated between the 
officials of the Danish Seamen's Union and 
those of the Danish Shipowners iation, 

wages will be increased or reduced in propor- 
tion to the rise or fall in the c »st of living 
as shown by the National Statistical Bureau's 
price list. 

More than twenty years ago the organized 
shipowners of the Pacific Coa- ^ted a 

wage agreement with the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific whereby wages would be based on 
freight rates. In other words, the shipowners 
proposed a sliding scale of waj ending 

for a rise or fall on the freight market. Need- 
less to state, the offer was not accepted. 

In this connection it is interesting to note 
that at the International Money Congress held 
in Paris recently the practice of paying labor 
according to a sliding scale based on the cost 
of living was condemned as unscientific. It 
was the sense of this gathering that workers 
should be paid according to the amount of 
their product, which should be the sole criterion 
for measuring the amount of their comp< 
tion. 

When it comes to a serious consideration of 
v, age theories there will be found as many 
aspects to the question as there are waves on 
the Pacific Ocean. 

However, there is one phase of the wage 
problem that remains undisputed. In modern 
society the prevailing aver.!. if wages 

can not be maintained, much le>s inert 
unless there is intelligent collective self help 
among the workers. This collective -elf help 
is usually referred to as labor unionism. But 
whatever the name of this phenomenon no one 
scarcely ever denies that the finest spun wage 
theories are no match for it. 



Once in a while some pessimist asks: Can 
the unions come back? Well, of course, one 
can never tell. Yet an inquiry regarding the 
sun's come-back after a rainy day would be 
just as pertinent. 



The promises of good resulting from pur- 
chasing only union labeled goods are always 
fulfilled. 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



THE QUESTION OF DUES 

"Don't be a fool and pay dues to those 
union patrolmen and secretaries. Hang on 
to the money you would pay for dues and 
you will be that much ahead." 

This is the sage advice certain shipowners' 
agents give to non-union seamen. In many 
instances it convinces the unthinking worker 
and settles the matter for him. He goes on 
his way smiling with satisfaction that he is 
not paying dues, and is saving that much 
money. 

The sad part of it is that he is paying 
more dues than the union man is paying, and 
he is receiving nothing in return. To be 
sure, he is not paying dues to the union, but 
he is paying dues, higher dues, to the em- 
ployer. 

No worker escapes the payment of dues. 
Whether he belongs to an organization or 
does not, still he pays dues. If he does not 
pay them to the union, he pays them to the 
employer. 

Observe how this dues paying works out. 
The unionist pays dues to the union. To 
place the yearly average dues to a union at 
$20 a year is, if anything, to set a high aver- 
age. In return he receives higher wages and 
shorter hours than the non-union man. He 
goes to work with an independence that can 
never be appreciated by the unorganized worker. 
Through his organization he has a voice of pro- 
test or approval of activities and legislation that 
affect him. He is one of an army of millions 
that encircle the globe. 

The non-union worker pays dues to the 
boss. He pays it in reduced wages. In the 
shipping industry, where the workers for- 
sook their A. F. of L. union for a company 
organization, or for a Wobbly outfit, wages 
have been reduced $1 a day. If there are 
. only nine months' work a year in this indus- 
try it means that these deluded workers paid 
dues to the amount of $270 a year in re- 
duced wages — $250 more than they would 
have paid the union. 

When activities and measures come up 
detrimental to the workers, the unorganized 
can raise only his own feeble voice in pro- 



test. He is like a sparrow chirping against 
the rush of a hurricane. Alone and unbe- 
friended, he faces his organized oppressors. 
Hopeless, helpless and in despair, he leans 
on the reed of good-will of the employer. 
But he pays dues, high dues, and receives 
in return wage reductions, longer hours and 
harder work. He cannot hope that tomor- 
row's burdens will be lighter than today's, 
and as he weakens with increasing age he 
steps towards the grave, almost hoping for 
death to come to relieve him of the ever- 
increasing burdens and misery. 

As well may workers hope to live without 
breathing as without paying dues. The 
unionist pays dues that bring benefits to him- 
self and his famliy. The non-unionist pays 
higher dues to have the good things of life 
kept from him. But all pay dues. 

The non-unionist pays his dues as a care- 
less farmer might throw his seed to the 
winds, letting them blow where they will, 
and others reap the harvest. The unionist 
paying his dues to his union is like a careful 
husbandman, planting seeds in the soil of 
collective endeavor, assured that he and his 
shall reap the harvest. 



SEAMEN'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS 



Issuance of alien seamen's identification 
cards by • the United States Immigration 
Service, a practice which has been followed 
for many years, has been discontinued in 
the case of seamen who have been lawfully 
admitted to the United States and who ex- 
pect to follow their calling here. 

As a result of the new ruling, all out- 
standing identification cards, except those 
issued to seamen who have paid the head 
tax and otherwise qualified for admission to 
the United States, are being taken up as 
rapidly as possible and destroyed. 

Identification cards will continue to be 
issued to alien seamen who have been ad- 
mitted to this country simply to serve as 
tangible evidence of their right to engage in 
domestic or coastwise commerce, a trade that 
is not open to seamen who have not been 
admitted to this country. 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



A. F. OF L. MEMBERSHIP 



That the wobblies and the reactionary em- 
ployers are real soulmates is again demon- 
strated by current events. Just now they are 
chuckling with glee because the general in- 
dustrial depression has temporarily decreased 
the dues-paying membership of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. 

The I. W. W. and the American Planners 
have many things in common, but above all 
they hate the American Federation of Labor 
and love to see that great progressive and 
constructive movement weakened and dis- 
credited. 

Of course, the rejoicing of these extremists 
is quite untimely and unfounded. The Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor membership has 
stood in the face of all opposition and in the 
face of most trying industrial conditions. 
This was made clear by President Gompers 
of the A. F. of L. in a statement in which 
he discussed the membership figures sub- 
mitted to the convention in the annual re- 
port of the Executive Council. 

''There seems to be." said Mr. Gompers. 
"something of a disposition to misunderstand 
the membership figures given for the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor for the past year 
and found in the annual report of the Execu- 
tive Council, submitted to the convention 
yesterday. 

"It may be that on their face and without 
examination they seem to show a loss of 
about 710,893 members during the year just 
closed. Even if that actually were the cast- 
labor's showing would be most creditable, in 
view of the bitter opposition which we have 
had to meet during the year. 

"The truth is that we have no way of really 
knowing whether we have lost that many 
members and the fact may be that we have 
lost none at all. 

"In 1920, the year in which our member- 
ship was highest, we reported 4.078,740. We 
now report 3.195,635. One fact to which I 
wish to point is that this is a membership 
of more than a million over the figure for the 
last pre-war year. Those unions which seem 
to show a loss are the unions most heavily 
engaged in war work, fortunately no longer 



necessary. War plants are closed and in 
some cases whole industries are out of busi- 
Thonsands of workers have b( i tl forced 
into other occupations. Navy yard- are a 
good example. 

"But there is this feature which makes it 
impossible to know whether we have lost 
and which makes it certain that we have not 
lost anywhere near the number of members 
indicated as Lost on the face of the figures. 
National and international unions pay their 
per capita tax to the A. F. of L. on the basis 
of the dues collected by them from their 
membership! Those organizati< ■{ col- 

lect dues from men and women who arc out 
of work. They issue "out of work' -tamps 
and no accounting of the number of such 
stamps issued is rendered to the A. F. of L., 
for the reason that we do not require a per 
capita tax on such stamps, since they repre- 
sent no revenue, 

"The tax collected by the A. F. of L., 
amounting to one cent per member per 
month, is on the membership paying dues to 
the various affiliated organizations. We have 
had a tremendous army of unemployed and 
affiliated organizations have issued thousands 
and thousands of 'out of work' stamps. 

"We know that there arc 3,195,635 mem- 
bers who are paying dues and that is all that 
we can report. We do not know how many 
members are not paying dues, due to unem- 
ployment, and therefore we do not know 
actually what number of workers belong to 
our affiliated organizations. The real 1 
membership, if any, is trifling, running to a 
few hundreds or perhaps a few thousands at 
most. 

"Taking account of the spirit of our move- 
ment, our strength is greater than ever, for 
there is today in our ranks a militant spirit 
and a solidarity and unity never equaled. 
American labor has lost nothing, in spite of 
every effort our enemies could bring to bear. 
We are here in full strength, gaining and 
growing, abler than ever in the defense of tin- 
interests, the rights and the liberties of tin- 
great masses of our people. And it would 
be well for those who imagine they have 
the power to crush labor to give the future 
some thought." 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



THE AGE OF MERCHANT VESSELS 



The average length of life of the modern 
merchant vessel is less than 25 years. For, 
strange as it may seem, iron and steel can- 
not compete with wood when it comes to a 
struggle for ripe old age. The ketch "Good 
Intent" (an almost obsolete two-masted rig) 
recently sold at Cardiff for £200, was of 
25 tons burden, was built in Plymouth in 
1790, and attained the ripe old age of 131 
years. A few years ago it was definitely 
established that there was no less than twen- 
ty-four vessels afloat of 100 years or more in 
age. There was always something fascinat- 
ing about old vessels still in active service. 
Perhaps the oldest of these was the Italian 
bark "Anita," built in Genoa in 1548 and 
modeled on the "Santa Maria" of the Christo- 
pher Columbus fleet. She was broken up at 
Teneriffe seventeen years ago. Another vessel 
that lived long was the "Betsy Cains," lost 
off the Tyne in 1827. Formerly she was the 
"Princess Mary," and, in 1688, brought Wil- 
liam of Orange to Great Britain. How old 
she was then there is no means of knowing. 
Doubtless there exist, in some small ports, 
vessels that have long passed their century 
and are still sailing. 



SUBSIDY AND PUBLICITY 



How publicity methods are being used to 
silence and suppress opposition and spread 
propaganda in support of the ship subsidy 
bill, opposed by the American Federation of 
Labor, was told in the House of Representa- 
tives by Congressman Rufus Hardy of Texas. 
Said Mr. Hardy: 

"What are the qualifications of the present 
chairman of the Shipping Board? Absolutely 
none for the position that he holds. His 
qualification was that of a great advertiser, 
a great booster, a great boomer, a great prop- 
agandist, with no knowledge of shipping 
whatever. Let me give you an illustration of 
the publicity efforts to pass this bill. 

"On June 12, Representative Davis of 
Tennessee, who has given this subject the 
keenest investigation, the most sincere study, 
made a speech against the bill in this House 
of an hour's length that contained more meat 



than any speech that* has been delivered in a 
long time. It was worthy of the considera- 
tion of the public. It ought to be read in 
every household in the Middle West and the 
interior parts of this country — yea, even in 
every household all over the land. 

"What publicity did it get? The next day 
the four greatest dailies of Washington came 
out. One of them had a reference to the 
speech of Mr. Davis exactly three and a quar- 
ter inches long. The others ignored it. 

"But the Star, the Post and the Herald all 
had a fulmination from the White 1 Joust- 
that the President had decided he would keep 
this Congress here until they passed the ship 
subsidy bill. And the Times had a full 
double-width column in which it demanded 
the passage of this bill, asserting that the 
agricultural interests, the chambers of com- 
merce, and the labor interests were all before 
the committee favoring the bill, and that no 
American interest was opposed to it. 

"All that goes out to the country. Even 
the Associated Press practically, if not en- 
tirely, ignored Mr. Davis' speech, but carried 
the propaganda." 

Congressman Hardy told the House that 
the subsidy bill came to Congress by accident 
and that it was opposed by a man whom 
the President had tried to secure as chairman 
of the Shipping Board. 

"There has been more ingenious propa- 
ganda favoring this bill than ever originated 
in the support of any other bill," said Mr. 
Hardy. "And yet it is by the merest accident 
that this bill is before this House. The Presi- 
dent of the United States sought to secure 
the services of Mr. James A. Farrell as chair- 
man of the Shipping Board. Mr. Farrell is 
a shipping expert, a man greatly interested in 
the shipping industry. He never thought of 
advocating a subsidy, but, on the contrary, 
he has stated that under proper legislation 
American ships can compete with the ships 
of the world. Had the first selection of the 
President been made, had Mr. Farrell become 
chairman of the Shipping Board, this lull 
would not be before this Congress today." 



All progress ever made by seamen any- 
where may be traced to one source — organi- 
zation. 



14 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL August, 1922 

THE IMPORTANCE OF LIQUOR INSURANCE FOR FISHERMEN 



To lush or in it to lush, has become the 
determining factor in the future of the Amer- 
ican merchant marine. In his letter to 
Adolphus Busch, president of the Anheuser 
Busch Co. of St. Louis. Mr, Lasker writes 
that "so long as foreign ships can enter 
America serving liquor, the lack of that priv- 
ilege might be the very determining factor 
in the life or death of the American merchant 
marine." An obvious exaggeration, undoubt- 
edly. But since when have foreign ships 
been allowed to enter America serving liquor? 
Are their spirit stores not supposed to be 
sealed as soon as they enter the zone of 
territorial jurisdiction and only such quanti- 
ties left unsealed as form part of the crew's 
ration, according to the law of their flag? 
Decidedly Mr. Lasker is not very careful 
about the choice of his words, for the state- 
ment issued by him would imply criminal dis- 
regard of the law by the Federal agents sup- 
posed to enforce it, and inasmuch as everyone 
knows that since the enactment of the Vol- 
stead law no one in America can obtain a 
drink — without identification — the freedom 
thus allowed foreign ships savors of favorit- 
ism evidently inspired by the enemies of 
American shipping, since the bars of Shipping 
Hoard liners are at least closed in port. 

There is no question about the gravity of 
the row that has been raised by the con- 
troversy between Messrs. Busch and Lasker. 
That it will lose adherents to the cause of 
ship subsidy cannot be doubted, for thanks 
to the Anti-Saloon League and its wealthy 
supporters there is a large element in this 
country that would rather see the American 
flag disappear from the seas than counten- 
ance the sale of "licker," wherever the flag 
flies. People of this caliber are as rabid as 
the anti-vivisectionists and other zealots from 
whose brains all sense of correct ratiocination 
vanishes as soon as their pet aversion has 
been touched upon. In other words, we have 
so many people that have gone "nuts" on 
prohibition that, all humor aside, somebody 
has upset the apple-cart and we are likely to 
hear very much more on the same subject. — 
"Nauticus," New York. 



A bill relating to the insurance of fisher- 
men has been introduced in the Belgium Parlia- 
ment It is intended to provide comprehensive 

>ocial insurance for fishermen on the model of 
that already in force for miners. The chief 
features of the bill follow: 

(1) It applies to all fishermen, whether 
employers or employed, partners or wage 
earners, masters of a crew or isolated workers. 
It covers all kinds of social insurance 
and not simply those for which general legis- 
lation is already in force, namely, accident 
insurance and pensions. 

(3) The system adopted is that of a wel- 
fare fund to which fishermen are already ac- 
customed. Several local funds have been in 
existence for some time and the bill proposes 
to supplement these, extending their scope 
and amending their deficiencies. 

(4) The guarantee funds will be raised 
without state intervention by means of levies 
on the gross receipts of fishing. A similar 
system prevails already in the mines. 

Mr. Baels in his statement introducing the 
bill explains that the intention was not to 
regard the fisherman in the light of an ordi- 
nary worker and therefore apply to him exist- 
ing or proposed social legislation. The reason 

for their objection t" thi> point of view wa.s 

not that they did not consider the fisherman 
a worker like any other, but because the eco- 
nomic and technical conditions under which 
he works differ so much from those of other 
workers. The legislation already in force, 
namely that of compensation for accidents, 
and pensions, was either inapplicable' or in- 
adequate to the conditions of fishermen or 
both. Thus the act on pensions only applied 
after the age of 65 years, whereas it had been 
demonstrated that the sea fisherman was un- 
able to work after 55 years of age. This 
was the reason why the amendment to the 
Tensions Act had been proposed to allow fish- 
ermen a pension at the age of 55. As the 
amendment had been rejected it was felt that 
special legislation was called for. Further, 
it was not considered that the pensions pro- 
vided for under the act were sufficiently high. 
Similarly, the 1903 Workmen's Compensa- 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



tion Act was inadequate as regards fishermen, 
because the maximum rate of wages contem- 
plated in the act was 2,400 francs, raised to 
4,000 and 7,300 francs by subsequent legisla- 
tion. The earnings of the masters of fishing 
vessels, and even of engineers and second 
engineers, were higher than this maximum, 
and it was a mistake to ignore categories of 
workers with high technical qualifications on 
whom the prosperity of maritime undertak- 
ings largely depend. Moreover, the act made 
no provision for accidents due to storms and 
did not apply to undertakings engaging less 
than three men, nor to skippers, both of 
which cases were important in the fishing in- 
dustry. Finally, the insurance contributions 
were prohibitive in amount and would weigh 
too heavily on small fishing vessels. 



EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES 



LEGISLATIVE ABSURDITIES 

William Allen White, author, journalist and 
editor of the Emporia Gazette at Emporia, 
Kan., has said a few things about anti-strike 
laws, etc., that are worthy of note. 

The Kansas Court of Industrial Relations 
had ordered a resumption of mining and rail- 
road activities. Friends of the strikers in 
Kansas answered this order by displaying 
placards bearing sympathetic messages. The 
attorney-general of the State then ruled that 
these placards violate the State and industrial 
and anti-syndicalism laws. 

Upon learning of this, Editor White placed 
in the window of his newspaper office one of 
the placards expressing a 49 per cent sym- 
pathy for the striking railroad workers, saying 
that he would add 1 per cent each day the 
strike continued. 

In his newspaper Mr. White explained his 
position in the following language : 

The order of the industrial court is an infamous 
infraction of the right of free press and free 
speech. Certainly it has not come to pass in this 
country that a man may not say what he thinks 
about an industrial controversy without disobeying 
the law. 

If the government desires to make a test case, 
here it is. 

These are forceful, emphatic words — words 

that show the drift of thoughtful opinion. 

They show that the whole nation is not for a 

rush of arms to tie the workers to their jobs 

and enforce involuntary servitude. 



By the terms of an act recently adopted by 
the Parliament of Japan, which applies to em- 
ployment exchanges for seamen on ships 
other than coasting vessels, persons intending 
to carry on the business of finding employ- 
ment for seamen must obtain the sanction of 
the administrative authorities. The govern- 
ment may itself undertake the work if it 
deems advisable, or it may require welfare 
institutions or other bodies to do so, and for 
this purpose a subsidy will be granted, on 
conditions to be prescribed by an Imperial 
Ordinance. 

The act prescribes that no fee shall be 
charged by exchanges, but existing exchanges 
which are charging fees or are being carried 
on for pecuniary gain at the time when the 
act comes into effect, may for the time being 
continue to charge fees, on conditions to be 
prescribed by an Imperial Ordinance. 

The act lays down penalties for violation of 
its provisions, and provides for the appoint- 
ment, under the Minister of Communications, 
of a Seamen's Employment Exchange Com- 
mission. The date when the act will come 
into force is to be prescribed by Imperial 
Ordinance. 



CANADIAN DISCHARGE BOOK 



The Canadian Department of Marine has 
instituted, an innovation which will affect 
many thousands of Canadian seamen on the 
lake, coastwise and deep-sea trade. This is 
a new form of discharge book which is prac- 
tically the same as the British form. The 
form and discharge sheets are abolished and 
sailors will hereafter be provided with a book 
called Continuous Certificate of Discharge 
Book. It will give shipping companies, ship- 
masters and agents an exact description of 
the man and a record of his entire service 
from the first entry in the book. 

Men are warned that they must on no 
account lose this book. The former system 
was a lose leaf sheet of paper which covered 
only his previous voyage with regard to com- 
petency and character, and it was frequently 
found that such loose certificates had been 
disposed of to those who were not entitled 
to them. 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



COMPULSORY ARBITRATION 



A decree recently issued by an extraordi- 
nary Cabinet Counsel of the government of 
Norway provides for compulsory arbitration, 
in accordance with the provisions of the Act 
of March 31, 1922, relating to compulsory 
arbitration in labor disputes, in certain speci- 
fied disputes involving seamen. 

The disputes mentioned, in all of which 
conciliation has been attempted by the State 
Conciliator, are: 

1. The dispute concerning new tariff agree- 
ments between the Norwegian Employers' 
Association and the Shipowners' Employers' 

Association on the one hand, and the Con- 
federation of Trade Unions and the Nor- 
wegian Sailors' and Stokers' Union, as well 
as the Norwegian Engineers' Union, the Na- 
tional Union of the Norwegian Maritime Res- 
taurants and the Norwegian Mates' Union, 
on the other. 

2. The dispute concerning new tariff agree- 
ments between the Norwegian Shipowners' 
Union on the one hand and the unions men- 
tioned under (1) on the other. 

3. Disputes concerning the drawing up of 
tariff agreements between a number of own- 
ers of ships employed on local routes, and the 
Federation of Trade Unions and the Norwe- 
gian Sailors' and Stokers' Union. 

The decree provides for the constitution 
of an arbitration court, of which Mr. Jens 
Michael Lund is appointed chairman. Any 
attempt at stoppage of work in connection 
with the disputes to be settled by arbitration 
is prohibited. 



A GLIMPSE AT HIGH FINANCE 



The Peoples' Reconstruction League has 
supplied the Journal with a few of many 
reasons for the immediate enactment of the 
La Follette-Frear Bill (S. 2901, H. R. 10055) 
to levy a progressive inheritance tax upon 
fortunes with a maximum rate of 50 per 
cent on fortunes over $30,000,000— and the 
same rates on transfers of property among 
the living. 

It appears that 23,000 persons, every one 
a millionaire, own property estimated to be 



worth about $120,000,000,000, or approximate- 
ly one-third of the total national wealth. 
Every one of these great fortunes is largely 
due to some special privilege granted by 
Congress or to profiteering during the war. 

Mr. Henry 1!. Klein. Deputy Commissioner 
of Accounts in New York City, gives the 
following list of big fortunes — individual, 
family and estate: 

J. D. Rockefeller and Wm. Rockefeller 
$3,000,000,000 to $5.<KK),000,000 

Pratt family 

Harkness 
Carnegie 
Weyerhauser estate 

A. \\. Mellon 

Vanderbilta 

Astors 

Payne Whitney family 
Frick estate 

Goelets 

J. J. H>11 

Hetty Green estate 

Field estate 

Harriman 

Morgans $100,000,000 to 

Flagler estate- 



Anthony Brady estate- 

Goulds 

Armours 

Swift 

Widener 

George Farr Bak 

Stillmans 

Isaac Stevenson 



Kennedy-Todd group 
Sage estate 

Blair 

Rhinelanders 

Rogers 



400,000,000 

400,000,000 

300,000,000 

300,000,000 

300,000,000 

300,000,000 

300.000,000 

200,000,000 

130,000,000 

100,000,000 

100.000,000 

100,000,000 

100,000,000 

100,000,000 

200,000,000 

100,000,000 

100,000,000 

100,000,000 

100,000,000 

100,000,000 

SO.DOO.OOO 

80.000.ooo 

60.000.000 

70,000,000 

75,000,000 

60,000.000 

50,000,000 

50.000.000 

50.000,000 

50.000,000 

50,000,000 

5o.iH)0,000 

50.000.000 

40.000,000 

50,000.000 

60,000,000 

60,000,000 

50,000,000 

While these figures may not be exact they 
are at least approximate. 

Many of the 23,000 richest people are oyer 
7<) years old. They have representatives in 
Congress and in the President's Cabinet. 

The value of great estates like these grow 
very rapidly and they constitute a continuous 
menace to our people because they give 
the owners control over our national and 
State Government, Congress and Legisla- 
tures, and give the owners the whip hand in 
dealing with labor and with farmers. 

Mr. Richard Spillane, a conservative pub- 
licist, in an article in "Commerce and Fi- 
nance" favoring a heavy inheritance tax said : 



Archbold estate 

Mills estate 

Daniel Reid estate 

Plant estate 

Searlea estate - 

M orris 

A. C. James family 

Cleveland H. Dodge 

Pullman estate 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



"Would a 40 per cent tax be excessive in 
the case of a $500,000,000 or $1,000,000,000 
fortune? Not much. Money accumulates 
rapidly. A tax of 40 per cent would take 
$400,000,000 for the State and leave $600,000,- 
000 for distribution among the heirs. It is 
reasonable to suppose that within five years 
the $600,000,000 would grow to $700,000,000 
or $800,000,000. There is nothing confisca- 
tory in that." 

The present cost of Federal, State and 
local taxation amounts to about one-sixth 
of the total national income — about $8,000,- 
000,000, and averages about $70 per capita, 
or $420 for a family of six ; while the Federal 
Government alone costs about $43 per capita, 
or nearly $260 for a family of six. Most of 
the cost of State and local government is 
paid by wage earners and farmers. With the 
present level of wages and low prices to 
farmers for their products, there should be no 
Federal tax upon the average wage earner 
and farmer who is not subject to the Federal 
income tax. In 1921 the average earnings 
of union mine workers in bituminous coal 
fields was only about $700. In several dis- 
tricts they were as low as $500. The average 
earnings of wage earners in factories in 1919, 
according to the Census Bureau, was $1159, 
while wages have gone down materially in 
many industries. The average cash receipts 
per farm family in 1921 was about $100, 
though the value of food, fuel and shelter 
from and on the farm would run from $400 
to $1000 at city prices. Under these condi- 
tions farmers and wage earners must be re- 
lieved of Federal taxation. 

The States are not entitled to secure all the 
revenue which can be derived from an in- 
heritance tax, and they do not secure much 
therefrom now. The total yield of State 
inheritance taxes in 1919 was less than 
$46,000,000. Most of the country's fortunes 
Avere built up from profits derived from the 
entire nation and from foreign trade. The 
Federal government is the only agency which 
can collect an inheritance tax equitably. 

The international investment bankers and 
financiers seem to have determined to cancel 
the loans which our Government made to the 
nations with which we were associated dur- 



ing the war; although amendments to the 
bill creating the commission to deal with the 
refunding of these debts stipulated that the 
commission should not cancel any of these 
debts. This amendment was forced through 
only after a most strenuous fight, and can 
be repealed at any time. This will compel 
the American people to pay at least $8,000,- 
000,000 to $10,000,000,000 more in taxes, and 
to forego interest amounting to billions. 

The La Follette-Frear inheritance tax law is 
the only way in which we can pay off within 
the next few years the net debt of the 
National Government, which exclusive of 
loans to the Allies, is about $14,500,000,000. 
The total annual interest on our total na- 
tional debt is about $975,000,000, that is, 
about $8.50 per capita, or $51 on the average 
for a family of six. 

It will cool the militarists' ardor for a big 
army and navy, and help to keep us out of 
war, and finally it will deter many of our 
snperwealthy from investing in foreign con- 
cessions — the ante-chamber to imperialism, 
and war. 



CENSUS OF BRITISH SEAMEN 



The office of the Registrar-General of Ship- 
ping has made public the census of the Brit- 
ish mercantile marine for 1921. The number 
of seamen employed in the foreign trade on 
the dates mentioned below during the years 
1891-1921 on vessels registered in the Brit- 
ish Islands was as follows : 

Date No. Seamen 

April 5. 1891 134,734 

March 31, 1901 '. : 149,214 

Aoril 3, 1911 175,686 

June 19, 1921 129,391 

The falling off in the number of seamen 
employed between 1911 and 1921 was due to 
last year's depression in shipping and to the 
fact that the British coal strike was on when 
the last census was taken. The percentage 
of British, alien and Lascar seamen employed 
in the years mentioned was as follows: 
Year British Alien Lascars 

1891 67.2 17 15.8 

1901 57.4 20.2 22.4 

1911 60.2 15.4 24.4 

1921 60.2 8.5 31.3 

It is the "dreamer" who keeps the world 
from going to sleep altogether. 



18 THESEAMEN'SJOURNAL August, 1922 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES EXALTING THE INEFFICIENT 



Attorney Ilutton of San Francisco has sup- 
plied the Journal with a copy of an opinion 
just rendered by Federal Judge Dooling on 

the right of a court to set aside a seaman's 
release. 

The ease is known as Brown et al. vs. 
The United States of America. Brown and 
several other seamen sued for a month's 
extra wages, as provided by Section 4527 of 
the Revised Statutes. The defense claimed 
that the seamen could not recover the extra 
month's pay (1) because the voyage of the 
steamer in question (Palo Alto) had never 
commenced, and (2) because a release had 
been signed by the seamen. Judge Dooling 
overruled both contentions and held that as 
far as the signing of the release was concerned 
"there was good cause for setting it aside" 

Attorney Axtell, of New York, points to 
the fact that, during the past year or two, 
American seamen have been jailed in foreign 
ports on the slightest provocation. Says Mr. 
Axtell: "It may be that seamen on British. 
Norwegian, Danish and Italian ships have 
likewise been wrongfully arrested and prose- 
cuted, but if so 1 have not heard of it." 
Mr. Axtell then refers to three distinct re- 
cent cases where American seamen were 
jailed in foreign ports, apparently without 
any justification. The names of the ships 
are City of Alton. Wasco, and Brookfield. 

"'Treat "em rough" seems to be a rally- 
ing cry in the American Merchant Marine. 
Before the seamen of America were organ- 
ized cruelty aboard ship was the order of 
the day. Now that the union has been 
temporarily weakened because of the Wob- 
blies' disruptive tactics, there seems to be a 
gradual return to the "good old days" when 
it was .always perfectly safe to mistreat and 
abuse seamen. 



Don't follow the crowd if you want to 
be a leader, but lead the crowd tt) boost for 
the union label, shop card and working 
button. 



This is a world of compensations, and he 
who would be no slave must consent to have 
no slave. — Abraham Lincoln. 



The present crisis through which the Amer- 
ican Merchant Marine is passing is doubly 

gravated by the personnel mi' the vessels. 
The essential qualification demanded of the 
seafarer at present is unqualified submission. 
Even though possessed of knowledge of the 
existence of laws for his protection he must 
submit to their violation under penalties 
various kinds, which virtually amount to be- 
ing deprived of any chance to follow his 
calling. Any form of protest brands him a 
"Bolshevist"; any claims for fundamental jus- 
tice and he is called an "agitator." In the 
shipping offices maintained by the ship own- 
ers' associations or patronized by them, a 
chance to ship is practically a command to 
ship. The maintenance of these offices is a 
lucrative business from both ends of the 
game. A certain class of men will always 
buy jobs, either for the sake of the salary or 
lor other motives connected with the job-. 
Others will be favored in securing jobs, either 
for their stupidity (as they can be used for 
any purpose), or because they establish a 
bond with their immediate superiors, which 
is usually based on some form of graft. 
Ability or efficiency as seamen is the one 
point that is immaterial. The book system 
in use at the present time by the San Fran- 
cisco Employment office of the Shipowners' 
Association will never ascertain whether a 
man is efficient. A man's record in the book- 
will tell in every case only whether the man 
in question is adept in concealing his true 
feelings or not. The ability record in the 
book is nothing but a weapon placed in the 
master's hand to enforce whatever may enter 
his head as desirable under any circumstam 
that may arise. 

Regardless of the facts, it is quite possible 
to rate a man as "Poor," "Indifferent." or 
even "Good," which is always regarded as 
"Bad," and makes a marked man of the vic- 
tim wherever the book is shown. The same 
infallible master and judge can do the same 
thing to his character as was done to his 
service record, and what the Supreme Court 
of the United States cannot do unless the 
evidence warrants it, this exalted autocrat 
can accomplish for any purpose, whim, or 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



reason, that suits his own immediate frame 
of mind. There is no one to whom to appeal, 
there is no redress. You must have the book, 
you must pay for it. The master and mates 
. may want you on a ship ; if you refuse to 
take the book — Get Out. 

This system will encourage a certain class 
of men to go to sea, but it will not induce 
them to follow the sea for any length of time. 
Of course, this particular stratum of men 
appear everywhere and they are of no perma- 
nent use anywhere. They are incapable of 
learning any calling and they lack the stam- 
ina to attempt any improvement. Men of 
better ability submit to this .form for the 
time, but revolt is always smouldering in 
their hearts and will flame up eventually, 
since intelligence and character will always 
impel men to better their condition and pre- 
serve themselves from degradation. Young 
men and boys coming in contact with either 
. of these groups are influenced by that contact. 

The present shipping system encourages 
the inefficient, the ne'er-do-well, the useless ; 

• it eliminates the truly efficient seaman. Re- 
sponsibility is destroyed ; interest in the ship, 

. the work, or anything else except how to get 
by as easily as possible, is out of the ques- 
tion. The beginner is infected at the source 
and the new crop is rotten before it is ripe. 
It has not learned seamanship nor the tradi- 

• tions of the seaman. It has learned to shirk 
and quibble. The rat psychology is its out- 
growth, its slogan — "Get By." The idea is 
to go to sea as a means to live, and follow 
any side line, criminal or otherwise, to make 
money. 

Ship subsidies may for awhile make ships 
. pay or cover expenses, but in the long run 
no ships handled under such a system will 
. succeed in developing the essential part of 
a merchant marine — its man power. A ship 
can be built in a short time, but a seaman 
is made only by long and constant pro- 
cesses that are hard to control and cannot be 
abridged. 

Under the present system there is not the 
slightest incentive offered to anyone. No 
matter how gullible the youth may be, inside 
of a few months the reality makes him smile 
at the term "Square Deal." He sees the 
most useless and the most dangerous of the 



men with whom he is brought in contact get 
by better in the majority of cases than the 
men who know their business and do their 
work. The most revolutionary of all ideas 
is implanted in his mind, "What's the use?" 
The slogan of despair, the rallying cry of the 
desperate, the ominous calm that precedes the 
storm. His mind is prepared for any eco- 
nomic creed, however unreasonable. The 
result is one man irretrievably lost to sane 
democracy, one missionary to spread the 
disease in every contact he makes with others 
of his calling. It requires but a few years of 
this system and we shall have to seek for 
men to man our ships in some other part of 
the world than the United States, and from 
that day on we shall be in the position of 
Carthage with her mercenaries before homo- 
geneous and patriotic Rome. Our merchant 
marine will cease to be. There is no known 
organism that can feed on itself and endure. 
This is the real and fundamental crisis today 
in the merchant marine. 

It is what calls for a correct answer, like 
every other crisis, and on this answer will be 
based the outcome — whether success or fail- 
ure. The intermediate parties doing the ship- 
ping are not interested in the answer. 

The ship owner is busy strangling labor 
unionism and crying for help. You cannot 
expect him to attend to a situation that calls 
for justice and a look into the future. The 
seamen are at present not to be heard; pub- 
licity that has no advertising contracts, etc., 
to bestow, is denied any interest, and our own 
press has not the adequate circulation to deal 
with such an important question. Still we 
might repeat the ancient words, "Sursum 
Corda," for all men are not blind, even ship- 
owners, any more than all men are dishonest. 
—John S. O'Brien, No. 1252. 



American financiers are reported to have 
invested more than three billion dollars 
abroad, and in the course of time they'll be 
asking the nation to send a few million 
soldiers over to bring the money home. 



Be as willing to carry your share of the 
burden of winning the battles of labor as 
you are to participate in the gains when they 
have been made. 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The bureau of navigation, Department of 
Commerce, reports that 129 sailing, steam, 
gas and unrigged vessels oi P>,959 gross tons 
were built in the United States and officially 
numbered dining the month of June 1922. 

Lake shipowners are still ordering tonnage. 
The Pranda S. S. Co. is reported to have 
placed an order with the American Shipbuild- 
ing Company for an ore-carrier 580x60x32 ft., 
to carry 12,000 tons and to cost about 
$600,000. 

The Port of New York established a new- 
record for vessel departures on the first day 
of July, according to B. F. Cresson, chief en- 
gineer for the port authority. The total sail- 
ings were fifty-four, including twenty-five pas- 
senger and mail vessels. 

William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, has 
declared an extra dividend of $25, payable 
July 14, the announcement of which caused 
the stock to advance thirty points on the 
Philadelphia exchange. The control is in the 
hands of American Ship and Commerce Cor- 
poration. 

The Newport News Company was the low- 
est bidder on the construction of tun passenger- 
freight ships for the Savannah Line. Eleven 
shipyards submitted bids, which shows how- 
keen is the competition for new work at pres- 
ent. The Newport News hid was S ( '20.000 per 
ship. The specification calls for vessels meas- 
uring 400x52 feet, about twelve and one- half 
knot speed, and having accommodation for 164 
first and 42 second class passengers. 

The Ocean Steamship Company, Savannah 
Pine, has removed its New York terminal to 
Pier 52, North River. The general offices are 
now established on Pier 50. The move has 
been made to make way for the construction 
of the New York-New Jersey vehicular tun- 
nel. The Savannah Pine had occupied its 
old quarters for fifty years, and when the 
tunnel is completed it will endeavor to find 
a home in the same general location. 

The Western California Pish Co., San 
Francisco, has placed an order with the Atlas 
Imperial Engine Co. for two three-cylinder 
125-hp. mechanical-injection Diesel engines 



for ocean trawlers. The Western California 
Fish Co. has been using steam trawlers for 
several years. The contract for the hulls was 
placed with W. P. Stone & Son. < >akland, 
California. The vessel will be 64 ft. <> in. 
long by P) ft. beam and 7 ft. 6 in. draft. 

A San Francisco enterprise named the Cali- 
fornia and Tahiti Steamship Company, said 
to be composed largely of planters operating 
in the French islands of Oceania, has been 

f< nned for the purpose of running a Steam- 
ship service to Tahiti, for which it will re- 
ceive a mail subsidy of 300.000 francs per 
annum from the French government. The 
Steamship Nile, of Chinese ownership, but 
flying the British flag, will be used in the 
sen ice. 

After an interesting debate, the Parliament 
I anada voted the sum of five thousand 
dollars for the purpose of assisting in fitting 
out a Canadian Ashing schooner for the Inter- 
national Fishing Schooner race this fall. 
There was some opposition to the idea from 
the Farmers' party and others, but th.e Minis- 
ter of Finance, Mr. Fielding, made a strong 
plea for it on the ground that it not only 
encouraged a manly form of sport, but en- 
couraged the Ashing industry as well. "A 
real race, with real fisherman, on real water," 
he called it. 

The U. S. Shipping Board ha- announced 
that the sale price of the twenty-two \ 
sold in 1920 to the Lloyd Royal Beige has 
been reduced from $16,500,000 to something 
over $12,000,000, of which all but SI. 500,000 
has been paid in cash. The balance will be 
paid in five equal annual installments, guar- 
anteed by Belgian banks. The board is now 
willing to sell boats of the same type for 
$76,000 apiece. Thus the fleet for which the 
Belgian company paid $12,000,000. is now 
worth only SI. 672,000 at the Shipping Hoard's 
own valuation. 

Masters and officers of Shipping Board 
passenger vessels are to receive an increase in 
pay. The master of the Leviathan, which 
goes into commission next year, will receive 
$7,500 per annum, the first officer $250 a 
month, the second officer $200. the third of- 
ficer S1S5. and the fourth $170. The master 
of the George Washington will receive S 
per annum, the master of the America $6,000, 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



2L 



and masters of other passenger liners, $5,000 
each. The pay of officers will be as follows 
for the larger and smaller class of ships, re- 
spectively: First officers, $225 and $175 a 
month; second officers, $185 and $155; third 
officers $155 and $135; fourth officers, $150 
and $120. 

The bill introduced by Senator Borah for 
the reduction in the number of Shipping 
Board commissioners from seven to three, as 
a measure of economy, has aroused consider- 
erable interest, not so much because of its 
intent as on account of the comments with 
which the distinguished senator announced 
it to the public. To quote his exact words : 
"To pay seven men $12,000 each to preside 
over the decrepit days, according to their own 
showing, of this moribund and money-losing, 
money-squandering affair, is sheer waste of 
taxpayers' money. We are told daily that 
we must get rid of these ships even if we 
have to pay a large bonus to have some one 
take them. Why not get rid of some commis- 
sioners .... in the interest of economy?" 
An extra dividend of 10 per cent on the 
common stock has been declared by the 
American Shipbuilding Co., which operates a 
number of shipyards on the Great Lakes. 
The company has just booked an order for 
two ore carriers for the Pittsburgh Steamship 
Co., a subsidiary of the U. S. Steel Corpora- 
tion. They will be of 13,000 tons capacity, 
600 feet long, and costing $600,000 each. A 
vessel of similar type will be built for the 
Kinsman Transit Co. by the Toledo Ship- 
building Co. Throughout the war period 
shipbuilding for Great Lakes service was 
practically arrested and the need of additional 
tonnage is beginning to be felt. It is reported 
that the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Co. 
is in the market for two passenger ships, 
580 feet long, to cost about $2,500,000 each. 
The Los Angeles Shipbuilding and Dry 
Dock Company has laid the keels for the 
two steel passenger and automobile ferry- 
boats of the San Francisco Inland Terminal 
Railways. The construction period is five 
and one-half months on one boat and six 
months on the other, and during this time 
work will be furnished for several hundred 
shipyard men. The two ferryboats are to 



be built after the design of John B. Matthews, 
naval architect and engineer, who will super- 
vise their construction at the local plant 
on behalf of the owners. They represent the 
most improved type of ferryboats in construc- 
tion, design and propulsion, and are to be 
equipped with the turbo-electric drive, sim- 
ilar to that used in modern warships. These 
are the first ferryboats of the type ever to 
have been laid down. 

The Mississippi River Barge line shipped 
freight last year at an average of 3.86 mills 
per ton mile, as against the average charge 
of 12.74 per ton mile by the railroads. In 
1920 railroads charged 10.52 mills per ton 
mile, or 2.28 mills less than last year. These 
figures, taken from reports by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, were included in a 
speech by Congressman Newton, of Missouri, 
on the economy of transportation by water. 
The Mississippi Barge line is attacked by the 
railroads in every form possible, and Con- 
gressman Newton declared that the railroads 
ought "not to be permitted by cut-throat com- 
petition and unfair division of rates to destroy 
a form of transportation which can afford to 
haul the farmer's commodities for 3.86 mills 
per ton mile, and then compel the farmers and 
other shippers to pay 12.74 mills per ton mile 
for the same service." 

The little ripple of fuss between Chairman 
Lasker of the Shipping Board and Edgar F. 
Luckenbach, president of the Luckenbach 
Steamship Company, over the transatlantic 
service of the Luckenbach fine, has probably 
resulted in a continued refusal of Mr. Luck- 
enbach to go into the Rotterdam and Ham- 
burg run again, according to local officials of 
the company. A year ago the Luckenbach 
interests withdrew service from New York 
to these two ports on account of Shipping 
Board competition. Mr. Lasker requested 
the line to put the service back again. Mr. 
Luckenbach stated positively that he would 
not do this unless Shipping Board competi- 
tion were removed. According to press dis- 
patches this has been refused. The Lucken- 
bach Company owns valuable water front 
property in both Rotterdam and Hamburg. 
During the cessation of its service to those 
ports the property is rented. 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The Hungarian government has granted 
the Navigazione Generate Italiana a conces- 
sion for the transport of Hungarian emi- 
grants to North America. This is the first 
concession given to a navigation company 
for embarking Hungarian subjects at Fiume. 
It is also stated that a similar concession has 
been granted to the N. G. I. for carrying 
Jugo-Slav emigrants to South America. 

Canada is utterly unable to play the game 
of the United States and pour money into 
such an enterprise as the Canadian Govern- 
ment Merchant Marine, which through the 
fall in freights has become a money-losing 
proposition. Therefore, steps have been taken 
for the sale of the fleet to the British syndi- 
cate, and negotiations are in progress to dis- 
pose of the sixty-four steel ocean-going ships 
to a financial group which will undertake to 
build a number of elevators in Canada and in 
Europe. The operating deficit of the Cana- 

Serious alarm has been caused in Japan by 
the progress made by the United States Ship- 
ping Board in the transpacific liner trade, to 
say nothing of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
which is concentrating its efforts upon pas- 
senger traffic, rather than the cargo trade. 
In consequence, the investigating committee 
appointed by the Japanese government has 
presented a report advocating the construc- 
tion of 500,000 tons of fast liners by the ship- 
ping companies, with the assistance of gov- 
ernment loans carrying a low rate of interest 
or no interest. 

One of the latest developments of the spirit 
of Zionism is the creation of a Zionist mer- 
chant marine. The Jews have been at vari- 
ous stages of their national career a pastoral, 
a military, an agricultural and a commercial 
people, but hitherto they have not displayed 
much maritime enterprise. However, we are 
informed that a Zionist line of ships has now 
been organized to trade in the Levant. There 
are to be three principal services: (1) Be- 
tween Alexandretta, the ports of Palestine, 
Constantinople, and the ports of the Black 
Sea; (2) between the ports of the Black Sea, 



Constantinople, Ismid and Marseilles; (3) be- 
tween Piraeus, Alexandretta, and the ports 
of Syria. It is stated that fifteen vessels 
have been acquired for these services. 

The Adolph Summerfield and the Flora 
Summerfield, two former German warships, 
which were converted into freighters, have 
been sold to German buyers to be broken up. 
This indicates that the scheme for convert- 
ing the condemned war tonnage into freighters 
has not been a success. German .shipbuilders 
have been conducting a number of experiments 
along this line; in one case a destroyer was dis- 
mantled and rebuilt into a freighter, and in 
another case two submarines were used to 
form the hull of a cargo ship. The Adolf 
Summerfield and the Flora Summerfield were 
formerly the German cruisers Gefion and Vic- 
toria Luise, respectively. 

According to official statistics there were 
529 merchant vessels, totaling 1,102,580 gross 
tons, or 35 per cent of the total French mer- 
cantile fleet, laid up in the various ports of 
France. Of these, 296 of 816,861 tons, were 
steamers; 151 of 184,595 tons were sailing 
ships; 47 of 68,426 tons were auxiliary craft; 
and the remainder were self-propelled barges. 
The largest number of ships (116 of 249,306 
tons) were laid up at Marseilles; the other 
ports, with an unusually large amount of 
idle tonnage, being Saint Nazaire (67 ships 
of 173.215 tons), Brest (57 of 125,847 tons). 
Le Havre (55 of 120,961 tons), Nantes (50 
of 107,156 tons), Dunkirk (48 of 181,564 
tons), Bordeaux (20 of 46,177 tons), and 
Paimpol (23 of 6,405 tons). 

The loss of the P. & O. liner Egypt is 
likely to be one of the heaviest ever suffered 
by Lloyd's. There was £1,054,000 in gold 
and silver bullion on board, which probably 
will never be recovered, inasmuch as the 
liner sank in deep water. About ten years 
ago, when a P. & O. liner, the Oceana, sank 
in the English Channel, the bullion on board 
was recovered by divers. But there is very 
little chance of the same good fortune being 
experienced by the underwriters on the Egypt. 
The hull was probably uninsured, as is the 
custom of this company. The bullion was 
covered at the very small premium of seven 
and one-quarter cents per $100, which means 
that the several years' underwriting profits on 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



the bullion account will be swallowed up by 
this loss. 

That 'round-the-world cruises are coming 
back into the public favor which they en- 
joyed before the war is indicated by the an- 
nouncement this week that the new United 
American liner Resolute and the Holland- 
American liner Volendam will circumnavi- 
gate the globe starting early next year. Both 
vessels are scheduled for calls at San Fran- 
cisco, Honolulu and Hilo. The Resolute is 
to sail from New York, January 9, and the 
Volendam one week later. They will call at 
Cuba, Panama, San Francisco, Honolulu, 
Hilo, Oriental countries, the Suez and Euro- 
pean ports. The cruises will be managed by 
Raymond & Whitcomb. It was announced 
recently that the Cunarder Laconia would 
make a 'round-the-world cruise, starting a 
few weeks earlier. 

Economic Life, the Russian official eco- 
nomic journal, reports the results of the in- 
vestigation recently carried out by order of 
the Foreign Trade Commissariat, as to the 
present situation of the Russiaji merchant 
fleet. This shows that the latter has de- 
creased by nearly 75 per cent since 1913, the 
total cargo capacity now amounting to 220,000 
tons, as compared with 800,000 tons before 
the war. In November, 1921, a new ship- 
building program was prepared and the Soviet 
Government approved of the construction of 
675 small and medium sized vessels, but in 
February last it was found necessary to re- 
duce this number by 75 per cent, and since 
then a further reduction has been made, so 
that the only ships at present being built are 
for coastal and river traffic. 

"On the basis of a pre-war comparison we 
find that the foreign trade of the United 
States is nearer normal than the trade of the 
United Kingdom, France or Germany, which 
are our principal competitors," declares Sec- 
retary of Commerce Herbert Hoover. Mr. 
Hoover lists the import trade of the United 
States at $1,893,900,000 in 1913, as compared 
with $2,509,000,000 in 1921, and export trade 
at $2,364,500,000 in 1913, against $4,485,100,- 
000 in 1921. For the United Kingdom im- 
ports he shows: $3,741,048,000 in 1913, and 
$4,182,713,000 in 1921; and for exports, $3,- 



089,353,000 in 1913, and $3,118,686,000 last 
year. Thus it is seen that American imports 
increased 33 per cent in the eight-year period, 
and exports 91 per cent, compared with a 
gain of 12 per cent in imports and 1 per cent 
in exports by the United Kingdom. 

During 1921, 168 American vessels, repre- 
senting a gross tonnage of 723,861, made 394 
calls at the 14 Spanish ports where American 
consular offices are located. Of this number, 
128, with a gross tonnage of 549,625, were 
United States Shipping Board vessels, and 40, 
including 9 schooners and 1 tug, with a gross 
tonnage of 174,236, were privately owned. A 
comparison of these figures with corresponding 
statistics for 1920 shows a continued decrease 
in the activities of American shipping in Spain, 
258 vessels in 1920 having made 461 calls at 
these ports. American ships carrying cotton, 
petroleum, wheat, and general cargoes from 
the United States to Spanish and other Medi- 
terranean ports found it increasingly difficult 
to secure even partial return cargoes. This 
condition may be ascribed chiefly to the con- 
tinued depression in industrial and commercial 
activities in Spain and the especially marked 
falling off in Spanish exports to the United 
States. 

The two leading shipping associations of 
Germany, the Deutsche Nautische Verein and 
the Verband Deutscher Seeschiffervereine, re- 
cently held- a general assembly of German 
shipping interests. The meeting, which took 
place in Berlin, was given the advertising 
name of "Ninth German Shipping Day" and 
was attended by representatives of the Min- 
istry of Commerce, the Chancellor, and other 
departments of the Government, as well as 
of all the principal navigation companies. 
Among significant facts brought out, the re- 
vival of German shipping was most promi- 
nent. Although the prices of all ship con- 
struction materials are three or four times as 
great as they were at the time when the Gov- 
ernment's twelve billion mark credit for in- 
demnifying shipowners was voted, neverthe- 
less 280 ships with over 1,000,000 tons carry- 
ing capacity have been built or bought since 
then, while 230 ships with 1,250,000 tons ca- 
pacity are said to be in process of construc- 
tion. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



LABOR NEWS 



Wage reductions, in some instances in vio- 
lation of the industrial disputes act. will be 
considered at the annual meeting of the Can- 
adian Trades and Labor Congress, to be held 
in Montreal, starting August 21. Another 
grievance is the Government's immigration 
policy, which has removed restrictions in the 
face of unprecedented unemployment. 

Senator LaFollette, of Wisconsin, in a 
speech in the Senate, attacked the cotton 
manufacturers of Massachusetts and New 
England as attempting to create a monopoly 
and accused them of securing high tariff rates 
at a time whe i he said the industry had 
clearly shown [hat it had made huge in- 
creases of pro'its under low tariff legisla- 
tion. 

The Injunction Judge ran '"true to form" 
in Jersey City, N. J., where Federal Judge 
Bodine enjoined municipal officials from in- 
terfering with the unsanitary housing of 
strikebreakers by the Erie Railroad. Under 
instructions of Mayor Hague, health officers 
investigated these places and reported that 
in three instances they were unlit for human 
habitation. 

After a campaign that lasted two and one- 
half years the constitutional convention of 
Illinois has rejected organized labor's pro- 
posal to insert in the organic act of Illinois 
a declaration that labor is distinct from pro- 
perty and that injunction judges are pro- 
hibited from interfering with the normal 
activities of the workers, acting through their 
trade unions. 

State cossacks are attempting to create tur- 
moil in the coal fields of Colorado. Secretary 
I'ngliano of District No. 15. United Mine 
Workers, says cossacks were mobilized in 
Fremont County, and began whispering: 
'"The radicals are going to dynamite the 
mines." "The whole trouble,'' said the 

miners' official, "is that the men are leaving 
the mines by the hundreds and the coal own- 
ers are desperate. There has been no trouble 
up there and there will be none unless it is 
started by outsiders." 



Striking railroad shop employes are ad- 
vised in a bulletin issued by the railway em- 
ployes' department, A. F. of L., not to spend 
their money fighting labor injunctions. "The 
railroads may secure injunctions at different 
points, attempting to prohibit employes from 
picketing and other things/' says the bulletin. 
"Xo attempt should be made at law to have 
such injunctions set aside, as it is a costly 
procedure, and will be one of the methods 
employed by managements for the purpose of 
dissipating our fund-." 

Passage <<f a permanent restrictive immi- 
gration is on the program for next Winter's 
session of Congress. Representative John- 
son, chairman of the House Committee on 
Immigration, believes that the United States 
will never return to the wide open door 
policy prevailing prior to the passage of the 
temporary .V, restrictive law. At the next 
session of the House, Mr. Johnson will pre- 
sent a bill so as to give all countries a base 
quota of 600 plus 2 per cent of the number 
of aliens from that particular country in the 
United States as shown by the census of 1910. 

The number of .aliens to be admitted t<> 
the United States in the ensuing fiscal year 
from the principal countries <>f the world 
under the 3 per cent law has been placed by 
Department <>f Labor at 357,903, as com- 
pared with .^??.X2? for last year. The number 
admissible from the principal countries in- 
cludes: Austria. 7.451; Belgium, 1,563; 
C/.echo-Slovakia. 14.357; Germany, (>7.t>^7: 
Italy. 42.057; Norway, 12.202; Poland, 2107r»; 
Rumania. 7,419; Russia (European and As- 
iatic), 21,613; Sweden, 2n\)V?; United King- 
dom. 77.342: Turkey (European and Asiatic, 
including Smyrna region and Turkish Ar- 
menian region), 2.388; Greece, 3.294; Hun- 
gary. 5,638; Denmark. 5.619. 

Congressman Blanton of Texas was hissed 
by women in the House gallery while he was 
making almost a single-handed tight against 
extending the Ball Rent Act, which checks 
profiteering District of Columbia landlords. 
The law would expire within a few hours. 
During that time it had to be passed by the 
House, then hurried to the Senate, and then 
to the President for signature, all before 12 
midnight of the same day. Blanton fought 
savagely for delay and was continually on 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



t 

25 



his feet demanding roll-calls. The bill passed 
the House by a vote of 248 to 31, and was 
quickly approved by the Senate by a vote of 
35 to 16. The bill was then rushed to the 
White House where it was signed by the 
President. 

The "open" shop is an iridescent dream — 
it must be either a union or non-union shop, 
Frederick Delano, former president of the 
Wabash railroad, told the transportation 
group of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States at their recent meeting. The 
former railroad official said he has reached 
this conclusion "after an experience and ob- 
servation running over a peViod of years." 
"The so-called 'open' shop so often talked of," 
he said, "represents a temporary condition 
which, in practice, does not and cannot con- 
tinue, and therefore its discussion is largely 
academic." While the speaker gave no con- 
solation to union-smashing propagandists, he 
declared, in favor of a semi-military status 
for railroad employes, who should be pro- 
hibited by law from striking. 

A report made public by the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Labor describes child labor in the 
oyster and shrimp canning industry during 
the period between the first and second Fed- 
eral Child Labor laws, when no Federal reg- 
ulation of child labor existed. Special sig- 
nificance attaches to the report in view of the 
decision of the U. S. Supreme Court, ren- 
dered on May 15, which held the Federal 
Child Labor Tax law unconstitutional and 
thus leaves the children again without the 
protection of a Federal law. The work of 
both the children and their parents was sub- 
ject to all the irregularities of the canning 
industry, the report states. Since the work 
depended on the catch, it began any time 
between 3 and 7 o'clock in the morning, and 
lasted a few hours, a whole day, or sometimes 
on into the evening. Of the 544 working 
children under sixteen years of age included 
in the study, more than three-fifths worked 
whenever the factory was open. The others 
worked only occasionally or before and after 
school and on Saturdays. The majority of 
the children — 334 of the 544 who worked — 
were under the age of fourteen years. Some 
were as young as six years of age or under. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



British communists were denied affiliation 
with the British Labor party at its Edinburgh 
meetings by the emphatic vote of 3,086,000 
to 261,000. The card system of voting was 
used. 

The housing problem at Antwerp, Belgium, 
has become so acute that one of the city fire 
companies' houses, a large hotel, and several 
large private residences have been converted 
into living apartments for workmen. 

Government bills for the ratification of the 
Draft Conventions adopted at the Interna- 
tional Labor Conference held in Washington 
in 1919, concerning the employment of women 
during the night, fixing the minimum age for 
admission of children to industrial employ- 
ment, and concerning the night work of 
young persons employed in industry, have 
been passed by the Parliament of the Nether- 
lands states. 

A new bill for a 48-hour week has been 
passed by both chambers of the Netherlands 
States parliament. This bill limits the work- 
ing day to eight and one-half hours, with a 
short day on Saturday. The bill also con- 
tains a provision authorizing the Minister of 
Labor, in case of need, to grant permission to 
industries to extend the 48-hour week to a 
maximum of 55 hours, the workmen being 
compensated in accordance with an overtime 
schedule. 

After a dispute lasting eleven weeks, and 
as the result of a ballot showing a majority 
of slightly over two to one in favor of re- 
suming work, the lockout notices affecting 
the engineering unions of the Edinburgh 
(Scotland) district, have been withdrawn as to 
all but three engineering trades units. Im- 
mediate employment will be provided for as 
many men as possible under terms of settle- 
ment calling for a wage reduction of $2.97 a 
week, at this time, and a further reduction 
of 66 cents a week in September. 

An Italian Royal Decree of February 5,, 
1922, provides for obligatory insurance 
against unemployment of all manual workers 
of both sexes, whether on a fixed salary or 
time basis, and non-manual workers, with 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



private firms, whose salaries do not exceed 
800 lire monthly. One-half of the sum re- 
quired is taken from the worker's pay and 
the other half is paid by the employer. The 
employer is held responsible for the entire 
payment, and can deduct the requisite amount 
from the pay envelope. 

According to official reports, the number of 
unemployed shipbuilding workers in Italy is 
80,000. The unemployment crisis in this, as 
in other Italian industries, is due to the in- 
creased capacity of Italian shipyards beyond 
the national requirements. Further, as sales 
abroad are prevented by the general crisis 
and especially from the high prices demanded 
by Italian shipyards, owners are bringing 
pressure to bear on the Government for large 
subsidy measures, which the bill for 325,- 
000,000 lire, already published, would only be 
a beginning. 

The Swedish Marine Firemen's Union, at 
its annual meeting held recently in Gothen- 
berg, discussed, among other things, a pro- 
posal for the amalgamation of the Swedish 
Marine Firemen's Union and the Swedish 
Sailors' Union. The meeting approved amal- 
gamation on principle, but decided that a 
committee should be appointed to consider 
under what conditions the proposal might be 
carried into effect. The committee was in- 
structed to report at the earliest possible date 
in order that a special representative meeting 
might be held in September to take a final 
decision upon the matter. 

The International Labor Office at Geneva 
has received word from Santiago, Chile, of 
a sanitary cleanup campaign that has been 
inaugurated and executed there. Under the 
leadership of Mr. Poplete Trincoso, director 
of the Labor Bureau, supported by the health 
authorities, 500 factories were inspected. It 
was found that the majority of them were 
unsanitary. The owners were warned and 
given directions for bringing their establish- 
ments up to standard. In a few weeks the 
inspectors reported that 75 per cent of those 
who had been found derelict had met all the 
required condition-. 

The Permanent Court of International Jus- 
tice has informed the International Labor 
Office at Geneva, that, in the course of its 



organization, it has just established the La- 
bor Bench, or Special Chamber of Labor Dis- 
putes, a subdivision of the court that will 
handle controversies in this particular field. 
The members of that Labor Bench are Lord 
Finlay, of Great Britain; Messrs. de Bustam- 
anta, of Cuba; Altamira, of Spain; An/.ilotti, 
of Italy; Iluper. of Switzerland; with Ny- 
iiohn, of Denmark; and Moore, of the United 
States, as substitutes. Thus a supreme court 
of the world in labor matters is established. 

The National Sailors' Federation of the 
Serb, Croat and Slovene kingdom, the head- 
quarters of which are at Bakar, in conformity 
with previous .decisions, recently submitted 
to the shipowners' associations a demand for 
an increase of 600 dinars per month in the 
pay of officers, 500 dinars for other sailors 
above 20 years of age, and 300 dinars for 
youths under 20. As the negotiations entered 
upon between the Federation and shipowners 
did not seem likely to lead to a satisfactory 
settlement, the Ministry for Social Welfare 
intervened. As a result of its mediation, an 
agreement has been reached whereby officers 
secure an increase of 20 per cent, and all 
other ratings an increase of 60 per cent. 

All the twenty-seven trade unions in Rus- 
sia have identified themselves with the or- 
ganization of relief measures in the famine- 
stricken provinces. A percentage of each 
worker's wages is retained for this purpose, 
and overtime is worked, often compulsorily, 
in order that the proceeds may be devoted 
to relief. Most of the unions have taken the 
responsibility for feeding victims of the 
famine in proportion to their membership 
(one person for every ten to twenty mem- 
bers), and many of them support a number 
of children's homes. Especially good work 
lias been accomplished by the All-Russian 
Union of Land workers and Foresters and the 
All-Russian Union of Medical Workers. The 
former supports 30,000 children in its various 
branches, while the latter, up to January, had 
despatched 2000 medical workers, including 
400 doctors, to the fever areas. Another 
union prominent in the relief work is the 
Transport Workers, which has undertaken 
to support 50,000 persons in the famine area 
until the next harvest. 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



International Seafarers' Federation 



C. Damm, Sec'y, 9 Dubois St., Antwerp, Belgium 



AFFILIATED NATIONAL, AND INTERNATIONAL 
UNIONS 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA 
International Seamen's Union of America 

Thomas A. Hanson, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

[A complete list of the district unions and 
branches affiliated with the. International Seamen's 
Union of America will be found on page 2.] 



BELGIUM 
Belgische Zeemandsbond (Belgian Seamen's Union) 
30 Brouwersvliet, Antwerp J. Chapelle, Sec'y 



DENMARK 
Dansk S6-Restaurations Forening (Danish Cooks 

and Stewards' Union) 
Lille Strandstrede 20, Copenhagen. .K. Spliid, Sec'y 
Somendenes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Seamen's 

Union) 
Toldbodgade 15, Copenhagen. .. .C. Borgland, Sec'y 
So-Fyrbodernes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Fire- 
men's Union) 
Toldbodgade 13, Copenhagen E. Jacobsen, Sec'y 

FINLAND 

Finska Sjomans-och Eldare Unionen (Finnish 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Circusgatan 5, Helsingfors, Finland.. C. Ahonen, Sec. 

FRANCE 
Federation Nationale des Syndicats Maritimes de 

France (French Seamen's Union) 
4 Ave. de L'Opera, Paris. . Monsieur L. Reaud, Sec. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 
National Sailors & Firemen's Union of Great 
Britain and Ireland 
St. George's Hall, Westminster Bridge Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. 1. E. Cathery, Sec'y 
Hull Seamen's Union 

1 Railway St., Hull G. W. McKee, Sec'y 

United Kingdom Pilots' Association 
69 Queens Square, Bristol Joseph Brown, Sec'y 

GREECE 
Federation Panhellenique des Ouvriers Corpotations 

Maritimes (Greece Seamen's Federation) 
Le Pircaus, Greece T. Mallossis, Sec'y 

HOLLAND 

Zeelieden Vereeniging-Eendracht (Dutch Seamen's 

Union) 

Vestaland 22, Rotterdam D. L. Wolfson, Sec'y 



ITALY 

Federazione Nazionale di Lavatori de Mare (Italian 

Seamen's Federation) 

Piazza St., Larcellino, Genoa.. Capt. G. Gulietti, Sec. 



NORWAY 

Norsk Matros & Fyrboter-Union (Norwegian 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Grev Wedels Plads 5, Christiania. . A. Birkeland, Sec. 
Norsk Sjorestaurations Landsforbund (Norwegian 

Cooks & Stewards' Union) 
Gronlandsleret 5, Christiania. .H. Johannessen, Sec'y 



SWEDEN 

Svenska Sjomans Unionen (Swedish Sailors' 

Union) 

Fjerde Langgatan 25, Gothenburg. .E. Griph, Sec'y 

Svenska Eldare Unionen (Swedish Firemen's Union) 

Andra Langgatan 46, Gothenburg 

S. Lundgreen, Sec'y 

Nya Stewartsforeningen (New Swedish Stewards' 
Union) 

Stigsbergsgatan 12, Gothenburg 

C. Q. Johannsan, Sec'y 



International Seamen's Union 
of America 

(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 875 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM MEEHAN, Agent 

613 Beacon Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86" Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 

FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



75,000 Friends 

"THIS bank, through its various departments and branches, serves 
more than 75.000 customers. These customers are our friends 
and it is our endeavor to render an efficient and complete banking 
service to them at all times. €flwe cordially welcome you to our 
ever-growing list of customers. One splendid way to become a 
depositor in this bank is to open a savings account. Savings 
accounts may be started with $1 or more and the same courteous 
friendly service is given to both small and large depositors. 

Anglo-CaliforniaTrust Ca 



commkrcial 



TRUST BOND DEPARTMENTS 




nlw CiiyWide BankZ 

Maiket la Sansome Streets 
San Francisco 



Mixiod I l6 n 

Fillmore I C, t try 
Third I to ™ 



^S 




A COPY OF AXTELL'S HAND BOOK, 

"Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen" 

WILL SAVE SEAMEN TIME, LITIGA- 
TION AND MONEY. WILL PREVENT 
MUCH INJUSTICE IF SHOWN TO 
OFFICERS AND CONSULAR AGENTS. 
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH 
A POUND OF CURE. 

You can also learn much about the 
political law making and law enforcing 
institutions of your country from this 
book; equal opportunity before the law 
is the essence of American democracy. 
Read this and find out what equal 
opportunity means. 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES PUB. CO. 

Iver Olbers, A. B., Sales Manager 
4 South St.. 3rd floor, New York City 



SAILORS ! ATTENTION ! 
When in Eureka, drop in at — 

BENJAMIN'S 

The old reliable Clothier and Shoe Man 

Fourteen years of square dealing with Seamen 

325-329 Second Street, EUREKA, California 



SMOKERS 



See that this label (in light blue) appears on 
the box in which you are served 




DEMAND THE UNION LABEL 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 

Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"If you want a becoming 
hat, be coming to " 



Largest Exclusive Hatters in the West 
MAIN STORE 1082 MARKET 

26 THIRD 605 KEARNY 

3242 MISSION 2640 MISSION 

cAlso in Los Angelet 
cAgencies in other California Cities 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal' 



The Buck Passes the Buck.— An 
Americanization incident of the 
West is related: A Piute Indian 
with a stick and white paint raised 
a dollar hill and passed it on a 
Chinaman who paid a gambling 
debt to an American with it. 
The American was arrested. — 

New York Morning Telegraph. 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



COMBINED STATEMENT OF CONDITION 

HEAD OFFICE AND BRANCHES 

Bank of Italy 

SAVINGS COMMERCIAL TRUST 

HEAD OFFICE, SAN FRANCISCO 

MEMBER FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 

June 29, 1922 

RESOURCES 

First Mortgage Loans on Real Estate $73,129,123.47 

Other Loans and Discounts 59,937,608.82 $133,066,732.29 

United States Bonds and 

Certificates of Indebtedness $24,297,100.40 

State, County and Municipal Bonds 9,274,541.01 

Other Bonds 11,075,670.76 

Stock in Federal Reserve Bank 375,000.00 

Total U. S. and Other Securities 45,022,312.17 

Due from Federal Reserve Bank $ 9,086,169.30 

Casta and Due from Other Banks 14,711,553.79 

Total Cash and Due from Banks 23,797,723.09 

Banking Premises, Furniture, Fixtures 

and Safe Deposit Vaults 8,187,434.70 

Other Real Estate Owned 418,537.89 

Customers' Liability under Letters of 

Credit and Acceptances 1,010,922.43 

Interest Earned but Not Collected 1,638,780.16 

Employees' Pension Fund (Carried on Books at) 1.00 

Other Resources 442,389.65 

Total Resources $213,584,833.38 

LIABILITIES 

Deposits $196,437,166.90 

Dividends Unpaid 601,682.50 

Discount Collected but Not Earned 78,031.45 

Reserved for Taxes and Interest Accrued 264,793.20 

Letters of Credit, Acceptances and Time Drafts 1,010,922.43 

$198,392,596.48 

♦Capital Paid in $10,000,000.00 

♦Surplus 2,500,000.00 

Undivided Profits 2,692,236.90 

Total Capital, Surplus and Undivided Profits $ 15,192,236.90 

Total Liabilities $213, 584, 833. SS 

*By the issue of 50,000 additional shares of stock in July, 1922, the 
Paid in Capital will be increased to $15,000,000 
and Surplus to $5,000,000 
All charge- off s, expenses and interest payable to end of half-year have 
been deducted in above statement. 

P. C. Hale and W. R. Williams, being separately duly sworn each for 
himself, says that said P. C. Hale is Vice-President and that said W. R. 
Williams is Cashier of the Bank of Italy, the corporation above mentioned, 
and that every statement contained herein is true of his own knowledge 
and belief. P. C. HALE 

W. R. WILLIAMS 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 29th day of June, 1922. 

THOMAS S. BURNES, Notary Public. 

The Story of Our Growth 

As Shown by a Comparative Statement of Our Resources 

December, 1904 ---------- $285,436.97 

December, 1908 - - $2,574,004.90 

December, 1912 ------- $11,228,814.56 

December, 1916 ------ $39,805,995.24 

December, 1920 ----- $157,464,685.08 

December, 1921 ----- $194,179,449.80 

June 29, 1922 $213,584,833.38 

NUMBER OF DEPOSITORS, 343,653 



BEST SMOKE ON EARTH 

RED SEAL CIGAR 

UNION MADE 

RED SEAL CIGAR CO. 

Manufacturers 

762 Valencia St., San Francisco 
Phone Park 9401 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

EVERYTHING GUARANTEED 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



Office Phone Main 2665 
Residence Phone Elliott 4271-W 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

435-36 Globe Bldg., First and Madison SEATTLE, WAS! 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium In 

Connection 

Iroadway at Olive St. Seattle 



UNITED STATES 



^ 



L ABo& 

TKcUBORp,,^ 
out form or, '« 

aulhonlytobeth 5 ' 
grea.estADVER^ 
MEOlUMmfteWo,* 
■treache stKem 



pKESS 

Where a Community 

*-.-;-. l:,;w he;l-W'.. 

ffifeclAl DEVELOPMENT 

(JiaborPapCT published 
aonaymyniclivelmes 

iMPLOVcn rfcRar[tt 



& 



NEW LOCATION 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AXD FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



ASSOCIATION 



42S2&- 



*>WA/ 



^4MSJP 
CATARRH 
)f BLADDER 



Protect Your Health 

Always Use 



SANYKIT^ 



(Sanitary KM) 

PREVENTIVE 

A Compound of Modern Rpurarch 
Aflorda Complete Protection 

All Druggists or 
tl P. n, p., Y , IQ9. NVwYork 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 
For the BEST there Is in TAILORING 

Less the Fancy Prices 
NOTE— S. G. Swanson is not con- 
nected with any dye works and has 
no solicitors. Clothes made also from 
your own cloth. Repairing, cleaning 
and pressing. Second floor, Bank of 
San Pedro, 110 W 6th St., San Pedro, 
Los Angeles Waterfront, Cal. 



The Simple Life. — First Canni- 
bal — Our chief has hay fever. 

Second Cannibal — What brought 
it on? 

First Cannibal — Tie ate a grass 
widow. — Journal American Medi- 
cal Association. 



HUMBOLDT SAVINGS BANK 

783 Market Street, near Fourth 

For the half year ending June 
3d, \ ( )22, a dividend has been de- 
clared at the rate of four (4) per 
cent per annum on all savings de- 
posits, payable on and after July 
1, 1922. Dividends not called for 
are added to and bear the same 
rate of interest as the principal 
from July 1, 1922. Deposits made 
on or before July 10, 1922, will 
earn interest from July 1, 1922. 
H. C. KLEVESAHL, Cashier. 



All Clear Now. — "Money is the 
root of all evil." That is the 
reason we all try to dig it Up. 



SEAMEN 
You Know Me 




"YOUR HATTER" 

FRED AMMANN 

I sell 
UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
n you personally an.i show 
• • assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

want vonr Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



Navigation Laws of 
the United States 

The Seamen's Act and all other 
features of the law applicable 
to seamen. 
Handbook, Navigation Laws of 

the United States 
Third edition. Including wage 
tables, department rulings, etc. 
Completely indexed. A ready 
reference work for practical sea- 
men, shipmasters and ship own- 
ers. Price $1.50. 

The Seaman's Contract 
A complete reprint of all laws 
relating to seamen as enacted 
by Congress, 1790-1918.' Includ- 
ing the laws of Oleron and a 
summary of the history of each 
law. Reprinted verbatim from 
the Statutes at Large and Re- 
vised Statutes, Tables and In- 
dex. Designed for the use of 
admiralty lawyers. Price $4.00. 
Compiled by Walter Macarthur 
Published by 
JAMES H. BARRY CO. 
1122 Mission St., San Francisco 



Local Color. — Poet — I am out 
lure to get local color for a pas- 
toral poem. 

Farmer — I reckon you're gettin' 
it, mister. I painted that - 
only this mornin'. — Boston Tran- 
script. 



August, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



KELLEHER & BROWNE 

THE IRISH TAILORS 

716 Market Street, San Francisco 

at Third and Kearny 



SUITS AND 

OVERCOATS 

to order at popular 
prices 



Established 
for 20 years 



All work done in 

our own sanitary 

workshop 



Represented by 



E. Peguillan 



The United States Government 

offers you a 

COMPLETE SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT 
SERVICE 

* * * 

POSTAL SAVINGS 

for the deposit of your money; 

Treasury Savings Certificates 

for investment 

:£ H* •¥ 

AT THE POST OFFICE 



Others Might as Well.— "Per- 
sonally, you know, I am very fond 
of hunting. But then, you see, I 
belong to the society for the pro- 
tection of animals. However, I 
found a way out of rny difficulty. 
When hunting I use blank cart- 
ridges." — Paris La Baionnette. 

Musical Note. — A very deaf old 
lady, walking along the street, saw 
an Italian turning a peanut roaster. 
She stood looking at it awhile, 
■ shook her head and said: "No, I 
shan't give you any money for 
such music as that.; I can't hear 
any of the tunes, and besides it 
smells as if there were something 
burning inside!" — The Congrega- 
tionalist. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Any one knowing the where- 
abouts of William Parkins, for- 
merly a member of the Marine 
Firemen's Union, last heard oi 
when he left the S.S. Memaha in 
New York, June 9, 1921, please 
communicate with Ralph Rivers, 
335 Eddy St., Providence, R. I. 



William Penn Miller, last em- 
ployed on S. S. Maiden Creek. 
Kindly communicate with his sister 
Lillian, care A. R. Larsen, 2519 N. 
Harding Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



Sad Give-away. — Mrs. Hibrow — 
Did the earl you had to dinner 
last night bring his coronet? 

Mrs. Newrich — I didn't even 
know he could play one. — Passing 
Show. 



TOM WILLIAMS 

UP-TO-DATE TAILOR 

Also Ready-to-Wear Clothes 

28 SACRAMENTO STREET 
Phone Douglas 4874 San Francisco 



Phone Garfield 2457 

HOTEL EVANS 

ED COLL, Prop. 

LARGE SUNNY ROOMS 
Clean, Comfortable — Low Rates 

CORNER FRONT AND BROADWAY 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Kearny 3863 

JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing. All kinds of Watches and 
Jewelry 

676 THIRD STREET 

At 3rd and Townsend, San Francisco 

Phone Kearny 519 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 5348 



Phone Kearny 693 

Argonaut Outfitting 

Company 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING. FURNISHINGS, HATS, 

SHOES, ETC. 

A Complete Stock at Most Reasonable 

Prices : : : : Union Made Goods Only 

103 EAST ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



Limited Liability. — Si — Be those 
there college students, Mirandy? 

■randy— Well, they all go to 
college, if that's what you mean. — 
in Punch. 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



August, 1922 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CART. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances t" illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in lint past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
ami Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
id a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and Is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




TTMTOM MAr>F ^ complete line of seamen's shirts and 

UWlUN-MAUb garments of all kinds, union made right 

QIJIDTC here in California, sold direct from factory 

l ^* 1 **^ to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street. San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 18' 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established l'.'lT by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH. 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats. Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Pier No. 1, Rooms 37-38-39 
SEATTLE, WASH. 





Telephone Sutter 5600 

A Good Place 
to Trade 

A Thoroughly 
Human Store 

Your Custom 
Cordially Invited 



MARKET AT FIFTH 
SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished- Hard wearing 

$W WORSTED 



33 



SUITS 

See Them in our Windows 

I*. 



eu 




I52-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 

SAVINGS BANK 



783 



MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 




w —' FT- — ~T^T^ : ^7 r: ^ ^ "--'^^ ■ l ' gsRa ^'- l n ::: r'^ 



Official Or^an of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^!IIICaiIIIIIIlllllC31llIIIIIIllli:31IIIlllIIIIICaiJIIIIIIIIIIC3IIIIIIlllIIIC3IIltllllf IIIC3lflIllllllIIC3IIITIlllII]IC3lfllltllllIlllIlllC3IlllllIlfIIIi:3IIIIII |[] llllllirJIIIIIIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIinilllllllllllHIIIIIIIIIUl 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Gontents 

Page 

WAGE INCREASE ON GREAT LAKES 3 

THE COAL MINERS' VICTORY 4 

LABOR DAY, 1922 5 

EDITORIALS: 

A SHIP SUBSIDY REFERENDUM 6 

SEAMEN'S RIGHT TO TRANSPORTATION 6 

THE RAILROAD SHOPMEN'S STRIKE 8 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN REVERSED 8 

OLD FORM OF TREACHERY 9 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE 9 

RIDICULE FOR INJUNCTIONS 10 

PROPAGANDISTS AT WORK 10 

VALUE OF THE LABOR PRESS 11 

LABOR IN JAPAN H 

WORLD'S LARGEST SAILER WRECKED 13 

IS IT A "PAPER SCREEN" PEACE? 14 

WOBBLIES AID SHIPOWNERS 14 

WORLD TONNAGE FIGURES 15 

A STORY OF FIVE PATRIOTS 15 

SCANDINAVIAN SEA LAWS 15 

MYSTERIOUS MONSTERS OF THE SEA 16 

MEXICO BARS STRIKE-BREAKERS 17 

"TREAT 'EM ROUGH" 17 

THE THREE SOLDIERS ^i;^ 1? 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 20, 21, 22, 23 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 24, 25, 26 



VOL. XXXVI, No. 5 
WHOLE No. 1904 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
SEPT. 1, 1922 



^iiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiuii iiiiiuiiiiiiiuiio iiioiiiiiiiiiimiiiuiiiiiniiiiiuii loiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiomiimiioiiiiimiiiniimiimiiuiiiii anna 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

70 South Street 

BALTIMORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

MOBILE, Ala E. A. OLSEN, Agent 

69^ Saint Michael Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

836 Eddy Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex P, MONAHAN, Agent 

132 Proctor Street 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK CITY, N. Y 12 South Street 

H. P. GRIFFIN, President 

W. L. CARTLEDGE, Secretary-Treasurer 

Telephone Bowling Green 8840-8841 

Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Agent 

514 Greenwich Street 

BOSTON, Mass J. A. MARTIN, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

228 Lafayette Street 

BALTIMORE, Md H. MEYERS, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa FRANK NOLAN, Agent 

140 South Third St. 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. F. BULLOCK, Agent 

2117^ Avenue A 

PROVIDENCE, R. I WM. BELL, Agent 

515 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 

ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Phone John 0975 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa lAMES ANDERSON, Agenl 

206 Moravian Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. W. HANSON, Agent 

321 Twentieth S 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

2S8 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va PETER McKILLOP, Agent 

513 East Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS. La.. ... THOMAS M1LLIGAX. Agenl 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala VINCENT THORN, Agent 

69V 2 Saint Michael St. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I R. E. PERRY, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 

NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

111 South Street 

ATLANTIC CITY, N. J H. F. McGARRIGEL, Agent 

700 North Rhode Island Avenue 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 _.355 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY. Secretary 

ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

Phone Dearborn 6413 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO. N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ASHTABULA, HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO, 111 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 Day Street 

TOLEDO, 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, N. Y 122% Main Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAX FKAXCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. I ARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2'2-S 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C R. TOWNSEND, Agent 

P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

Central Labor Council, 1151% Broa<l 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

61 North Union Avenue 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, Agent 

P. O. Box 314 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAX FRAXCISCO. Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNX, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 



> September, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

WAGE INCREASE ON LAKES 




r ise men who guide the destiny 
the Steel Trust have read and 
interpreted the handwriting on the 
wall. In other words, the virtually 
unanimous strike vote by the organ- 
ized seamen on the chain of Great Lakes has 
not only started something but has already 
had very practical results. 

The Lake Carriers' Association, represent- 
ing the major shipowners on the Great 
Lakes, have announced with a great flourish 
that they will raise seamen's wages $15 a 
month, starting September 1. With an addi- 
tional flourish it is further announced that 
the association's anti-union policy will con- 
tinue. 

Of course, no mention is made of the strike 
vote, taken by seamen along the Lakes, in 
which they voted nearly 100 to 1 in favor of 
suspending work if wages were not increased. 
But even though no mention is made of this 
detail every man is still entitled to draw his 
own conclusion regarding the motive behind 
that $15 raise. 

Certain very pertinent events leading up 
to that "voluntary" raise should not be over- 
looked in any endeavor to fathom the depths 
of Steel Trust generosity. 

The executive board members of the Great 
Lakes District, of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, met in Detroit on August 
3 to set the date for the strike and lay plans 
for carrying it into effect. While the board 
was in session a commissioner of conciliation 
from the United States Department of Labor 
asked that the Department be given a reason- 
able opportunity to attempt to bring the ship- 
owners and the Union representatives to- 
gether to see if existing differences could not 
be settled without a general tie-up of Lake 
traffic, it being acknowledged that a seamen's 
strike would still further inconvenience the 
people of the Northwest who depend on Lake 
transportation for their coal supply. Later 
that day a telephone call came from Wash- 
ington asking that the executive officers of 
the Sailors', Firemen's and Cooks' Unions 
proceed to Washington for a conference with 
the Secretary of Labor on August 7. 



The three executives met the Secretary of 
Labor in Washington on the latter day and 
presented a resume of the grievances of 
seamen employed on Lake Carrier Associ- 
ation ships. The Secretary of Labor then 
called up the headquarters of the association 
at Cleveland, Ohio, asking them to come to 
Washington to meet the Seamen's representa- 
tives. The Secretary was told that this 
question would be taken up at a meeting of 
the Lake Carriers' board of directors on 
Thursday, xAugust 10. Late in the afternoon 
of August 10 the association called up the 
Secretary of Labor and informed him that 
the matter had been referred by their board 
of directors to an executive board meeting 
of their association, which would take place 
on Monday, August 14. On that day an 
authorized spokesman of said executive board 
transmitted certain information to the Secre- 
tary of Labor, reading in effect, as follows: 
The Lake Carriers' Association "stands pat'' 
on the Open Shop Policy adopted in 1908, 
which means that they refuse to meet with 
the representatives of the men employed on 
their ships ; they refuse to abolish the Dis- 
charge Book or to concede the Eight-Hour 
Day, but they had authorized a "voluntary" 
increase in wages amounting to $15 per 
month, effective on September 1. 

Upon receipt of this information the execu- 
tive board of the Great Lakes District of the 
I. S. of A. met at Cleveland and decided that 
each of three component parts of the District 
(sailors, firemen and cooks) should carefully 
canvass the sentiment of the men employed 
in their respective departments on Lake Car- 
rier Association vessels and ascertain if resort 
to a strike was still desired in order to 
establish the eight-hour workday (three 
watches) for sailors. A reprint of the ballot, 
now being used for this purpose, follows : 

BALLOT 

By the referendum Strike vote taken from Julv 
3, 1922. to July 24, 1922, the Executive Board of 
the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes was granted 
the authority to call a strike on the ships of the 
Lake Carriers' Association for the three-watch 
system (eight-hour day) and an increase in pay. 

The Lake Carriers' Association has announced 
that they will increase wages $15.00 per month 
commencing September 1, but they have ignored 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



the demand of the sailors for an eight-hour day. 

What is your opinion of the settlement offered 
by the Lake Carriers' Association? Do you still 
wish to go on Strike in order to force that Asso- 
ciation to grant the sailors the three-watch sys- 
tem (eight-hour day)"" 

Mark X in the square provided below. 

Yes [J No [J 

While this tug-of-war is in progress word 
has been received that the I. W. W.'s are 
preparing to pull their usual little stunt. As 
has often been stated, Judas Iscariot and 
Benedict Arnold were perfect gentlemen in 
comparison with the treacherous knaves who, 
under the name of I. W. W.'s, masquerade 
as saviors of the working class, and at the 
same time do the employers' dirty work. 
The wobblies are evidently preparing to 
break the Lake Seamen's strike, if it should 
develop that a strike is the most effective 
weapon against the present tactics of the 
Lake Carriers' Association. 

An official wobbly propaganda sheet of re- 
cent date under glaring headlines urges all 
"fellow workers to get aboard Lake boats." 

Of course, the wobbly sheet is not daring 
enough to invite the fellow workers to rush 
toward the Lakes for the purpose of scab- 
bing on the Great Lakes District Unions of 
the I. S. U. of A., but that, of course, is 
wholly unnecessary. The inference is per- 
fectly clear. The Steel Trust will need 
strike-breakers in the event of a walk-out by 
the Seamen, and the wobbly paper accommo- 
datingly invites the fellow workers to take 
a fast express train for the Great Lakes. In 
closing its invitation to the fellow workers 
the wobbly rag sings this old, familiar song 
of the shipowners : 

"You don't need to be a sailor on these 
boats. Anything goes. Come on." 

We used to think the shipowners had a 
copyright on this sentence. And now the 
wobblies are using it to lure men to the 
Lakes for the purpose of manning the Steel 
Trust fleet at a time of impending trouble ! 
Really, comment upon this dastardly per- 
formance by the solidarity howlers is quite 
superfluous. The I. W. W. is running true 
to form! Are they helping the shipowners 
out of sheer stupidity or are they again re- 
ceiving a subsidy from the Steel Trust? 



THE COAL MINERS' VICTORY 



As anticipated, the coal strike has been 
settled on terms satisfactory to the mine 
workers. 

The miners do not take a reduction in 
wages, nor do they lose any of their work- 
ing conditions. 

The greatest gain made by the workers is 
a provision in the settlement which their 
leaders believe will make future strikes un- 
necessary. Thus have the twin objects of 
the miners been attained — first, the turning 
back of the forces which sought to destroy 
the unions, and, second, establishing condi- 
tions in the mining industry which will make 
for permanent peace. 

The situation as it has developed is sum- 
marized in a statement from President John 
L. Lewis, of the United Mine Workers' 
Union, as follows : 

"It has been a long and gruelling conflict, 
but the United Mine Workers of America 
have won their strike. 

"For nearly five months 600,000 union coal 
miners and their wives and children have 
endured all the hardships and privations 
that accompany an industrial conflict of this 
character, but they never faltered nor 
wavered. 

"They knew they were right. The out- 
come proves that they were right. 

"The mine workers are glad that the pro- 
duction of coal is to be resumed and that 
the crisis is past. 

"The miners do not take a reduction in 
wages, nor do they lose any of their hard- 
won working conditions. Provision is made 
in this settlement for a method which we 
hope will make future strikes unnecessary. 

"Let me add that the United Mine Work- 
ers of America fully and sincerely appreciate 
the fine spirit of sympathy manifested by 
organized labor in general and the American 
public throughout these twenty weeks of 
conflict and suspense." 

President Lewis' statement is fully con- 
firmed by the subsequent announcement that 
an agreement has been signed by operators 
representing a majority of the tonnag 
the bituminous district. On October 2 next 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



"both parties will meet in Cleveland, Ohio, 
to arrange for negotiating a new agreement 
to become effective April 1 next, when the 
present agreement expires. 

A conference will also be called to arrange 
for machinery to prevent further strikes. 
Another gain by the miners is the agreement 
that a Committee of Inquiry, or "Fact-find- 
ing" Commission, be created to investigate 
the industry and develop facts for the bene- 
fit of all concerned. 

The agreement has destroyed all prospect 
of wage and working arrangements based on 
States and districts. It has also destroyed 
all possibility of compulsory arbitration in 
the mining industry. More power to the 
•organized coal miners. They made a splen- 
did fight and are fully deserving of their 
great .victory. 



LABOR DAY, 1922 

By FRANK MORRISON 
Secretary, American Federation of Labor 



Labor Day, 1922, is the most significant in 
the history of the American Trade Union 
Movement, for at this time the workers are 
confronted by more adverse court decisions 
and by stronger combinations of capitalists 
than at any other time. This situation, how- 
ever, is logical. It is the only answer to 
Labor's demands for a better day that greed 
and autocracy know. This demand is backed 
by increasing intelligence, solidarity and will. 
Arrayed against this development of labor, 
hostile court decisions and frenzied edicts of 
anti-union organizations are nothing — they 
but remind us that history is a record of 
selfish minorities that would thwart the 
high and strong desires of millions of people. 

On the anvil of resistance are given life 
and form to the hopes and aspirations of 
Labor. Ideals flourish under opposition. It 
seems but yesterday that courts held as con- 
spirators even three workmen when found 
conversing on the public highway. Then 
were organized workers considered social out- 
laws. They had no standing in the public 
mind; they had no press, and were without 
voice to plead their cause. Through agita- 
tion and education these workers changed 



public opinion and, by winning the right to 
organize, forced the courts to bow to a new 
social viewpoint. It was an epoch-making 
event. The new ideal — this actual brother- 
hood — fired the workers with zeal for a 
higher manhood. They began agitating for 
free public schools, to abolish child labor, 
to secure the secret ballot at public elections, 
and for every other social law now on our 
Federal and State statutes. 

On this Labor Day trade unionists do not 
forget the trials and triumphs of the men 
who pioneered the organized labor move- 
ment. To say that the militant, intelligent 
and resourceful organized workers of today 
are discouraged because of present-day oppo- 
sition to their movement is to say that they 
have forgotten industrial history, and the 
resistance of every autocracy to any force 
that would challenge its power. I do not 
minimize the days of trial before organized 
labor, but I do insist that these barriers are 
nothing compared with obstructions that the 
men of even two generations ago were com- 
pelled to remove. Trade unionists of today 
have experience ; they have a background ; 
vast educational institutions are at their dis- 
posal ; they are developing their own educa- 
tional facilities; they have a press that is 
increasing in power and worth, and they have 
the support of earnest men and women out- 
side their ranks who correctly appraise the 
trade union movement. There is no rose- 
strewn road to the land of freedom and social 
justice. This aspiration of the workers can 
be approximated only through knowledge 
and contest, the price exacted for all progress. 

The daily progress of our movement can 
not be estimated ; neither can we produce a 
counting-room balance on the cost of strikes, 
and the expense of our unions against the 
intellectual and physical development of the 
workers, which has only been possible 
through organized labor. 

Labor will continue its upward journey. 
Its rebuffs but remind us of the law of life, 
that advancement comes only through re- 
sistance. 



Too many men would rather be recog- 
nized as "radical" than as right. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1SS7 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH. President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY. Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL. Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street. Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR. Fifth Vice-President 

1V 2 Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON, Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 





Office of Publication, 
San Francisco 


525 Market 
California 


Street 




Subscription price $1.50 per 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 


year 


P. 


UJL SCHARRENBERG 




Editor 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



SEPTKMIiKR 1, 1922 



SHIP SUBSIDY REFERKNIH'M 



I »ur old friend, the Ship Subsidy bill, is 
experiencing some hard weather. 

President Harding, in a letter to Repre- 
sentative Mnndell, the Republican leader, has 
reluctantly but formally expressed willing- 
ness to have Congressional consideration of 
the administration ship subsidy deferred 
"until we can rivet the attention of Con 
with a full attendance." 

Success of the measure, the President 
added, might be jeopardized by pressing for 
an immediate decision. The letter was in 
reply to one from Mondell, in which the 
Republican leader had declared that he and 
his associates were reluctant to bring the 
bill to a vote in the House at this time. 

In the meantime, Senator Borah has sug- 
gested a national referendum on the pending 



ship subsidy scheme. In a letter to Con- 
gressman Wood, chairman of the Republican 
Congressional committee, the senator said 
that the voters have not had an opportunity 
to pass upon the subsidy question. 

A national referendum on the ship subsidy 
question is an excellent test of public senti- 
ment, provided, both sides of the argument 
are fully and fairly presented to the Ameri- 
can electorate. This, of course, will not be 
done. Backed by Big Business, the national 
administration is determined to ram the Sub- 
sidy bill through Congress regardless of 
popular objections. The bulk of the country's 
daily newspapers are printing only one side 
of the argument. For example, the Hearst 
newspapers are not generally regarded as 
champions of President Harding's policies, 
yet it is impossible to break into any Hearst 
paper with any statement of facts derogatory 
to the Subsidy scheme. 

The American people have been literally 
fed up with untruths and half-truths anent 
Ship Subsidy and the American Merchant 
Marine. Hence the query remain-: How is 
it possible to have an intelligent popular vote 
on the pending Ship Subsidy bill as long as 
the majority has heard little except the pro- 
Subsidy argument? 

In a fair debate, the poor, old Subsidy bill 
never had a chance because the cold, hard 
facts are all against it. Tn a national referen- 
dum, with a fairly well-informed electorate, 
the returns would be equally positive, i. e.. 
overwhelmingly against the payment of an 
annual tribute to private inter. 

But who can arrange to have our alleged 
"news" papers print both sides of the story? 



RIGHT TO TRANSPORTATION 



Disputes between seamen and shipowners 
are frequently caused by lack of precision in 
describing the voyage in the Shipping Arti- 
especially in case of failure to define 
the conditions of discharge — i. e.. name of 
port at which the voyage shall terminate, 
return transportation (if any), and other 
particulars. In the absence of such details. 
settlement of a dispute must depend largely 
upon custom and the understanding which 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



existed between the master and seamen at 
the time of signing articles. In event that 
no agreement can be reached upon either of 
these grounds, decision must be based upon 
the strict letter of the law. Such decision, 
although perfectly legal, may, and frequently 
does, work a hardship upon the seaman. 

A case in point was recently decided by 
the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals at San 
Francisco. The crew of the steamer Flor- 
ence Olson signed articles at New York for 
a voyage to "Callao, Iquique, Honolulu, and 
such other ports or places in any part of 
the Western Hemisphere as the master may 
•direct, and back to a final port of discharge 
in the United States, for a term of time not 
exceeding six calendar months." Subse- 
quently, upon demand of the seamen, a stipu- 
lation was inserted in the articles providing 
for transportation back to New York, in event 
of discharge on the Pacific Coast. 

Upon arrival at San Francisco the crew 
were discharged. Transportation, in accord- 
ance with the terms of the stipulation in the 
articles, was refused, upon the ground that the 
stipulation was not legal or binding, for the 
reason, as alleged, that it was agreed to by 
the master "under compulsion." 

The Shipping Commissioner ruled that the 
stipulation was a valid feature of the agree- 
ment, and therefore binding upon the vessel. 
The U. S. District Court rendered judgment 
to the same effect. Appeal was taken, and 
now the Circuit Court of Appeals has finally 
decided in favor of the seamen upon both 
points at issue, namely, the right of the sea- 
men to demand the insertion of a stipulation 
necessary to the completion of the Shipping 
Articles, and that such demand, when made 
at a place where another crew can be ob- 
tained, does not constitute "compulsion." 

The decision is in line with the principle 
of maritime law that the Shipping Articles 
must state within certain definite limits the 
port at which the seaman shall be discharged. 
In the absence of such statement the articles 
are incomplete, as lacking an essential feature 
of the agreement required by law. On the 
same principle the seamen are entitled to 
know their rights in regard to transportation, 
etc., and to have the same covered by a 
definite stipulation in the Shipping Articles. 



The articles of the Florence Olson read: 
"... and back to a final port of discharge 
in the United States. . . ." Had the articles 
remained in this incomplete form the seamen 
might have been discharged at any Pacific 
Coast port, with wages insufficient to defray 
the cost of transportation back to the port 
of shipment. This the owners of the vessel 
actually sought to do, and would have suc- 
ceeded in doing but for the stipulation in- 
serted in the articles. 

The Circuit Court decision does not mean 
that seamen engaged on the Atlantic Coast 
and discharged on the Pacific Coast, or vice 
versa, are entitled to return transportation 
where no stipulation to that effect has been 
inserted in the articles. However, it does 
clearly mean that, in the absence of such a 
stipulation, the articles may be regarded as 
incomplete ; consequently, the seamen may 
demand that such stipulation be inserted in 
the articles, even after they have been signed, 
and that such stipulation, when inserted, is 
binding in law, notwithstanding any charge 
of "compulsion," based solely upon the fact, 
or allegation, that to have rejected the sea- 
men's demand would have caused delay of 
the vessel while engaging another crew. 

The outcome points the old moral that too 
much care cannot be taken to have every- 
thing down in black and white at the time 
of signing Articles, in order to avoid dis- 
putes at the pay-table. 



The news has leaked out" that the buyers 
of the ex-German S. S. Pocahontas (pre- 
viously reported as sold by the Shipping 
Board) are her former owners, the North 
German Lloyd, Bremen, who ran her before 
the war in the New York-Mediterranean 
service under the name of Prinzess Irene. 
It will be recalled that this proud vessel was 
virtually wrecked internally by one of Ad- 
miral Benson's "S. B." strike-breaking crews. 
We hear a lot these days about the cost of 
strikes. But if the American people ever 
learned how public funds have been squan- 
dered by the "S. B." (strike-breaking) board 
there would surely be an awful howl. Of 
course, there is little danger of any such 
expose. Delicate matters of this caliber are 
always carefully hushed up! 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



THE RAILROAD SHOPMEN'S STRIKE 



At the time of going- to press, the railroad 
shopmen's strike is still in full force. With 
an arrogance scarcely equalled in previous in- 
dustrial wars, the railroad executives have 
determined to "stand pat" and fight it out 
"to a finish." What do they care about that 
so-called great third party — the public? 
Why should they worry about the increasing 
number of accidents due to more and more 
defective equipment? They are engaged in 
a noble crusade, a Wall street campaign of 
union-busting ! 

Of course, the railroad executives are mak- 
ing every effort to befog the real issue. For 
instance, when the railroads oppose seniority, 
they really aim at a condition that will per- 
mit them to discharge active trade unionists, 
declare striking shopmen. To quote from 
their latest bulletin : 

To many newspaper readers the strike means a 
fight for seniority. That is the carriers' red her- 
ring introduced for the purpose of obscuring the 
real issues. They seek to make it appear that the 
seniority rights are favors which the men should 
forfeit as a penalty for exercising their admitted 
right to refuse to work under non-acceptable con- 
ditions. The fact is that seniority rights are essen- 
tial to the efficient operation of transportation. 

For their own good the roads wish to retain the 
senior, more efficient employes, after the strike. 
They talk loudly now of "protecting" the new men 
for the purpose of diverting attention from the 
main issues. 

They also hope to wipe out the principle of 
seniority so that when it suits their purpose they 
can weed out those workers most active in the 
protection of rights of their fellow employes. This 
would punish the more independent, forceful work- 
ers and intimidate others. 

So much for those mysterious seniority 
rights. 

Nothing in recent years has provided a 
clearer demonstration of the fundamentally 
unsound philosophy which has been dominat- 
ing in American industry than the public 
utterances of the railroad executives. Sit- 
ting in the lofty upper stories of the indus- 
trial structure, they have lost their sense of 
proportion. They have forgotten that the 
foundations of prosperity must be protected 
and require constant strengthening as the 
superstructure grows. They have forgotten 
that even the most conservative courts have 
asserted repeatedly that "labor is the primary 
foundation of all wealth." They have for- 
gotten that they must not only protect, but 



also increase the value of the labor invest- 
ment to the worker, or they will destroy the 
value of the money investments which they 
represent. Now they are repeating an ancient 
mistake in assuming that the fear of losing a 
job creates loyalty to the job. They are 
attempting to create a morale among the 
railway employes which will be based upon 
[ear. They are seeking to destroy the inde- 
pendence and courage of the workers by the 
fear that if they refuse to work under non- 
acceptable conditions they will lose the in- 
vestments of a lifetime. Thus the railroad 
executives are demonstrating that the stupid 
impulses of hoarded wealth are dominating 
counsels, and that the enlightenment of the 
social and economic intelligence of the twen- 
tieth century is entirely missing in the trans- 
portation industry of our country. 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN REVERSED 



Abraham Lincoln said: "Labor is the su- 
perior of Capital and deserves much the 
higher consideration." 

But that is long ago. Times have changed. 

Today, when the railroads tell the Govern- 
ment that they can't live and keep their bond- 
holders fat unless the Government helps 
them out. the Government promptly COmeS 
along and guarantees the roads enough money 
to keep up the dividends so that the bond- 
holders and stockholders can clip their cou- 
pons regularly. 

When the railroad workers protest against 
having their wages cut to the suffering point, 
the Government, through the chairman of 
the Railroad Labor Board, tells them to "be 
good sports," while the President tells them 
to leave it to the Railroad Labor Board, 
whose chairman thinks a good sport is one 
who doesn't kick when his pay is amputated. 

Abraham Lincoln also said: "Thank God 
we live in a country where men can strike." 
The super-statesmen of today would have us 
believe that it is disloyal, un-American, etc., 
for American workingmen to strike against 
a reduction of pay. 

And yet, when these super-statesmen run 
for office they invariably profess unbounded 
admiration for the teachings of Lincoln. 

" 'Tis a mad world, my master- 



September, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

OLD FORM OF TREACHERY THE TURN OF THE TIDE 



Officials of the defunct one big union in 
Winnipeg, Canada, are urging the organiza- 
tion of a dual railroad men's union, and the 
Alberta Labor News asks : "Who is prompt- 
ing the O. B. U. officials to carry on their 
campaign?" 

The labor paper stamps this move as "prob- 
ably the most traitorous of a long line of 
treacherous attempted betrayals of the organ- 
ized workers in western Canada. 

"When the railway men and miners of 
this continent are fighting for their very ex- 
istence, the O. B. U. Bulletin is carrying on 
a campaign with the deliberate purpose of 
destroying the workers' confidence and dis- 
rupting their organizations. 

"The nature of the comment in the O. B. 
U. Bulletin gives weight to the doubt which 
arises regarding the real source of the O. B. 
U. campaign." 

We can appreciate the righteous indigna- 
tion of our Canadian contemporary, but, after 
all, this is simply history repeating itself. 
The whole record of the I. W. W. is one long 
chain of disruption and destruction. The 
"wobblies" are the true allies of Big Busi- 
ness. When a successful frontal attack on a 
union seems impossible the anti-union em- 
ployers usually call in their henchmen, the 
"wobblies." The "wobblies" work their way 
into the union and promptly start internal 
dissension. If this does not bring immediate 
results, a dual union movement is sometimes 
engineered. Any disruptive tactics are re- 
sorted to ; there are no scruples in mind of 
a professional "fellow worker." He always 
delivers the goods — to the employer ! 



Every time you buy an article containing 
the union label you thereby place some 
employer in a position where he has to hire 
union men to replace it. In other words, you 
thereby give a job to some union brother or 
sister. 



The man who slings mud only dirties him- 
self. The more time you spend firing mud 
back at your detractors the less time you 
have for constructive effort. 



Reactionary shipowners, the world over, 
are beginning to realize that the "knock 'em 
down" period has come to an end. With 
unemployment and general industrial depres- 
sion as their allies, the shipping interests 
have for nearly two years past carried on 
an offensive warfare against the Seamen's 
Unions. These concerted drives against the 
L^nions were, of course, only partly success- 
ful, and awfully expensive at that! And 
now the worm is beginning to turn. The 
most recent assaults upon seafarers' organ- 
izations have been flat failures. The crews 
of vessels in the Philippine interisland trade 
have just successfully resisted a wage cut. 
According to late press dispatches, the strikers 
have returned to work on all interisland ves- 
sels at their old wage scale pending adjust- 
ment by an arbitration committee which will 
meet immediately. As a condition of the 
settlement, the owners agreed to discharge 
all strike-breakers and reinstate the former 
officers. In Germany, too, a seamen's strike, 
commencing in the early part of July, ended 
with substantial concessions for the strikers. 
Altogether, the situation confronting the 
world's seafarers is shaping up nicely. "To- 
morrow is also a day." And to-morrow is 
not far distant ! 



Wonders never cease ! After "voluntarily" 
increasing the wages of Lake seamen to the 
tune of fifteen dollars per month, the Steel 
Trust has "voluntarily" increased the wages 
of several hundred thousand employes by 
twenty per cent. This group of employers, 
dominated by Judge Gary, is notoriously 
cold-blooded, and the fact of a raise can only 
mean that the trust is finding it hard to get 
help at the old wage. The contention of the 
smug "American Planners" that the cost of 
living has gone down and therefore wages 
should be reduced finds its best refutation in 
this wage raising decision. Here at last is 
a maningful acknowledgment that the old 
wage was not enough to keep soul and body 
together. Hence the twenty per cent in- 
crease. 



10 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL September, 1922 

RIDICULE FOR INJUNCTIONS PROPAGANDISTS AT WORK 



During their strike a year ago the Ameri- 
can seamen's unions spent upward of $20,000 
to fight silly injunctions issued by obliging 
judges at the instance of the organized ship- 
owners. 

In the light of later events this method of 
defense appears to have been a mistake. The 
one effective way to fight injunctions is with 
ridicule. A contemporary, "The Illinois 
Miner," has adopted this method, and the 
Journal takes pleasure herewith in present- 
ing the coal miners' viewpoint of American 
plutocracy's most favorite weapon: The In- 
junction. 

"Now that injunctions have become the or- 
der of the day and soon will be issued by 
village squires, town constables and court 
house janitors, it may be well to give this 
interesting animal the once over. 

"The injunction was born in England and 
raised in America, where it obtained its high- 
est development. 

"Stripped of its legal lingo, the injunction 
reads somewhat as follows : 

We hereby enjoin the aforesaid defendant, Jere- 
miah Bonehead. and associates, employes of the 
Hellhole Mining Company, situated in the town of 
I lard-up, County of Hardscrapple, State of Dig- 
it-into-'em, from: 

Walking, crawling, hopping, jumping, rolling, 
skipping, swimming or flying in, on or above any 
street, avenue, houlevard, alley, pike, mud road or 
cow path which may lead directly, indirectly or in 
a roundabout way to any property or properties 
of the aforesaid plaintiff, the Hellhole Mining 
Company, situated in the town of Hard-up, County 
of Hardscrapple, State of Dig-it-into-'em. 

And we further enjoin the aforesaid Jeremiah 
Bonehead and associates, etc., from standing, sitting, 
lying-, loitering, leaning or lingering on or against, 
or from eating grass, leaves, pebbles, brush, burrs, 
shrubbery or trees from any structure, building, 
landscape, snow-scape or water-scape belonging to 
the above said plaintiff; or from talking, shouting, 
yelling, praying, mumbling, grumbling, coughing, 
sneezing or spitting in the presence, surrounding 
neighborhood or vicinity of any person or persons 
who had, has or may have a desire, inclination or 
predilection to seek employment with the aforesaid 
plaintiff, the Hellhole Mining Company, situated 
in the town of Hard-up, County of Hardscrapple, 
State of Dig-it-into-'em. 

"There are American working people who 
see nothing funny in the injunction. In their 
defense it must be said, however, that the full 
humor of the injunction can only be appre- 
ciated when read in conjunction with the 
Declaration of Independence, the bulwark of 
American libertv." 



A recent Associated Press dispatch from 
Buffalo states that a passenger line of steam- 
ships on the Great Lakes will start S10,000,- 
000 worth of Lake shipping "at once" if the 
Seamen's Act is modified. The authority [or 
this statement is given as "a spokesman" [or 
A. A. Schantz, president of the Detroit and 
Cleveland Navigation Company. 

It could hardly be expected that Mr. 
Schantz would stand behind the statement 
made, which include the use of "certificated 
seamen" instead of able seamen. This means 
that the new vessels, with a carrying capacity 
of 7,000 passengers each, would be protected 
not by competent seamen, but by men who 
have been certified that they are able t<> pull 
an oar in a boat. 

This would be a pleasant prospect for 
women and children in a storm on Lake 
Erie, for instance, when the highest skill that 
a seaman possesses is necessary to swing a 
lifeboat free from a rolling ship. 

"American passenger steamships on the 
Lakes, it is said, are forced to carry 33^ per 
cent more crew than Canadian competitors," 
says the "spokesman." 

It will be noticed that the words, "it is 
said." permits the spokesman to prove an 
alibi for those readers who do not know that 
there is no competition with Canadian or 
other foreign vessels in the American coast- 
wise trade. 



In a paper read recently before the Royal 
Statistical Society. J. \Y. Ycrdier states that 
the actual movements of British vessels in the 
year 1913 (exclusive of tonnage employed for 
part of the year only) showed that vessels en- 
gaged the whole year in the home trade spent 
on the average 40 per cent of their time at 
sea, those on the Mediterranean and Black Sea 
route 50 per cent, and those sailing to Australia 
via Suez 65 per cent. It would he interesting 
to know, in this connection, what percentage 
of a year's time the average seaman is actually 
employed. 



Labor does not ask the Government to 
better its conditions, but simply to give it 
a chance to do that for itself. 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



VALUE OF THE LABOR PRESS 

By SAMUEL GOMPERS 
President, American Federation of Labor 



LABOR IN JAPAN 

(Written for the Seamen's Journal) 



On Labor Day, 1922, the workers of Amer- 
ica should consecrate themselves anew to the 
support and extension of the Labor Press. 

The Labor Press is doing - splendid work 
in defending and advancing Labor's cause. 
Without it, organized labor would be indeed 
poorly equipped in its efforts for the protec- 
tion of the wage-earners. 

The value of the Labor Press to our fellow 
workers is incalculable. 

In season and out of season the Labor 
papers proclaim the doctrine of justice for 
those who toil. 

Wage workers are coming to rely more 
and more on the Labor Press to get the facts 
on subjects which affect them most closely. 
They are learning that the employer-owned 
press cannot be relied upon to support Labor's 
interests at those crucial times when there is 
need of support to shape public opinion for 
the truth and justice of Labor's cause. 

In labor controversies there is always need 
of saying the right thing at the right time. 
It gives the workers an advantage when the 
advantage is needed. The Labor papers are 
on the job to do this work. 

It is of immeasurable value to the workers 
to have these regular publications of their 
own to give consideration to the general prin- 
ciples of the Labor movement and their ap- 
plication. 

It is of equally immeasurable value for 
them to have a press that will strike hard 
and to the point and persistently on crucial 
questions in defense of Labor's rights. 

The influence of the Labor ^ress is also 
felt outside the Labor movement. It compels 
the general public press to be more truthful 
and decent in its attitude toward Labor and 
the Labor movement. 

Agitate ! Educate ! Organize ! 

This is the slogan of the trade unionists in 
their struggle for the emancipation of all the 
workers. 

Let us pledge ourselves on Labor Day, 
1922, to give the Labor Press that 100 per 
cent support which its loyalty to the workers' 
cause splendidly earns and deserves. 



Organized labor in Japan differs quite 
radically in some respects from the institu- 
tion with which we are familiar here in 
America. This is particularly true in regard 
to the matter of leadership. In the United 
States most of the prominent leaders have 
risen from the ranks. They learned their les- 
sons in the hard school of experience, and 
they may well boast of their achievements. 
In Japan the first leaders who sought to 
unite the workers were not laborers ; they 
were outsiders in sympathy with the men 
who worked. Mr. Bunji Suzuki, well known 
to many Americans through his two visits 
to this country, is not primarily a laborer 
in the usual sense of the term. He is a 
graduate of the Imperial University and was 
led to espouse the cause of the workers by 
his studies of social problems. In the case 
of a number of University professors and 
social leaders who are associated with the 
labor movement, their interest is more or 
less academic — a doctrinaire attitude which 
they assume. It should be said, however, 
that these men have stated the case for labor 
in clear and impressive terms. 

There is an effort now under way to train 
the workers to do their own organizing and 
directing. Mr. Suzuki is reported to have 
established a Labor School (Rodo Gakko), 
in which future labor officials will be trained 
in the principles and practice of union labor 
movements of the world. So far as I know, 
this is the only school of the kind in the 
world. 

Of course a condition in which it is nec- 
essary to depend upon outside direction can- 
not long exist and there are signs that the 
laborers are going to take matters into their 
own hands. Mr. K. Matsuoka, the Secretary 
of the newly organized Japan Federation 
of Labor, is a worker who has had actual 
experience. From ship worker he gradually 
rose to his present position of leadership. 
He took part in the recent dock strike in 
Yokohoma and has suffered much for stick- 
ing to his convictions. In addition to his 
work as Secretary of the Japan Federation 
of Labor, he is now editor of Rodo (Labor), 



— 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



the official organ of the labor movement in 
Japan. 

In the matter of organization there have 
been some significant changes in the last 
year or so. The Yuai Kwai (Laborers' 
Friendly Society) was among the first or- 
ganizations to seek improvement in the con- 
ditions of the workers. This was only a 
feeler to test the temper of the Japanese 
public, and although not a genuine labor 
union it served a useful purpose in the be- 
ginning. It has now been superseded by the 
Nippin Rodo So Domei (Japan Federation 
of Labor), an organization projected along 
the lines of the American Federation of 
Labor. Mr. Suzuki has been made the hon- 
orary president, an honor conferred doubtless 
in recognition of his early efforts in behalf 
of the workers. His chief position seems to 
be in connection with the Labor School of 
which he is the president. 

The actual workers are gradually assuming 
leadership, though as yet they have little 
experience either in organization or direc- 
tion. As one of their own number has writ- 
ten : "The world today is under the rule of 
the middle class, and this class is seeking 
to maintain the existing conditions in all 
matters. But they seem to forget that there 
is a proletariat with new hopes and new pur- 
poses with which they must deal. Capital 
has assumed a paternal attitude in view of 
the fact that the laborers have no experience 
in managing their own affairs. But they 
gain experience much sooner than many sup- 
pose and then they will rise up and break 
this stranglehold of paternalism." 

Perhaps the actual state of mind of the 

Japanese laborer is set forth best by giving 

the gist of an editorial in a recent number 

of Rodo : 

"The recent hard times have been marked by an 
increasingly obstinate attitude on the part of capi- 
tal towards labor. Most of the recent strikes have 
failed and this has encouraged capital to take an 
aggressive line of action. As a rule capital places 
great importances on appearances; it desires to ap- 
pear iust and humane. But of late the hard times 
and the seeming weakness of the laborer have given 
occasion for more desparate action. Caution has 
been thrown aside, the disguise of sheep's cloth- 
inqr has been cast off, and the form of the beast 
revealed. Labor has organized but it has no ex- 
perience. It is only half alive and it would seem 
to be an easy matter to crush it in this weakened 
condition. Taking advantage of the situation, capi- 



tal has openly and definitely determined to destroy 
this weak, and as yet not fully organized move- 
ment." 

It is true that labor is weak, disorganized, and 
without funds, while capital is strong, well organ- 
ized, and has funds in abundance as well as the 
full protection of the authorities. Under these 
conditions, the struggle between the two groups 
would seem foreordained to mean the defeat of the 
laborer. The laborer's one strength is in the fact 
that his cause is just and reasonable. But unfor- 
tunately this is not an age of reason but of might, 
the tryanny of might. The spirit is important,, 
but the spirit alone cannot conquer might. La- 
bor's great weakness lies in its lack of class con- 
sciousness. That must be changed. The laborer's 
source of might lies there and it is our first duty 
to cultivate that spirit which lies only in class 
consciousness. Today is the day of testing. After 
three days the lion pushes her whelps from the 
den. Only those that are strong enough to climb 
back are cared for and nourished. 

Towards all new social and industrial 
movements the authorities have taken and 
continue to take an unfriendly attitude. 
Laws have been passed and revised from 
time to time which seek to suppress these 
movements for self-expression. It is equally 
true of new teachings. Anarchy, commu- 
nism, socialism, bolshevism, have all come 
under the undiscriminating condemnation of 
the law. The efforts at suppression have, 
however, only resulted in renewed determina- 
tion on the part of the advocates to con- 
tinue their efforts even at the risk of life. 
A law was recently proposed which would 
punish with heavy fines and imprisonment 
any who might teach these new and alien 
doctrines in Japan. These attempts have 
been freely criticized by the active men with 
contempt for the threat held out by these 
new laws. 

Professor Suehiro of the Imperial Univer- 
sity, commenting on these proposed Jaws in 
a recent issue of Rodo, says : 

When I read this law, aimed at the control of 
radical social movements, I trembled; I trembled 
for those who call upon might to gain their ends. 
Up to a short time ago the plea of the authorities 
was to combat ideas with ideas, but now it is to- 
combat ideas with might. Why this change? Is- 
it possible that the ideas which they propose to 
check are so weak that they can be checked by 
the might which the authorities intend to empoly? 
It is true might may put men in jail, may even 
kill them, but the spirit in men which seeks to 
rise is like a flaming fire and inextinguishable. As 
a nation we do not desire to fall behind the world. 
We wish to build a constructive government, and 
in order to do this we must do two things: First, 
we must conserve personal liberty and the right 
to listen to advice and teaching from those who 
are in advance of us. We should not forget Bis- 
marck, the man of blood and iron, who with all 
his stringent laws of suppression was unable to 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



check the rise of the Social Democrats in Germany. 
The more you seek to suppress the desires of the 
people, the more will they be determined to ex- 
press them. We must listen to new teachings, we 
must preserve the freedom of speech, and we must 
avoid the vain experiments of foolish laws. 

The demonstrations on last May Day were 
tangible evidence that the people are not 
going to submit to foolish laws which re- 
strain without giving some real resistance. 
In every part of Japan demonstrations were 
held, speeches made, and the cause of labor 
defended in strong and almost threatening 
terms. 

"Destroy paternalism", "Crush capitalistic 
tyranny", "Cultivate class consciousness", 
these are the slogans of the modern labor 
movement in Japan. 

I think I may fittingly close this article 
with the words of a Japanese speaker from 
the ranks of labor : "Our voice may be weak 
but the workers of the world are shouting 
with us and we shall continue to cry until 
our plea reaches heaven." — H. H. G. 



WORLD'S LARGEST SAILER WRECKED 



PROGRESS IN TIMBER INDUSTRY 



Adoption of the 8- hour day by the Long- 
Bell lumber interests in their operations now 
under construction at Kelso, Wash., is con- 
ceded to be by far the most important recent 
development in the timber industry. About 
250 men come under the terms of this de- 
cision and that number will be increased by 
many more hundreds as more plants are put 
in operation. This action on the part of the 
Long-Bell interests is particularly important 
because of the general effect that it will have 
on the Northwest timber industry as a whole. 
The Long-Bell operations are among the 
largest in this country. Aside *rom their 
manufacturing plants now in operation, they 
are said to own or control 108 retail yards. 
When their major operations in the North- 
west are completed they will produce 600,- 
000,000 feet of lumber per year in this section 
alone. The president of the company, Mr. 
Long, early this year was quoted as saying 
that what the Northwest timber industry 
needed was a return to the ten-hour day, or 
a "return to normalcy." Since that time 
protest strikes have convinced the company 
that the eight-hour day is "practical." 



The French five-masted bark France, the 
largest sailing vessel in the world, is a total 
wreck on a reef off New Caledonia, in lati- 
tude 21 S., longitude 165 E. She was built 
of steel at Bordeaux in 1911, but did not 
proceed to sea until August, 1913, on account 
of delay in fitting her auxiliary Diesel en- 
gines, which, by the way, were removed at 
the end of 1919. She started on her first 
deep-sea voyage December 5 from the Clyde 
bound for New Caledonia and between that 
date and October 3, 1916, she completed 
three round voyages between the Clyde and 
New Caledonia, the times occupied on pas- 
sage being outward 91, 118 and 102 days; 
homeward, 101, 122 and 85 days. In 1917 
she made a voyage from the Clyde to the 
River Plate in 54 days, and from the River 
Plate to New York, via ports, in 72 days. 
From New York she went to Adelaide in 
86 days. On the other hand, in 1918 she 
occupied 140 days on a passage from Sydney 
(N. S. W.) to Dakar (W. C. Africa)", and 
on January 2, 1919, she left Dakar for Bor- 
deaux and took no less than 53 days before 
arriving in the River Gironde. Since May 
this year she had been trading locally in 
Oceania. The France was a beautifully 
equipped ship, wire-rigged throughout, with 
electric light and wireless, and had a very 
efficient derrick installation worked by steam 
power. 



PRACTICE VERSUS PREACHING 

By means of front page articles (and pho- 
tographs), editorials, and cartoons, the Hearst 
publications have been urging all good Amer- 
icans to patronize American ships — to take 
passage in them and to ship goods in them. 
These sermons sound well, but somehow we 
cannot reconcile them with the fact that Mr. 
Hearst himself engaged a stateroom for his 
recent passage to Europe on the Aquitania. 
All of which shows that there is a wide gulf 
between precept and practice. Perhaps Mr. 
Hearst made a mistake and supposed that 
the Aquitania was under the American flag. — 
The Nautical Gazette. 



L 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



IS IT A "PAPER SCREEN" PEACE? 



"We shall not abolish wars by passing 
pious resolutions or having processions 
against wars, or by saving ourselves from 
the torture of hard thinking by subscribing 
liberally for the relief of the distressed or 
even in the long run by international con- 
ferences at Washington or The Hague." 
said Philip Kerr, for five years confidential 
secretary to Lloyd George, in a recent 
speech. 

The Britisher said resolutions and anti-war 
processions were good, provided they are 
recognized as a process of getting up steam 
"for the real thing." 

"Lord Balfour once said to me that he was 
almost more disturbed by peace movements 
than by talk about war. 'For,' he said, 
'these demonstrations do not deal with the 
real causes of war. They just put up a 
paper screen, painted to delude the people 
of good-will all over the world into thinking 
that something is really being done to pre- 
vent war. while in reality behind the paper 
screen the forces of militarism are sharpen- 
ing their knives all the time.' 

"Today the civilized world is standing in 
relation to this problem of war exactly where 
England and America stood in regard to the 
great war, before 1914. It is talking about 
it, but it is not thinking about it. It made 
a feeble efTort in the Covenant of the League 
of Nations. It has run away from this 
slender hope. It has now come back to pass- 
ing resolutions against the use of poison gas. 
resolutions which will be just as effective as 
the resolutions of the Congress of Paris in 
1918, which disappeared like snow in the face 
of the fiery heats of the world war. It is 
again in the amusement of building paper 
screens." 

The speaker warned against the trend to- 
word another war, which he prophesied 
would exceed the past in its weapons of 
destruction if the leading nations do not 
give "consistent and constructive thought as 
to how it may be prevented." 

"The question I have been asking myself 
for the last two or three years has been 
this: Have we, as the result of the terrible 



experiences of the late war, and of the vic- 
tory of the Allies, any real security against a 
repetition of a world war? To this question, 
I have to answer, No ! 

"If we look back through history we shall 
see that what happened in the last eight 
years is not a unique or isolated phenome- 
non. For example, there was a world war 
for the first fifteen years of the last century, 
ending with Waterloo. We can trace back 
through the ages an ever-recurring proces- 
sion of devastating wars, engulfing the whole 
of the civilized world, followed by pea* 
exhaustion, which, in turn, gave way to new- 
eras of war. Moreover, at the end of each 
of these eras of Avar, men as in 1918, turned 
feebly to the creation of some machinery 
which would prevent the repetition of the 
catastrophe." 



WOBBLIES AID SHIPOWNERS 



The "wobblies" tell seamen that the Sea- 
men's Act is "no good for the seamen." but 
the shipowners are in Washington twenty- 
four hours a day trying t<» get the Seamen's 
law repealed or emasculated, says Legislative 
Representative O'Brien of the Seamen'- In- 
ternational Union of America, in his last re- 
port to the membership. 

President Furuseth, who has just returned 
from Europe, states that "the difference be- 
tween the situation in England and the Scan- 
dinavian countries and the United States is 
simply stupendous." 

In England, with the exception of a few- 
ports, the union shop prevails, and as a 
consequence the conditions and wages are 
much better than in the aforementioned coun- 
tries. Letter conditions are maintained in 
all ports where the "wobblies" have not been 
able to get a foothold. 

In commenting on this situation. < >T>rien 
says: "Of course, the 'wobblies' are not in- 
terested in such commonplace things as 
wages and hours. No, sir: they are going to 
give each seaman a ship of his own. so he 
can take it home and play with it 'after the 
revolution.' " 



Organized labor has need to distinguish 
clearly between its friends and its favorites. 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



WORLD TONNAGE FIGURES 



In an address following his re-election to 
the presidency of the Baltic and White Sea 
conference, Sir William J. Noble said that 
the economic situation is appalling. It is no 
exaggeration to say that European civiliza- 
tion is facing a complete breakdown — racial 
hatreds and exaggerated nationalism are driv- 
ing Europe to disaster. The result is that 
the overseas trade of the world is less than 
half what it was in 1914. 

If there were no other side to the picture 
we might well despair and write Ichabod 
over the civilization of Europe. But there 
are other than sinister influences at work and 
with the right spirit means will be found to 
bring order out of chaos. Among other 
hopeful signs it should be remembered that 
the statistics of world tonnage are entirely 
misleading. 

We are told that the excess over pre-war 
days is nearly twelve million gross tons. The 
truth is that this includes vessels of special 
type, such as tankers, and a still larger num- 
ber both in Britain and on the continent that 
are obsolete whose inevitable destination is 
the scrapheap. The chairman of the United 
States Shipping Board has placed it upon 
record that in his opinion one-third of the 
tonnage turned out by his country during 
the submarine campaign must be regarded as 
of no commercial value. It is questionable 
if the increase of effective tonnage is more 
than two or three million tons. 



A STORY OF FIVE PATRIOTS 



Five Noble Patriots — some Republicans, 
some Democrats, but all very rich men — 
were taken into the Alien Property Cus- 
todian's office during the war and given control 
of German dye patents estimated to be worth 
$10,000,000. 

"With these patents our country may con- 
trol the dye trade of the world," they were 
told. "Devise a scheme by which they may 
always be used for the benefit of all of our 
people." 

"Sure," said the Five Noble Patriots. 



And they proceeded to organize a corpora- 
tion, divided the stock among themselves 
without paying a penny for it, borrowed 
$500,000, sold the $10,000,000 worth of pat- 
ents to themselves for $250,000, took the 
Alien Property Custodian into the game, and 
settled down to administer their "trust." 

They expect to pay off their indebtedness 
from the royalties received from the patents, 
and when that is done they insist they and 
their successors — to be named by themselves, 
of course — should be permitted to control the 
patents and incidentally the world's dye 
trade indefinitely. 

Anyone who questions this procedure is a 
traitor to his country, a bolshevist, and a 
German sympathizer, according to the Five 
Noble Patriots. 

This, in brief, is the story of the Chemical 
Foundation, sponsored by former Attorney 
General Palmer and former Alien Property 
Custodian Garvan. 

President Harding has demanded the re- 
turn of the patents to the government. It is 
to be hoped the courts will sustain him. 

This country has suffered enough from 
Noble Patriots who called themselves "dol- 
lar-a-year-men" and cost the public treasury 
about a thousand a minute. — Labor, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



SCANDINAVIAN SEA LAWS 



Work in connection with the proposal to 
render uniform the shipping laws of Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark and Finland has been 
proceeding for some time past as a result of 
the appointment of a committee for this 
purpose by each of the countries concerned. 
The recommendation made by these com- 
mittees were last under consideration in 
December, 1921, when representatives of 
each nation met at Christiania. On that 
occasion the proposals put forward by the 
Norwegian committee were approved in prin- 
ciple with certain alterations and as amended 
the proposals were referred to a committee 
for the preparation of a draft to be submitted 
to another conference. This conference was 
held at Helsingfors, from July 4 to July 18. 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



MONSTERS OF THE SEA 



Sir William Boyd Dawkins, who writes for 
the Manchester Guardian, illustrates his arti- 
cle with a photograph of a sea monster sent 
by his correspondent in Africa and made far 
enough from the motion picture studios so 
that it is not likely to be discredited. The 
great creature of the deep was stranded on 
the coast of Mozambique during the equinoc- 
tial gales of September, 1921. Sir William's 
correspondent writes from the neighborhood 
of Beira, on that remote stretch of Portu- 
guese Hast African shore : 

It was found by the Kaffirs, who were at first 
scared by its frightful aspect, and then proceeded 
to cut it up for food — an operation which lasted 
twelve days. A strange rumor had been in circula- 
tion for several days among the natives in the vil- 
lages of the vicinity of Beira. It was said that an 
enormous sea serpent (in Portuguese "great sea 
cobra") had been drifting for some time along the 
const, having come from the north after the great 
storm in September; that this serpent had three 
heads (other natives said that it had five heads), 
and that it was as bulky as the hull of a tug. An 
old Kaffir chief informed me that it had only one 
enormous head — large as the top of the light-house 
at Macuti — but that it had five arms and that these 
arms were the length and girth of the small wild 
palm trees which grow on the sand dunes along the 
shore; also that it had two eyes twice as large as 
the lights of a motorcycle. 

With these statements, more or less contra- 
dictory, before me, I decided to go to the place 
of the discovery, and took with me a photographer. 
This is what T found: In the terrible heat of the 
sun and in an overpowering stench about twenty 
Kaffirs were at work hacking with their axes at an 
enormous brown gclantinous mass that resisted the 
axe like India-rubber. It measured six meters (19 
feet 6 inches) long, three meters (9 feet 10 inches) 
broad, and 1.20 meters (3 feet 11 inches) high. It 
was embedded by its weight in the sand. The 
weight may be estimated at from six to eight tons. 

From time to time the Kaffirs had to sharpen 
their axes because the flesh was so difficult to cut. 
This flesh was without fat and without bones, and 
was compacted with coarse fibers running through 
it. The color was in some places brick-red. in 
others yellow. This change of tint in the sections 
may have been due to the decomposition, more or 
less pronounced, of the monster. While it was 
being cut up small streams of pale blood trickled 
from the skin. I observed on the back rope-like 
masses of apparently muscular fiber hanging in 
festoons and widened at the ends where they rested 
on the sand. Lower down on the sides of this 
mass of flesh there were semi-circles in relief, 
reminding one of the footprints of an elephant. 
After my companion had taken two photographs 
we beat a hasty retreat, for the smell of the beast 
would soon have been the death of us. 

Sir William's correspondent estimated from 
the portion of the cuttle-fish that remained 
when he reached the scene, and from the con- 
flicting statements of the natives, that the 
entire length must originally have been from 



30 to 50 meters (98 to 164 feet). Sir William 
himself remarks that cuttle-fish form the 
chief food of whales ofT the coast of Mozam- 
bique and that when cachalots are harpooned 
they disgorge bits of the arms and tentacles 
of cuttle-fish as large as a quarter cask, which 
have been bitten off creatures of a size rarely 
seen by man. Sir William concludes: "With- 
out attaching undue importance to estimates 
of size and weight, we may take it (the 
cuttle-fish) to be a well-authenticated frag- 
ment of the largest of these mollusks of 
which, up to the present time, we have any 
record." 

Sir William's statements regarding the 
huge cuttle-fish upon which whales feed are 
more than borne out by that most observing 
whaleman, Frank T. Bullen. In "The Cruise 
of the Cachalot" he tells of a whale in its 
death throes ejecting masses of cuttle-fish 
eight feet by six feet by six feet — much 
larger than the quarter cask mentioned by 
Sir William. Bullen also writes that when 
off the northern coast of Sumatra he wit- 
nessed by moonlight a terrific fight between 
a whale and ri giant cuttle-fish: 

A very large sperm whale was locked in deadly 
combat with a cuttle-fish, or squid, almost as large 
as himself, whose interminable tentacles seemed to 
enlace the whole of his great body. The head of 
the whale especially seemed a perfect net-work of 
writhing arms — naturally. 1 suppose, for it aopeared 
as if the whale had the tail part of the mollusk in 
his jaws, and in a businesslike, methodical way was 
sawing through it. By the side of the black 
columnar head of the whale appeared the head of 
the great squid, as awful an object as one could 
well imagine even in a fevered dream. Judging 
as carefully as possible, I estimated it to be at 
least as large as one of our pipes, which contained 
three hundred and fifty gallons; but it may have 
been, and probably was, a good deal larger. 

Of the giant cuttle-fish that presumably 
inhabit only the unvisited and unknown far- 
down levels of remote seas, Bullen remarks: 

The imagination can hardly picture a more ter- 
rible object than one of these huge monsters 
brooding in the ocean depths, the gloom of his 
surroundings increased by the inky fluid (sepia) 
which he secretes in copious quantities, every enp- 
shaped disc, of the hundreds with which the restless 
tentacles are furnished, ready at the slightest touch 
to Rfip whatever is near, not only by suction, but 
by the great claws set all within its circle. And 
in the center of this net-work of living trans is 
the chasm-like mouth, with its enormous parrot 
beak, ready to rend piecemeal whatever is held by 
the tentaculac. 

How big they may become in the depths 

of the sea. no man knoweth," says Bullen oi 

the cuttle-fish: "but it is unlikely that even 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



the vast specimens seen are full-sized, since 
they have only come to the surface under 
abnormal conditions, like the one I have 
attempted to describe, who had evidently 
been dragged up by his relentless foe." Sir 
William Boyd Dawkins is of the same opin- 
ion, remarking in regard to the monster 
found on the coast of Mozambique : "It is 
very unlikely that this is the largest of its 
kind awaiting discovery in the seas of the 
world." 

Let us hope so ; for we do not wish in our 
own day to see exhausted the wonders of 
what the Psalmist calls "this great and wide 
sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, 
both small and great beasts." 



'TREAT 'EM ROUGH" 



MEXICO BARS STRIKE-BREAKERS 



The Mexican border has been closed to 
the importation of strike-breakers. This was 
accomplished by an order issued by Consul- 
General Ruiz in a message sent to all Mexi- 
can consuls in the United States. 

Following is the message : 

"Notice, Mexican citizens: — In view of the 
discord and friction which experience has 
demonstrated always occurs between strikers 
and 'scabs' (strike-breakers), this Consul- 
General, by instructions received from the 
general government of the Republic of Mex- 
ico, asks its nationals to absolutely abstain 
from taking positions of work as strike- 
breakers and thus avoid the disagreeable and 
disgraceful complications which might result. 
Our people should not degrade themselves 
in a strange land. — Ruiz." 

On Tuesday, August 1, every railroad man 
in the republic ceased work for four hours 
as a mark of sympathy and respect for his 
American brothers. In every city, town and 
hamlet, parades were held and they were ad- 
dressed by prominent men. The strikers not 
only have the support of the Mexican work- 
ers, but of the official family as well. Per- 
haps this is one of the reasons why the 
Washington Government refuses to recognize 
the present Mexican Government. 



If all lawbreakers were behind the bars 
there would be fewer administrators of law 
and also less need for those. 



Certain officers in the United States Mer- 
chant Marine have recently attracted con- 
siderable attention in many foreign ports. 
Whether it is the disorganized crews they 
carry, or whether they are acting under spe- 
cific orders, is not at present clearly estab- 
lished. One thing is certain — many of these 
unfortunate men are laboring under a great 
delusion. They have regarded their licenses 
as "patents of nobility," instead of that which 
they really are, "certificates of ability." 

It is easily understood that the super- 
cargo system in vogue in the vessels of the 
United States Shipping Board would produce 
a conflict of authority on board the vessels ; 
but that it should be used by inimical, and in 
some cases dishonest, interests as a screen 
from behind which to attack the use of 
American crews may be news to some of our 
readers. Yet, undoubtedly, the discrimination 
practiced by the Shipping Board is based on 
information and reports compiled by many of 
these officers. 

That the Shipping Board discriminates 
cannot be disputed, since in its own offices it 
advertises for "ordinary seamen," and yet 
coolly informs native-born applicants that a 
"Filipino ordinary" is what is wanted. This 
occurred recently in San Francisco when 
a Pacific Mail boat needed some men. That 
the officers on these boats prefer Asiatic 
crews is not to be questioned, but — why? 

"Treat 'em rough" is the answer. You 
can get away with it. There is no doubt that 
in many cases crews propitiate their su- 
periors in every way possible, not to ease up 
the roughness, but to keep their jobs. "Treat 
'em rough" — the law means nothing to many 
of these Asiatic crews, nor the conditions 
under which they live, provided they have 
the jobs and can follow out the usual petty 
and nefarious schemes generally rife on ships 
manned by Orientals. Officers, whether they 
agree with the system or not, must exercise 
a certain forbearance in regard to some of 
the actions of the crews, as they know that 
the people furnishing these men have the 
"inside track" with the immediate superiors 
of the officers themselves; and the officers 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



further realize that to interfere with these 
people in the pursuit of "easy money"' means 
trouble. Actions which, if committed by 
white crews, would lead to a speedy use of 
the police flag, are ignored in vessels carry- 
ing Asiatics. The presence of large stocks 
of whisky and other liquors on board vessels 
carrying Asiatic crews seems to be considered 
quite proper, and the fact that stores of eat- 
ables go on shore in large quantities from 
the ships in China excites no comment. 

If white crews, making similar voyages, 
seek to enjoy only those rights guaranteed 
them by law they are threatened with jail. 
Even in the case of sick men, ships have 
been known to place every obstacle to re- 
covery in their way, seeking to avoid the 
trouble of securing medical aid for them. 

In one instance a vessel sailed from Manila, 
leaving a man in the hospital there, on a 
hospital permit issued by the Master, and 
when a short distance from the port radioed 
back that the man was a deserter. This 
man refused to be "treated rough," and 
prosecuted the affair until he collected the 
money due him. Xow he is blackballed by 
that particular company. 

The language test means nothing at pres- 
ent, and the provisions of the law concern- 
ing previous service and life-boat proficiency 
seem to be utterly disregarded. In some 
ports watchmen, in many cases men of ques- 
tionable antecedents, are hired to guard the 
vessels, and in one port not far from here 
the American crews found it advisable to 
watch the watchman. Of course, language or 
differences in language form no bar to con- 
ducting deals between officers and members 
of crews debarred by race from entering the 
country. Money is a universal language. 

The employment of such special police 
and watchmen, to say nothing of the expen- 
sive shore staffs and offices connected with 
the shipment of crews, must be expensive and 
add a considerable sum to the operating cost 
of American vessels. Yet it is an item that 
could easily be wiped out. Instead of this 
system, the former one of letting the mates 
and masters ship their men — since the mates 
and masters are responsible for the work 
and disciplines of the vessel^ — would eliminate 



all this useles- expense, an expense really 
paid for by the crews in lowered wages, and 
doubly paid for in the end by the ship owner 
through faithless service and inefficient and 
incompetent crews. Meanwhile, the country, 
being totally deprived of a trained and dis- 
ciplined force of seamen or even the nucleus 
of such a body to help man the greatly in- 
creased fleet of merchant supply ships which 
the next struggle will inevitably require, is 
the greatest loser of all. 

American citizens do not any longer ex- 
pect to be on an equality in the near future, 
as regards employment on American ships, 
with favored Orientals. Furthermore, if we 
have to submit to the "treat 'em rough" proc- 
ess at sea we greatly prefer to dodge it by 
remaining ashore. Yet such are our cir- 
cumstances in many cases, that, having de- 
voted the determining years of our life to 
following the sea — and many of us have even 
taken out licenses as officers which at present 
we cannot use — we are forced to seek em- 
ployment in these ships; to enlighten our 
benighted associates and competitors in the 
ships; and above all to wage an endless 
struggle for our right to live and survive. 

Of course, it cannot be denied that the 
activities of many of the visionary and radical 
type of seamen, who have lately appeared 
among us from box-cars and jungles, has 
helped to lend a bit of plausibility to the 
contention that it is necessary to "treat 'em 
rough." Yet, it is noticeable that those men 
(the self-styled radicals) practice very little 
of what they preach, except that they are 
just as vehement in denunciation of the 
Sailors' Union as certain semi-Asiatic ship 
owners. This can easily be explained by the 
old adage, "like master, like man." 

"Treat 'em rough," however, is our greatest 
ally. The mere fact that it forms a contrast 
for conditions formerly enjoyed should con- 
nect it with the "Square Deal" policy ushered 
in a short while ago with such glowing and 
patriotic phrases by our super-patriots, who, 
when they mentioned Americans, included 
South and Central Americans, to say nothing 
of our Oriental brothers. It is to be hoped 
that the "treat 'em rough" policy will help 
the wretched sailors of the present hour 
to prepare for the future. — Samentu. 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



"THE THREE SOLDIERS" 

(Reviewed for the Seamen's Journal) 



(The Three Soldiers, by Geo. H. Doran 
Co., New York, publishers. Price $2.00 net.) 

Dan Fuselli, a young soldier from San 
Francisco, who is ambitious to be made a 
corporal in order to tell his girl at home, 
"Mabe," to address his letters "Corporal Dan 
Fuselli"; Chrisfield, the boy from Indiana, 
whose mind is still filled with visions of his 
farm life, the corn fields, his mother cooking 
at the stove, and the sweet caal syrup on 
his cornbread ; and John Andrews, college 
man, musician, and dreamer, for whom life 
resolves itself into a succession of rhythms 
and whose great desire is to write the music 
for the "Queen of Sheba," an opera of his 
imagination, these are the men whom Don 
Passos uses for his "Three Soldiers." a color- 
ful, vivid, passionate picture of one side of 
the war. 

There can be no question of the sincerity of 
the book. If Dos Passos meant his story 
to be anything at all, he meant it to be an 
indictment of war, and he has spared no 
ghastly details ; he has glossed over none 
of the worst side of a soldier's life to make 
real for us the horror which the war evident- 
ly meant to him. Without moralizing, he 
has drawn his pictures so clearly and plainly 
that we are forced to draw the conclusions 
he wishes us to reach. 

Patriotism, inspiration, the romance of 
•war. are found in the book only on the lips 
of the "Y" men, whom Dos Passos handles 
savagely, and the recruiting or retired sol- 
diers and officers who have no more chance 
of seeing active service. In the conversa- 
tion of the men themselves there is not a 
trace of illusionment, no pretense of desir- 
ing to fight for anything except the possi- 
bility of promotion or the chance to plunder 
and rape. 

The pictures Dos Passos paints — the "Y" 
room on a drizzly day with the prim, holier- 
than-thou leader dispensing chocolate for a 
franc a cup ; the dark alley where Fuselli 
watches from behind a hogshead while the 
top sergeant enters the home of Yvonne, 
Fuselli's girl ; the marching, marching of the 
troops whose packs are eating into the raw 



flesh of their shoulders ; the cafe where An- 
drews is irritated to a white heat by the 
fancied assumption of superiority to himself 
on the part of a group of officers ; Chris- 
field's murder of Anderson — are not easily 
forgotten. If Dos Passos' argument fails to 
be entirely convincing the reason is probably 
to be found in the overintensity with which 
he pleads his cause. There are too many 
disagreeable officers, the food smells too often 
like garbage, and hypocrites are too hypo- 
crital for the book to be a fair portrayal of 
life. 

Moreover, we are unwilling to concede that 
the three men chosen by Dos Passos for his 
"Three Soldiers" are typical of the American 
soldier. Even Andrews, who is plainly Dos 
Passos favorite character, is too weak to put 
into action of his own volition the rebellion 
which he constantly feels against army life 
and discipline. 

The whole story is much too vivid, too 
passionate, and warmly written to be un- 
biased in any sense of the word, and it is a 
story which drives the reader to take sides. 
It cannot be read dispassionately, but it is 
undoubtedly one of the interesting books of 
the year.— M. T. H. 



Of more than usual interest is the case of 
the crew of the Bertie Minor. The crew 
signed shipping articles on November 9, 1920. 
In August, 1921, the vessel was surveyed at 
Numea, New Caledonia, and it was deter- 
mined that she could not proceed any further. 
The crew were sent to Sydney and from there 
to San Francisco. Upon being paid off they 
demanded wages to the time of arrival in 
San Francisco. This was refused, as it was 
claimed the voyage had been abandoned 
August 29. The seamen then accepted pay to 
that date, signing off under protest. Attor- 
ney Hutton of San Francisco then filed a 
libel, claiming that if the men's wages ended 
August 29 they were entitled to two days' 
pay for each day thereafter until October 27, 
the day of payment, and if it did not end on 
that day they were entitled to wages up to 
the date of payment. The case was finally 
compromised by the payment of wages from 
August 29 to October 27, 1921. 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



SHIPPING NEWS 



A fuel oil station is being established at 
Pago Pago, American Samoa, by the Ship- 
ping Board and the Navy Department. This, 
it is said, will be the only fuel oil station be- 
tween the Panama Canal and Australia on 
the run to that country. 

The American Shipbuilding Company has 
booked an order from Pickands, Mather & 
Co., for a 600-foot ore carrier for the Great 
Lakes to carry about 12,000 tons and to cost 
about $600,000. The new vessel, which will 
be built at Cleveland, is the fifth of its type 
recently ordered for spring delivery. 

The S. S. Medina, of the Mallory Line, 
and the S. S. Pawnee, of the Clyde Line, 
have been turned over to the Tietjen & Lang 
plant of the Todd Shipyards Corporation for 
conversion from coal to oil-burning. Todd 
mechanical burners, manufactured by the 
White Fuel Oil Engineering Corporation, 
are being installed in each ship. 

Extensive improvements are contemplated 
and will soon be started by the City of 
Pensacola on the recently purchased munici- 
pal waterfront property. The plans include 
a widening of the present dock floor space, 
the extension of the Palafox wharf to the 
pier line established by the United States 
Government, the dredging of the dock basin 
and the erection of warehouses to serve the 
system of tracks which are to be installed. 

Excellent progress is being made in the 
construction of the new State pier at Port- 
land, Me., most of the work being now 
concentrated on the easterly side. A large 
number of workmen are employed in making 
the concrete deck running down from the 
stone bulkhead at the head of the pier. The 
easterly side of the pier, when completed, 
will be 1000 feet in length, as measured from 
the stone bulkhead at the head, the first 500 
feet to have a concrete deck. 

According to R. B. Mancken, manager of 
the Kiangnon Dock and Engineering Works 
of Shanghai, his company turned out four of 
the largest steamers built in a Chinese yard. 
These were the steamers Celestial, Mandarin, 



Oriental and Cathay of 10,000 tons dead- 
weight, constructed for the United States 
Shipping Board at $195 a deadweight ton. 
These were sold to the Robert Dollar Com- 
pany at £6 10s. a deadweight ton, showing 
a loss on the building cost of $165 a dead- 
weight ton. 

William J. Love, one of the vice-presidents 
of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, and in 
charge of the traffic department, recently dis- 
closed the terms of the contract between the 
Shipping Board and the North German 
Lloyd. The contract is for a period of ten 
years. The German company cannot termi- 
nate the contract without a one year notice. 
Should the Shipping Board sell their steam- 
ers to private companies the United States 
is under no obligation to pay an indemnity 
and the contract automatically becomes can- 
celed. 

The wheat crop of the world for 1922 is 
estimated by the International Institute of 
Agriculture of Rome as about 7 per cent 
above that of 1921 and 9 per cent above the 
average of the previous five years. The esti- 
mate for Belgium, Finland. Spain, Greece, 
Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary (France has 
not issued her figures) is 7,400,000 metric 
tons (a decrease of 10 per cent) over last 
year. The United States and Canada show 
an increase of 5.8 per cent. In North Africa 
the crops of wheat and barley are only 48 
per cent of last year's. 

The marine insurance market has been hit 
to the tune of about $40,000 by the destruc- 
tion by fire off the Coast of New England of 
the hulk Granite State, on her way from 
New York to Maine to be junked. This 
hulk, the remnants of a frigate built in 1818, 
was badly damaged by fire in New York last 
year and had been sold by the Navy Depart- 
ment. Her present owners bought her for 
the metal to be reclaimed from her timbers, 
chiefly copper nails. In the meantime an 
investigation into the circumstances of the 
loss is in progress. 

Cotton shipments to overseas destinations 
from Norfolk for the year ended July 31 
amounted to 238,027 bales, as compared with 
only 111,664 bales in the season of 1920-21 
Not only has the export trade grown in vol 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



time, but more frequent cargo sailings to 
cotton-consuming countries have made pos- 
sible a record-breaking regularity of move- 
ment. Since May 1, 1921, or for fifteen 
months, one or more cotton cargoes have 
cleared from Norfolk every week. This is 
the first time that the movement has con- 
tinued with such regularity. 

Charged with murder on the high seas, 
George H. Miles, former master of the Ship- 
ping Board S. S. President Van Buren, of the 
U. S. Lines, has been placed under arrest on 
a warrant issued as a result of the inquest 
into the death of W. H. Baxter, a pantryman, 
who died in irons June 25. It is charged 
in the warrant that after Baxter had been 
discharged from the ship's hospital, Captain 
Miles had him placed in irons for refusing 
to work and inflicted injuries upon him which 
resulted in the man's death. The charge is 
based on an affidavit from the ship's surgeon. 

The Canadian Marine Department states 
that reports published in the United States 
that Canada had adopted new regulations 
regarding the terms on which United States 
fishing vessels were allowed to use Canadian 
ports on the Pacific were unfounded. The 
order-in-council to which reference was made 
in the dispatches was passed on May 9 last, 
and has been in force ever since. It is 
limited to the current year and its effect is 
to allow American fishing vessels to secure 
bait and supplies and to ship crews in 
Canadian ports provided they land their 
catch at a Canadian port. 

The Sun Shipbuilding Company, Chester, 
Pa., has secured the contract for the four 
twin-screw Diesel-electric hopper dredges, 
for which bids were requested by the Gov- 
ernment. The vessels will be fitted with 
three six-cylinder, four cycle Mcintosh & 
Seymour engines of 1000 b.h.p., each being 
connected to a 700 kw. 500 volt generator. 
There will be in addition, two Diesel en- 
gines, each of 225 b.h.p., driving the 50 lav. 
250 volt generators, and a 25 kw. 250 volt 
generating set driven by a petrol engine. All 
the auxiliaries will be electrically operated. 
The vessels are to measure 254x46x22.6 feet. 

Improvement of the East River, New 
York, channel to a depth of forty feet up to 



the Navy Yard and thirty-five feet eastward 
has been agreed upon following a conference 
between Chairman Jones of the Senate Com- 
merce Committee and representatives of 
commercial, shipping and harbor organiza- 
tions. Senator Jones will offer an amend- 
ment to the pending River and Harbor 
development bill following the modified plan 
proposed by Secretary Weeks, who recom- 
mended the thirty-five foot depth east of the 
Navy Yard instead of forty feet. Under the 
modified plan the cost will be $33,500,000 
instead of $71,500,000 estimated for a full 
length channel of forty feet. 

During the month of July, 1922, the fol- 
lowing American vessels were transferred to 
foreign owners: Admiral Sims (m. s.), 1,929 
tons gross, 1,612 net, built at Seattle, Wash., 
in 1918, to Britishers; Argenta (ss.), 3,343 
tons gross, 2,036 net, built at Orange, Tex., 
in 1919, to Germans; Franconia (schr.), 136 
tons gross, 129 net, built at Surrey, Me., in 
1862, to Britishers; Griffco (ss.), 1,519 tons 
gross, 896 net, built at Seattle, Wash., in 
1920, to Britishers; Itompa (ss.), 3,349 tons 
gross, 2,038 net, built at Orange, Tex., in 
1919, to Germans; Stonewall (ss.), 4,968 tons 
gross, 3,184 net, built at Sunderland, Eng., 
to Britishers; and Yankton (ss.), 544 tons 
gross, 232 net, built at Leith in 1893, to Brit- 
ishers. 

A number of American steamship com- 
panies have filed with the Shipping Board 
notices of their intention to avail themselves 
of the tax exemption clauses of the Jones 
Act in respect of financing new construction. 
The act grants an exemption from income 
and excess profits taxes to American ships 
engaged in foreign trade, provided twice the 
amount thus remitted is reinvested in new 
tonnage. Shipowners have been given until 
next January to make application for exemp- 
tions accruing as far back as 1919, under the 
regulations just imposed by the Treasury 
and approved by the Shipping Board. No 
official announcement has been made by the 
Shipping Board as to the number of shipping 
companies applying for the benefits. The 
oil companies are said to have made the 
most substantial claims for abatements in 
consideration for new tonnage built. 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The European fishing fleet operating in 
Canadian and Newfoundland waters consists 
this year of 60 Portuguese and 130 French 
vessels. Among the latter are 30 steam 
trawlers. 

Under an agreement just concluded, German 
ships will now pay the same light dues at 
Finnish ports as Finnish ships, i. e., they will 
not be liable for the increase of 100 per cent, 
levied on foreign ships. 

During the first six months of the year the 
total inward entries at Antwerp were 3,963 
ships of 7.053,302 tons (3,862 steamers of 
7,039,528 tons and 101 sailing vessels of 
13,774 tons), as compared with 4,046 ships 
of 6,349,665 tons (3,893 steamers of 6,324,056 
tons and 153 sailing vessels of 24,709 tons) in 
the corresponding period of last year. 

A report just issued by Lloyd's of London 
shows that during June of this year ship- 
building in the famous yards of the Clyde 
reached its lowest ebb. At the end of the 
month there were 680,000 tons building, 
where there is usually hundreds of thou- 
sands of tons, and even millions. In June 
of 1921 there were building in the Clyde 
Shipyards 1,346,000 tons. 

According to a report from Sofia, the Ital- 
ian flag has completely supplanted the British 
in the maritime traffic of Bulgaria. To 
achieve this result, it is stated, the Italians 
demonstrated their willingness to make heavy 
sacrifices by quoting very low rates, and by 
establishing regular lines shortly after the 
armistice without waiting until the volume 
of freight had become remunerative. 

Substantially higher dues continue to be 
levied on vessels, other than national ships, 
entering Portuguese ports. In the case of a 
steamer which lately delivered a cargo of coal 
at Lisbon the increased dues, calculated on 
the cargo carried, worked out at 54c. per ton. 
The intention is, of course, that these higher 
dues should be borne by the shipowners. In 
reality, it is probable that they have to be 
paid by the consumer. 



The Australian Government has not been 
able to get rid of its wooden steamers. 
Therefore an effort is to be made to dispose 
of them by removing the engines and selling 
the hulls. Doubt is expressed, however, as 
to whether buyers can be found for the 
hulls after money has been spent on stripping 
the vessels of their propelling machinery. The 
next question is whether there is a market for 
the engines in Australia. 

The British Government has issued a 
statement in which a paragraph is devoted 
to the recent Chinese seamen's strike in 
Hong Kong. It cost the British Govern- 
ment a loss of $93,000 in the attempt to 
supply food to the white population of that 
city, as well as the Chinese. The loss was 
sustained when the British officials sent a 
steamer to outside ports to get food by 
delays in departing from one port to an- 
other, spoilage and high prices. 

The new steamer Baden of the Hamburg- 
American Line, which is a sister ship of the 
Bayern, was visited by 20,000 persons during 
her stay at Buenos Aires. She has been 
especially built for the transportation of 
third class passengers, who are afforded 
every possible comfort in well-ventilated 
cabins, accommodating two, four or six per- 
sons. The fare from Hamburg to South 
America on ships of this class is only 12,000 
marks or about $15 at the current rate of 
exchange. 

The German firm of Schichau, Elbing, has 
come to an agreement with the Bolshevist 
Government of the Ukarine whereby that 
firm takes over the complete control of the 
Russian Shipbuilding Company's yard at 
NicolaiefT on the Black Sea. The plant is a 
big one, especially designed for the construc- 
tion of warships of all kinds. Two of its 
slips are capable of accommodating battleships 
and there are several smaller ways, in addi- 
tion to the repair facilities. It was formerly 
the Imperial Navy Yard. 

As a result of the serious inconvenience 
from ice suffered by shipping in the waters 
near Copenhagen last winter, the Danish 
Ministry for Commerce has introduced a bill 
authorizing the expenditure of l'j million 
kroners for acquiring another ice-breaker. 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



With a view to covering the expenses in 
connection with this vessel, all ships of more 
than 100 tons gross register and using en- 
gine power as the chief means of propulsion 
will be liable to an ice duty calculated at 10 
ore (2c) per net registered ton, between De- 
cember 15 and March 31, inclusive. 

Last year twenty-four Soviet vessels en- 
tered British ports. In nine cases the ves- 
sels brought no cargo. Of the fifteen cargo 
entries, seven were from Russian and Latvian 
ports, including five vessels with whole car- 
goes of timber, one with tar and plywood 
and one with tar, pitch, feathers, skins and 
bristles. The remaining eight entries with 
cargo related to repeated voyages of two 
small vessels carrying general cargoes from 
Belgium, Holland and Spain. The disposal 
of the caroes was effected through ordinary 
business channels. 

Suez Canal traffic is gradually approaching 
normal. The number of transits, total net 
tonnage, weight of merchandise moved, and 
cash receipts are higher than for any first 
quarter since 1913, reports Consul Walter A. 
Foote of Port Said. The number of war- 
ships, army transports, and merchant ships 
in ballast is decidedly less than during any 
corresponding quarter since 1913. The total 
number of transits for the first quarter of 
1922 amounted to 1,058, with a net tonnage 
of 4,994,000, as compared with 1,016 ships, ag- 
gregating 4,612,000 net tons, in the first quar- 
ter of 1921. 

Danish shipping tied up for lack of cargo 
has diminished steadily in volume from 
258,300 deadweight tons on January 16 to 
less than 33,000 tons when the last shipping 
census was taken. Swedish ships are also 
becoming more actively employed. At the 
beginning of 1922 the Swedish Shipowners' 
Association reported 134 vessels, aggregating 
214,468 gross tons, as being idle ; a few 
months later it reported 95 ships of 114,000 
gross tons. Of the Norwegian merchant 
marine, amounting on May 1 to 2,623,310 
gross tons, approximately 487,000 tons were 
laid up. Of this number, more than half 
consisted of sailing ships. 

Special regulations regarding deckloads of 
timber were issued by the Finnish authorities 
last year, according to which the height of 



deckloads should not exceed 2.1 metres in 
the case of boards, pulpwood, laths, etc., 
between October 16 and March 31, while 
heavy timbers are not to be carried on deck 
during that period. It may be recalled that 
international rules for wood cargoes on deck 
were framed at a conference held in Chris- 
tiania early this year. The Finnish authori- 
ties are considering the possibility of adopt- 
ing these rules, but no decision is expected 
before October 16, when the regulations take 
effect. However, owners may obtain dispen- 
sation by application to the Ministry of 
Commerce and Industry. 

The cod fisheries in the district of Finmark 
in Norway have finished the season's work. 
The fisheries, which began at an earlier date 
than in any of the recent years, have been 
very satisfactory, and the final returns show 
a quantity of no less than 18,642,000 fish as 
compared to 6,470,000 in 1921. The sale of 
fish has also been considerably larger than 
in any previous year since 1912, and as a 
whole prices have been high. The value of 
the Finmark cod fisheries may be estimated 
at upwards of 9.3 million kroner as against 
2.8 million kroner in 1921 and 7.5 million 
kroner in 1920. The value of the cod fish- 
eries in Norway is much higher this year 
than in 1921. It reaches 34.5 million kroner 
in 1922' as compared to 22 millions last year. 

In the case of the loss of the two Greek 
steamers Ioanna and Gregorios, the British 
courts have decided that these vessels were 
cast away by their respective masters with 
the connivance of their owners. The Ioanna 
went to the bottom on February 18, 1921, 
when bound from Norfolk to Naples. She 
was insured on a marine risk policy for 
£275,000, and under a war risk policy for 
£320,000. At the time the insurance was 
effected she was worth the amount for which 
she was insured, but, owing to the serious 
slump in values, she was worth nothing like 
the insured amount when she was lost. It 
was claimed that she had struck a floating 
mine, but this contention was rejected by the 
court which ruled that the vessel had been 
scuttled with the assent of her owners. The 
case of the steamer Gregorios was on similar 
lines. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



LABOR NEWS 



For the first six months of this year the 
United States Rubber Company reports a 
clear profit of $3,052,918, after all charges and 
interest have been paid. During the same 
period last year the company reported a 
deficit of more than $4,000,000. 

The first public tribunal to stop the tide 
of wage reductions is the Minimum Wage 
Conference of the District of Columbia, which 
has just upheld the employes in their case 
against the Merchants' and Manufacturers' 
Association, which sought to reduce the min- 
imum wage of some seven thousand women 
employed in various mercantile occupations. 

Establishment of a bank in Rochester for 
the 13,000 members of the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America and for such 
other persons who desire to put their money 
in the institution is now being contemplated. 
A plan of establishing banks in all the large 
clothing centers of the United States where 
there are locals of the Amalgamated will be 
discussed this week by the General Executive 
Board of the organization. 

The Strathmore Paper Company, of New 
York, has made so much money that it 
announces a stock dividend of 500 per cent. 
To the holder of one share of common stock 
will be distributed one share of preferred 
and four shares of new common. Under the 
new system next year's profits will have to 
cover more stock, and will not seem so 
formidable. The transaction has resulted in 
the company increasing its capitalization 
from $1,600,000 to $11,000,000. 

In a speech before the Rotary Club of 
Springfield, Mass., Governor Channing II. 
Cox shrieked to high heaven that strike- 
breakers have the right to work. The Gov- 
ernor presented his plea for "free and inde- 
pendents" with the usual crafty imputation 
that organized labor is responsible for the 
failure to recruit strikebreakers. The gov- 
ernor ignored the failure to mine coal in 
Pennsylvania and Indiana, where a score of 
soldiers guard every strikebreaker. 

Chicago's six-day streel car strike came to 



an end at midnight Sunday, August 6. Re- 
sumption of work followed acceptance by 
the union members by referendum vote of a 
compromise proposal by the companies, 
which included resumption of all union con- 
ditions, including the eight-hour day. and all 
rules covering pay for fallback time, layover 
time, meal time and reporting time. The 
new wage scale carried a reduction of 10 
cents an hour to all union employes both on 
the elevated and the surface lines. 

The Supreme Court of Tennessee in a 
precedent-making decision rules that labor 
temples are not subject to State or municipal 
taxation, on the ground that they are educa- 
tional institutions. This important decree 
was entered in the case of the City of Nash- 
ville vs. Nashville Labor Temple. The organ- 
ized workers of the city contended that a 
labor temple is a general welfare institution 
maintained for the use of the members to 
encourage and support the mechanical arts 
and for other socially valuable and civically 
useful purposes. 

The Census Bureau reported last week that 
1,060,858 children between the ages of 10 
and 16 years are engaged in gainful occupa- 
tions, 658,988 boys and girls following the 
beet crops in Michigan and Colorado. In 
the beet fields families are taken from field 
to field. The children pull beets as long as 
daylight lasts, sleep in temporary shacks and 
their wages are received by their parents. 
Because they are constantly moving no pro- 
vision can be made for their education and 
no supervision exercised over their hours of 
working and their living conditions. 

The increasing number of railroad wrecks 
can be traced to the increasing number of 
defective locomotives, suggested President 
Gompers, in a public statement. "It seems 
to me entirely proper," he said, "that in 
every case of a railroad accident there should 
be an immediate inquiry by public officials 
who are not under the influence of railroad 
authorities and that the public should be 
immediately informed of the results of such 
inquiry in order that it may be known 
whether use of unfit locomotives, in defiance 
of rules of safety and in defiance of law. is 
taking a toll of human life." 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



In its attempt to stop picketing, the anti- 
union Employers' Association of Bakersfield, 
Cal., urges the passage of an ordinance which 
would prohibit the carrying of all banners, 
except in processions of menageries, circuses, 
minstrel shows, public processions and like 
exhibitions. Trade unionists suggest that the 
ordinance be amended to read that it applies 
to organized labor only. These employers 
are angry because workers are advertising 
their hostility to organized labor. This pub- 
licity is hurting, and a demand is made for 
a law that will provide a punishment of 
$300 fine and 60 days in jail. 

The health and the water supply of 
Seattle, Wash., is menaced by the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. It has been 
discovered that some of the black legs have 
not been inoculated against the typhoid 
germs, as required by State laws and city 
ordinances. The Milwaukee road is the only 
system operating through the Cedar River 
water shed, the source of the city's water 
supply. The railroad was only permitted to 
operate through that district after it agreed 
to abide by the strictest sanitary measures, 
including the locking of all train toilets and 
the medical inspection of its strikebreakers. 

Sidney Hillman, president of the Amal- 
gamated Clothing Workers of America, an- 
nounces that W. O. Thompson will act as 
financial adviser of the Russian American 
Industrial Corporation, which has been char- 
tered in Delaware to develop the garment 
trades in Russia. Mr. Thompson's acquain- 
tance with the trade-unionists in the clothing 
trade, who are organizing this new form of 
constructive help for their fellow workers in 
Russia, is not new. He was associated with 
the late John Williams, perhaps the most suc- 
cessful labor arbitrator in this country, in the 
earlier negotiations in Chicago and New York 
which brought order and trade government 
into being in the great clothing centers. Mr. 
Thompson, long a member of the Chicago 
bar, has been engaged in business in New 
York in recent years. He was formerly pres- 
ident of the N. K. Fairbanks Company and 
of the American Cotton Oil Company and 
later chairman of the board of directors of 
the latter company. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



As a result of the recent successful sea- 
men's strike, steps have been taken towards 
the formation of a Hongkong Shipowners' 
Association. 

An important result of the recent labor 
troubles in Denmark was the agreement be- 
tween capital and labor to restore the eight- 
hour working day which was terminated sev- 
eral months ago by the Employers' Associa- 
tion. 

Practically all metal workers in Bavaria 
are idle as a result of strikes and lockouts, 
which are due to the refusal of laborers to 
accept the decision of an arbitration board 
in favor of the 48-hour week, instead of 46 
hours as heretofore. 

The government of Austria is granting 
food subsidies in order to make up a portion 
of the income to working men's families, to 
whom limited quantities of flour, meats, fats, 
sugar and other food essentials are being sold 
at far less than cost prices. 

Sweden's total appropriation for unemploy- 
ment during 1922 will reach $22,000,000. Gov- 
ernment aid will be limited to those who 
through no fault of their own are without 
work. ' Persons unwilling to work will not be 
helped. The government will continue its 
efforts to send industrial workers back to 
the soil. 

An analysis of labor disputes in the Bom- 
bay (India) district for the year ending 
March 31, 1922, shows that there were, in 
all, 136 disputes, involving 230,004 workers. 
Of this number 62 per cent were settled in 
favor of the employers, and 23 per cent in 
favor of the employes; while 15 per cent 
were compromised. 

The French Seamen's Union has voted to 
call a general strike on all French vessels if 
the Government carries out the recent decree 
virtually abrogating the eight-hour law in 
the merchant marine until other seafaring 
nations adopt it. There are many indications 
that the Government will not dare come to 
grips with the sailors. 

In reply to recent inquiries made relative 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



to the effect of the decisions of 1922 of the 
Norwegian Compulsory Arbitration Court in 
matters affecting labor, wages, etc., it is 
openly stated by mine owners, several of 
whom have decided to discontinue opera- 
tions entirely, that complete stagnation of 
the mining industry of North Norway is not 
far distant. 

Emigration from Denmark is decreasing. 
In 1921 the total number of overseas emi- 
grants was 5309, or 1000 less than in 1920. 
Before the war about 8000 or 9000 people 
emigrated annually. The decrease in emigra- 
tion last year affects only the United States, 
the reduction being 1250. Other emigration, 
especially to Canada and South America, 
shows a slight increase. 

Ample employment at unprecedented wages 
is reported from Brazil. The need of 
labor for the large amount of public projects 
and general construction work under way 
more than justify the declared purpose of the 
Federal Government to stimulate foreign im- 
migration. Nevertheless, the movement of 
European immigrants is said to be inadequate 
to the needs of the country. 

Reports for 1921 of the Swiss Accident 
Insurance Institute show that 140.614 acci- 
dent claims were settled during that year, of 
which 113,000 resulted from industrial and 
71.173 from non-industrial accidents. As 
compared with 1920, there was a falling off 
of 25.5 per cent in the number of industrial 
accidents and an increase of 11.2 per cent in 
the number of non-industrial accidents. 

A strike was called recently at Iquique, 
Chile, by the Printers' Union against the 
daily papers for having raised the price of 
papers to the newsboys, with the result that 
no dailies except those of the Socialists ap- 
peared for a week ; but at the end of that 
time all resumed publication with non-union 
personnel. It is reported that the Printers' 
Union is in bad shape on account of the 
failure of the strike. 

Asserting that on account of the heat they 
desire to work at night instead of in daytime, 
longshoremen at Antwerp, engaged in un- 
loading pitch, recently struck without notice. 
Inasmuch as the port regulations require 75 
per cent extra to be paid for night work, the 



employers refused to allow the proposed 
change. This latest strike and prior strikes 
of the lumber longshoremen and building 
construction workers are said to have re- 
tarded activities in the lumber markets. 

In accordance with the Indian Factory 
Act, as amended this year, the Governor of 
the Punjab in Council has proposed new 
regulations, effective September 11, ] ( >22. 
throughout the factories of the province and 
its dependencies. The new regulations insure 
adequate provisions for the health and safety 
of the operators, the issuance by surgeons of 
health certificates to children prior to em- 
ployment, holiday provisions, limitations of 
the hours of work, and other minor regula- 
tions tending to promote the efficiency of 
factory labor. 

German competition, it is said, may soon 
force the dismissal of 100.000 metal workers 
in Vienna and Lower Austria unless wage 
reductions are accepted by the workmen, 
who have already received notice to conclude 
a new agreement for reduced wages. The 
reasons given for the effectiveness of German 
competition arc said to be found in the fact 
that Austrian wages are 40 per cent higher 
than German wages, though the cost of living 
is only 14 per cent higher; and while the 
capacity of the Austrian workman is rated 
27 per cent less than pre-war times, the 
capacity of the German worker has not de- 
creased correspondingly. 

Hitherto the Brazilian Government has 
granted a subsidy to all Japanese immigrants 
arriving with their families: but. owing to 
the tendency of tin- immigrants to move or 
return to their native country shortly after 
their arrival, the Brazilian Government de- 
cided to discontinue the subsidy from the 
beginning of the present fiscal year. The 
contracts of the State of Sao Paulo for the 
introduction of Japanese immigrants have 
expired, and have not been renewed, as the 
treaty with Italy insures a sufficient supply 
of Italian labor. The Government of Sao 
Paulo explains the suspension of subsidized 
immigration by the fact that Brazil doe 
require Japanese workers for the coffee 
plantations, where the work is unsuitcd to 
them. 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



International Seafarers' Federation 



C. Damm, Sec'y, 9 Dubois St., Antwerp, Belgium 



AFFILIATED NATIONAL, AND INTERNATIONAL 

UNIONS 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA 
International Seamen's Union of America 

Thomas A. Hanson, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

[A complete list of the district unions and 
branches affiliated with the International Seamen's 
Union of America will be found on page 2.] 



BELGIUM 
Belgische Zeemandsbond (Belgian Seamen's Union) 
30 Brouwersvliet, Antwerp J. Chapelle, Sec'y 



DENMARK 
Dansk So-Restaurations Forening (Danish Cooks 

and Stewards' Union) 
Lille Strandstrede 20, Copenhagen. .K. Spliid, Sec'y 
Somendenes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Seamen's 

Union) 
Toldbodgade 15, Copenhagen. .. .C. Borgland, Sec'y 
S6-Fyrbodernes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Fire- 
men's Union) 
Toldbodgade 13, Copenhagen E. Jacobsen, Sec'y 



FINLAND 

Finska Sjomans-och Eldare Unionen (Finnish 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Circusgatan 5, Helsingfors, Finland.. C. Ahonen, Sec. 

FRANCE 
Federation Nationalle des Syndicats Maritimes de 

France (French Seamen's Union) 
4 Ave. de L'Opera, Paris. .Monsieur L. Reaud, Sec. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 
National Sailors & Firemen's Union of Great 
Britain and Ireland 
St. George's Hall, Westminster Bridge Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. 1. E. Cathery, Sec'y 
Hull Seamen's Union 

1 Railway St., Hull G. W. McKee, Sec'y 

United Kingdom Pilots' Association 
69 Queens Square, Bristol Joseph Brown, Sec'y 

GREECE 
Federation Panhellenique des Ouvriers Corpotations 

Maritimes (Greece Seamen's Federation) 
Le Pireaus, Greece T. Mallossis, Sec'y 



HOLLAND 

Zeelieden Vereeniging-Eendracht (Dutch Seamen's 

Union) 

Vestaland 22, Rotterdam D. L. Wolfson, Sec'y 



ITALY 
Federazione Nazionale di Lavatori de Mare (Italian 

Seamen's Federation) 
Piazza St., Larcellino, Genoa.. Capt. G. Gulietti, Sec. 



NORWAY 

Norsk Matros & Fyrboter-Union (Norwegian 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Grev Wedels Plads 5, Christiania. . A. Birkeland, Sec. 

Norsk Sjorestaurations Landsforbund (Norwegian 

Cooks & Stewards' Union) 
Gronlandsleret 5, Christiania. .H. Johannessen, Sec'y 



SWEDEN 

Svenska Sjomans Unionen (Swedish Sailors' 

Union) 

Fjerde Langgatan 25, Gothenburg. .E. Griph, Sec'y 

Svenska Eldare Unionen (Swedish Firemen's Union) 

Andra Langgatan 46, Gothenburg 

S. Lundgreen, Sec'y 

Nya Stewartsforeningen (New Swedish Stewards* 
Union) 

Stigsbergsgatan 12, Gothenburg 

C. Q. Johannsan, Sec'y 



International Seamen's Union 
of America 

(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 875 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM MEEHAN, Agent 

613 Beacon Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 

FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



75,000 Friends 

'"THIS bank, through its various departments and branches, serves 
more than 75,000 customers. These customers are our friends 
and it is our endeavor to render an efficient and complete banking 
service to them at all times. <Iwe cordially welcome you to our 
ever-growing list of customers. One splendid way to become a 
depositor in this bank is to open a savings account. Savings 
accounts may be started with $1 or more and the same courteous 
friendly service is given to both small and large depositors. 

Anglo-CaliforniaTrust Cq 

COMMERCIAL SAVINGS TRUST BOND DEPARTMENTS 

Trhe CHyr-Wide BankZ 

Market lo Sansome Streets 
San Francisco 






A COPY OF AXTELL'S HAND BOOK, 

"Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen" 

WILL SAVE SEAMEN TIME, LITIGA- 
TION AND MONEY. WILL PREVENT 
MUCH INJUSTICE IF SHOWN TO 
OFFICERS AND CONSULAR AGENTS. 
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH 
A POUND OF CURE. 

You can also learn much about the 
political law making and law enforcing 
institutions of your country from this 
book; dual opportunity before the law 
is the essence of American democracy. 
Read this and find out what equal 
tunity means. 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES PUB. CO. 

Iver Olbers, A. B. ( Sales Manager 
4 South St., 3rd floor, New York City 



SAILORS ! ATTENTION ! 

When in Eureka, drop in at — 

BENJAMIN'S 

The old reliable Clothier and Shoe Man 

Fourteen years of square dealing with Seamen 

325-329 Second Street, EUREKA, California 



SMOKERS 



See that this label (In light blue) appears on 
the box In which you are served 



Issued by Authority oi the Cigar Makers" International Union of America. 

Union-made Cigars 



tftltf (Jfllrftrf. tlMttfuCqwi cwwntd Inthit bo« hjw two mt<U by* flBlOCS WDfkM 
jMtliatdOf THtbGMIU«(B"l(T[(lNATIOIUl UMIONrf Am»U >" oruiuKxm devoldd t»tfcl»d- 
NTQUClUAl Wl JAW. Of THt 0U/1 Ifemta 
IMMt 
pumihtd *ccard«i|«olMk 

% K (£l4<t<Cu4 t frrsiae,* 
f CM/l/o, 



(Mm Ciotrt to ill vw*jn throughout 
iUlUlffgl— U m * <** UW WJ bt puivihtd tuait^ to IMk 



Q>g 






DEMAND THE UNION LABEL 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 
Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"If you aant a becoming 
hat, be coming to " 



Largest Exclusive Hatters in the West 
MAIN STORE 1 082 MARKET 

26 THIRD 605 KEARNY 

3242 MISSION 2640 MISSION 

cAlio in Los Angeles 
cAgencies in other California Cities 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Try This. — "Waiter, here's a 
half-crown for you." 

"Thank you, sir. Did you wish 
to reserve a tabic?" 

"No. In a few minutes I shall 
come in with two ladies, and I 
want you to tell us that every 
table is engaged." — London I 
ing Show. 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



Standard Seamanship 

for the 

Merchant Service 

By FELIX RIESENBERG, E. C. 

Late Commander of the schoolship "Newport" 



942 Pages and 625 Illustrations — Price, $7.50 
D. Van Nostrand Company, Publishers 



Containing virtually all the knowl- 
edge extant that conquers the sea 
through seamanship 



Descriptive Folder Mailed on Application 

SEND YOUR ORDERS TO 

THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

525 Market Street - - - San Francisco, Calif. 



Do You Want the Truth? 

This year there will be stirring 
times in the Nation. Under gov- 
ernment censorship it is increas- 
ingly difficult for the average man 
to get the real meaning of the 
social and political movements of 
the day. 

LaFollette's 
Magazine 

will be specially represented at 
Washington and will analyze and 
present the news from the capital 
truthfully and fairly. Senator La- 
Follette is making a real fight to 
life some of the tax burdens from 
the common people and place them 
where they belong — on excess prof- 
its, war profits and surplus fortunes 
and incomes. Because of this he 
is being attacked more bitterly than 
any other man in public life. 

Send in your order today 

$1.00 Per Year— Agents Wanted 
La Follette's Magazine, Madison, Wis. 



TOBACCO SPECIAL 

— Sweated leaf, chewing, select, 
3 pounds, $1; 10, $3; ■ chewing- 
smoking, 10, $2.50; good smoking. 
10, $2; regular $1.50. Guaranteed. 
COOPERATORS, Murray, Ky. 



Sufficient Excuse. — Jack and 
Mary had just been to the grown- 
ups' church for the first time. A 
day or two afterward they were 
found in the nursery whispering 
audibly to each other. 

"What are you children doing?" 
their nurse asked. 

"We're playing church," replied 
Jack. 

"But you shouldn't whisper in 
church," admonished nurse. 

"Oh, we're the choir," said Mary 
— Christian Advocate. 



A Great Hit Missed. — Stage 
Manager — All ready, run up the 
curtain. 

Stage Hand — Say, what do you 
think I am, a squirrel? — Froth. 



BEST SMOKE ON EARTH 

RED SEAL CIGAR 

UNION MADE 

RED SEAL CIGAR CO. 
Manufacturers 

762 Valencia St., San Francisco 
Phone Park 9401 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BFNDETSON 
321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 
Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

EVERYTHING GUARANTEED 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



Office Phone: Main 5190 
Residence Phone: Elliott 5825 



CAPT. T. E. MARSHALL 
CAPT. F. A. MARSHALL 



MARSHALL'S 

LIFE BOAT SCHOOL 

We Teach and Drill You in a Life Boat 
435 Globe Bldg., First and Madison SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connection 

Broadway at Olive St. Seattle 




NEW LOCATION 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



^SSS^- 




CATARRH 
of BLADDER 



Protect Your Health 

Always Use 

(Sanitary Kit) 

PREVENTIVE 

A Compound of Modem Research 
Affords Complete Protection 

All Drupcistsor 
SI P. r>. F"v. IP9. New York 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



S. G. SW ANSON 

Established 1904 
For the BEST there is in TAILORING 

Less the Fancy Prices 
NOTE — S. G. Swanson is not con- 
nected with any dye works and has 
no solicitors. Clothes made also from 
your own cloth. Repairing, cleaning 
and pressing. Second floor. Bank of 
San Pedro, 110 W 6th St., San Pedro, 
Los Angeles Waterfront, Cal. 



Everybody's Doing It. — Lot of 
folks that laugh because it takes 
5.000,000 rubles to buy a pair of 
shoes in Russia are saving cigar 
coupons over here to get a grand 
piano. — Life. 



Isn't Nature Wonderful? — "But 
surely," said the haughty dame, 
"if I pay the fare for my dog he 
will be treated the same as other 
passengers and be allowed to oc- 
cupy a seat?" 

"Of course, madam," the guard 
replied politely, "provided he does 
not put his feet on it." — Pearson's 
Weekly. 



Tough One. — "Do you call that 
a beefsteak? It makes me laugh!" 

"I'm glad to hear it, sir. Most 
people swear." — Kasper (Stock- 
holm). 



SEAMEN 
You Know Me 




I am 
"YOUR HATTER" 

FRED AMMANN 

I sell 
UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want vour Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



Navigation Laws of 
the United States 

The Seamen's Act and all other 
features of the law applicable 
to seamen. 
Handbook, Navigation Laws of 

the United States 
Third edition. Including wage 
tables, department rulings, etc. 
Completely indexed. A ready 
reference work for practical sea- 
men, shipmasters and ship own- 
ers. Price $1.50. 

The Seaman's Contract 
A complete reprint of all laws 
relating to seamen as enacted 
by Congress, 1790-1918. Includ- 
ing the laws of Oleron and a 
summary of the history of each 
law. Reprinted verbatim from 
the Statutes at Large and Re- 
vised Statutes, Tables and In- 
dex. Designed for the use of 
admiralty lawyers. Price $4.00. 
Compiled by Walter Macarthur 
Published by 
JAMES H. BARRY CO. 
1122 Mission St., San Francisco 



Larger Exemption Helps. — "I 
wonder why Bill married." 

"So as to have some one to 
help him live within his in. 
he couldn't do it alo; 
York Morning Telegraph. 



September, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



KELLEHER & BROWNE 

THE IRISH TAILORS 

716 Market Street, San Francisco 

at Third and Kearny 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

to order at popular 



Established 
for 20 years 



prices 



All work done in 

our own sanitary 

workshop 



Represented by 



E. Peguillan 



The United States Government 

offers you a 

COMPLETE SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT 
SERVICE 

POSTAL SAVINGS 

for the deposit of your money; 

Treasury Savings Certificates 

for investment 

AT THE POST OFFICE 



The Wonderful Movies. — "We'll 
have to stop work on 'The Gladi- 
ator's Daughter,' " said the movie 
producer. 

"But we've built a section of 
Rome just for that picture." 

"We can use it for 'The Steel 
King's Romance.' Put up a few 
modern signs, have one of our 
utility men pose as a traffic cop 
and we'll call it Pittsburg." — Bir- 
mingham Age-Herald. 



Force of Habit. — Waiter — Sir, 
when you eat here you need not 
dust off the plate. 

Customer — Beg pardon, force of 
habit. I'm an umpire. — Lemon 
Punch. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Any one knowing the where- 
abouts of William Parkins, for- 
merly a member of the Marine 
Firemen's Union, last heard oi 
when he left the S.S. Memaha in 
New York, June 9, 1921, please 
communicate with Ralph Rivers, 
335 Eddy St., Providence, R. I. 



William Penn Miller, last em- 
ployed on S. S. Maiden Creek. 
Kindly communicate with his sister 
Lillian, care A. R. Larsen, 2519 N. 
Harding Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



Yes, But Don't Bank on It- 
Efficiency is the art of spending 
nine-tenths of your time making 
out reports that somebody thinks 
he is going to read but never does. 
— Kansas Industrialist.- 



TOM WILLIAMS 

UP-TO-DATE TAILOR 

Also Ready-to-Wear Clothes 

28 SACRAMENTO STREET 

Phone Douglas 4874 San Francisco 



Phone Garfield 2457 

HOTEL EVANS 

ED COLL, Prop. 

LARGE SUNNY ROOMS 
Clean, Comfortable — Low Rates 

CORNER FRONT AND BROADWAY 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Kearny 3863 

JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing. All kinds of Watches and 
Jewelry 

676 THIRD STREET 

At 3rd and Townsend, San Francisco 

Phone Kearny 519 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 5348 



Phone Kearny 693 

Argonaut Outfitting 
Company 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING, FURNISHINGS, HATS, 
SHOES, ETC. 

A Complete Stock at Most Reasonable 

Prices : : : : Union Made Goods Only 

103 EAST ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



Up -to -the- Minute. — "Are your 
new neighbors modern people?" 



"Model 



Say, they sent in last 



night to borrow our radio set!" — 
Buffalo Express. 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1922 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL, is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
i any branch of Navigation. 
] The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION-MADE 



A complete line of seamen's shirts and 



garments of all kinds, union made right 
CLJIDTC here in California, sold direct from factory 
to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Pier No. 1, Rooms 37-38-39 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



A\ The Popular Price Jewelry Store ^f^v 
Ms ^ \l\ J 

i>SorensenCo. [ 



Watches 

Jewelry 

Silverware 

docks Cut Class 

Optical Goods Umbrellas 



715 Market Street 



Third and Fourtf 



Repairing Oi 

Special! 




Telephone Sutter 5600 

A Good Place 
to Trade 

A Thoroughly 
Human Store 

Your Custom 
Cordially Invited 



MARKET AT FIFTH 
SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
N Hard finished — Hard Wearing 

$QQ WORSTED 
OO SUITS 

- See Them in our Windows - 



fefj 




852-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two Individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 

SAVINGS BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 




^^^r^-r^-y^ 1. 1 m ^i g i gggagBSSBSS 



Official Organ of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^i iJr£:^fiifiJi[jii[r3iiiiciiMiii[:^iiMifiiii;;c3iETiii[iji[]c:aiii]E!i(i]i!£:^iiiiirxiiiiic^iiiiMiMJMC^tMMii:iittraiiti! iMiiiirEMJcaTiiiiiifiMxc^iiiiiiiiEiiic^iiriiiiiiiiicsiiiiiiifiiiic^iiiiiiiMiiic^TMiiiiiiiiic^iriiiitiiiiic^HMMiiiti ^ 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

Page 

THE UNION'S ACHIEVEMENTS 3 

WHAT IS A SCAB? 4 

CLERGYMEN DEFY DAUGHERTY 5 

FINANCE, THE ULTIMATE BOSS 5 

GREAT LAKES STRIKE 5 

EDITORIALS: 

IMPORTING CHINESE CREWS 6 

FEDERAL STRIKE-BREAKING 6 

SEAMEN AS HARVESTERS 7 

LA FOLLETTE'S TRIUMPH 8 

RAMPANT MILITARISM 9 

WHO IS GUILTY? ("EGYPT" DISASTER) 9 

ADVANCES IN FOREIGN PORTS 10 

SEAMEN'S WORLD CODE 10 

SHIPPING OFFICES IN INDIA 11 

THE INJUNCTION FARCE 11 

CANADA'S NEW FLAGS 12 

PRESIDENT'S PLEDGE BROKEN 12 

BRITISH SHIP SUBSIDIES 13 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 14 

THE SHIP SUBSIDY BILL. . 15 

42,000 SPIES ON PAYROLL 16 

ARGENTINA'S NAVY 16 

AGE OF WORLD'S TONNAGE 16 

"THE WOODEN HORSE" 17 

KNOTS AND SPLICES 18 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 20, 21, 22, 23 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 24, 25, 26 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce 
VOL XXXVT No 6 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
v v/i-. .o.-rw^ v x, j^w. w mailingat special rate of postage provided 

WHOLE No. 1905 



for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



1917, 



SAN FRANCISCO 
OCT. 1, 1922 



inillllllllUimilllllllUllllllllilllUIIIIIIIIIIIIU IIII[3IIIIIIIII1IIC3IIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIII1IC3IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIII[3IIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIICJIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIII Ulllllll UIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIlK 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bidg., Washington, D. c. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

70 South Street 

BALTIMORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. L: RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK CITY, N. Y 70 South Street 

Branches: 

BOSTON, Mass J. A. MARTIN, Agent 

6 Long Wharf 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

228 Lafayette Street 

BALTIMORE, Md H. MEYERS, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa FRANK NOLAN, Agent 

140 South Third St. 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. F. BULLOCK, Agent 

2117% Avenue A 

MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 

ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Phone John 0975 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

206 Moravian Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. W. HANSON, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

288. State Street 

NORFOLK, Va PETER McKILLOP, Agent 

513 East Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La THOMAS MILLIGAN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 

NEW YORK, N. Y TAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

111 South Street 

ATLANTIC CITY, N. J H. F. McGARRIGEL, Agent 

700 North Rhode Island Avenue 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mien WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 

ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

Phone Dearborn 6413 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

CL.EV INLAND, 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ASHTABULA. HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO, 111 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 Day Street 

TOLEDO, 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, N. Y 122% Main Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

BAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C R. TOWNSEND, Agent 

P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

Central Labor Council, 1151% Broadway 
P. O. Box LOS 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

51 North Union Avenue 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHDSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, Agent 

P. O. Box 314 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS" 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE UNION'S ACHIEVEMENTS 




LTHOUGH the assertion has been 
questioned by ignorant or dishonest 
obstructionists, it remains a fact, 
nevertheless, that the organized sea- 
men of America have achieved 
greater results, comparatively speaking, than 
any other union of land workers. 

A mere glance at the record of the Ameri- 
can seamen's unions will prove the point. 

Less than thirty years ago the American 
seaman was to all intents and purposes a 
slave. The law under which he worked 
bound him to his ship as firmly as the Fugi- 
tive Slave Law had previously bound the 
negro to the plantation of his master. The 
seamen's law was, in fact, the original from 
which the slavery law had been copied. 

The seamen had just begun to organize. 
Of course, they soon found that the law, as 
it then stood, rendered impossible any real 
improvement in conditions. Accordingly, 
the seamen's unions turned their attention 
to the work of legislative reform. 

The first step in this direction was gained 
in 1895, when the Maguire Act was passed 
by Congress, granting to seamen in the coast- 
wise trade the right to quit the vessel at any 
time before the voyage was ended. The 
shackles of slavery thus struck off, the sea- 
men bounded forward, and ultimately 
achieved the full status of free men. 
The Seamen's Act 

The Seamen's Act (otherwise known as the 
La Follette Act), passed by Congress in 
1915, marks the crowning achievement of 
the seamen's unions in the long struggle for 
freedom and justice. From that time on the 
seamen have been free to work out their 
own destiny. 

The principal features of the Seamen's 
Act are as follows : 

1. Manning scale, requiring every vessel 
to carry a sufficient crew, including certifi- 
cated lifeboat men ; also requiring vacancies 
occurring during the voyage to be filled by 
men of the same grade or of a higher rating. 

2. Improving the Scale of Provisions. 

3. Abolishing allotment to "original cred- 
itor" (i. e., crimp). 

4. Establishing watch-and-watch at sea 



(sailors divided into at least two watches, 
and firemen into at least three watches) ; 
declaring certain holidays in port (New 
Year's Day, July 4, Labor Day, Thanks- 
giving Day, and Christmas), and limiting 
the workday in port to nine hours. 

5. Increasing the amount of extra wages 
payable in case of delay in payment at the 
end of the voyage, from one to two days' 
wages for each day's delay. 

6. Providing that seamen shall be entitled 
to receive on demand one-half of all the 
wages due and remaining payable at each 
port of loading and discharge during the 
voyage ; provided that such demand shall 
not be made oftener than once in five days, 
nor oftener than once in each port. 

7. Prohibiting attachment of seamen's 
and fishermen's wages, except for support 
of wife or minor child. 

8. Increasing the size of forecastles and 
providing for washrooms, hospital, emer- 
gency exit, etc. 

9. Giving the seamen, exclusive of the li- 
censed officers, the right to demand a survey 
in any port, domestic or foreign. 

10. Abolishing imprisonment for desertion 
in foreign ports (previously abolished in 
coastwise ports). This section is applicable 
also to seamen of foreign ships in ports of 
the United States. 

11. Establishing the qualifications of able 
seamen. Providing, also, that at least 65 
per cent of the deck crew must be certifi- 
cated able seamen and 75 per cent of the 
crew in each department (deck, engine-room 
and cabin) must be able to understand any 
order given by the officers. 

12. Providing for lifeboats and lifeboat 
men in proportion to the number of pas- 
sengers carried. 

13. Abolishing the payment of advance 
to seamen shipped on American vessels in 
foreign ports. 

Under the navigation laws of the United 
States the American seaman enjoys greater 
advantages than the seamen of any other 
nation. 

Formerly the seaman was a chattel, sub- 
ject to arrest and imprisonment for deser- 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



tion ; today he is free to quit his ship in 
any port, precisely as the workman ashore 
is free to quit his job. 

Formerly the seaman was not entitled to 
any part of his wages until the end of the 
voyage; today he is entitled to receive one- 
half of all the money due him at every port 
of loading and discharge during the voyage. 

Formerly the seaman's wages were usually 
seized by boarding-masters and clothiers, by 
means of advance and allotment ; such meth- 
ods are now prohibited, thus guaranteeing 
that the seaman shall receive the full amount 
of his earnings at the end of the voyage. 

Formerly the seaman's clothing was often 
attached by the boarding-master as a means 
of compelling him to submit to the latter's 
terms; the law now prohibits the attachment 
of clothing, under a penalty of six months' 
imprisonment and $500 fine. 

In a word, the American seaman is now 
a free man — free in the disposal of his own 
body, free in the exclusive right to his own 
earnings, free to do anything and everything 
that any free man may do for his own 
protection and the advancement of his own 
interests. 

It is true present conditions in the Ameri- 
can Merchant Marine are bad — worse than 
for years. 

Laws in favor of the shipowners are en- 
forced. The shipowners are well organized 
and they see to that. Laws in favor of the 
seamen are ignored and in many instances 
openly violated. Why? Because the sea- 
men are not as well organized as formerly. 
Because the wobbly disrupters have tempo- 
rarily weakened the organized seamen's 
power of aggressiveness! 

Now just a pertinent word in conclusion. 

When the organized seamen of America 
made their fight for emancipation from slav- 
ery statutes the I. W. W. papers jeered at 
the efforts. During the years when the 
Seamen's Charter of Freedom was pending 
in Congress the wobbly disrupters sneer- 
ingly referred to the bill as the ''seamen's 
pill." The shipowners bitterly resisted the 
enactment of the Seamen's bill. The wobblies 
tried to choke it with ridicule. Then, as 
now, they played the shipowners' game! 

Think it over! Do not let anv one do 



your thinking for you. The International 
Seamen's Union of America has a proud 
record of achievement. But we cannot rest 
on achievement. Just as organization was 
needed to pass favorable laws, so organiza- 
tion is needed to enforce these laws! 
Are you with us or against us? 



WHAT IS A SCAB? 



President Harding has recently attempted to 
glorify the "scab." His attorney general has ap- 
pointed himself the guardian angel of the ''seal)," 
and yet, despite all these high and mighty spon- 
sors of the "scab," certain Injunction Judges have 
forbidden the use of the word. Why? An anony- 
mous poet answers this query in the West Virginia 
Federationist. It is worthy of careful reading: 

Wherever the bitter fight is on 

For life against human greed; 
When the workers rally ere hope is gone 

That nerves for the valiant deed. 

When the price is paid for in silent pain, 

In want and nameless dread, 
And victory near, then scabs sneak in 

Like ghouls that rob the dead. 

They pluck from a vine they did not prune. 
They reap where they have not sown, 

With a canting look and a craven heart, 
And a soul that is not their own. 

In a darker age, when the world was young, 

This jackal human grew, 
Skulked in the rear while the fight was on. 

And preyed on the valiant few. 

They snatched the bone from the woman's hand, 

And snarled at a hungered child, 
Till the heroes were driven from our land, 

And earth's gardens became a wild. 

And ever and ever, where human greed 

Holds the human race in thrall, 
The fight will be fought by a noble few 

And the victory shared by all. 

Then falter not till the fight is won; 

There are only your fears to dread; 
Though cowards skulk and scabs sneak in, 

Like ghouls that rob the dead. 



DAUGHERTY— THE "BULLY' 



Daugherty and some of the other leaders 
of the present administration, far from be- 
ing consistent leaders, belong rather to the 
"bully," terrorizing type of fellows, the kind 
that is awfully brave against their weaker 
brethren, but who become quite cowardly 
when their acts meet with the proper sort 
of repulse. Daugherty must have thought 
he could throw a genuine scare into the en- 
tire working class of America. When the 
echo of the injunction had reached him, 
however, he all but lost his head— J us 
New York. 



October, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 5 

CLERGYMEN DEFY DAUGHERTY FINANCE, THE ULTIMATE BOSS 



When Attorney General Daugherty issued 
the injunction against the striking railroad 
men, he probably did not realize what a 
strong public feeling in favor of the strikers 
would be awakened. Even American clergy- 
men, who usually walk softly during strug- 
gles between capital and labor, have come 
out flat-footedly against the injunction. 

At the national convention of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church, that stronghold of 
religious conservatism, prominent bishops of 
the church denounced the injunction. Bishop 
Charles D. Williams declared it both unfair 
and unwise. "The course that is being 
adopted toward labor is hastening a revolu- 
tion, and Daugherty's injunction is going to 
make things frightfully worse. Heretofore 
labor has been conservative, but if this goes 
on it will throw American labor into radi- 
calism." 

The Rt. Rev. Edward S. Lines, who de- 
livered the opening sermon at the convention, 
defined the church's position as follows : 

"The church is suffering today from too 
close association with those high in authority 
and in prosperity, while less considerate for 
the great majority for whom life is one long, 
unending struggle. The church must make 
its own the cause of the unprivileged people, 
those who are in the hard places of life, 
those upon whom the existing social and 
industrial order presses heavily." 

In Norfolk, Va., another clergyman paid 
his respects to Mr. Daugherty. Comparing 
the condition of the white laborer of today 
with that of the black slave before 1860, the 
Virginia pastor, the Rev. Walter H. Garman, 
defended his right to discuss the strike. 

"The Government tells me I dare not talk 
strike," said the Rev. Mr. Garman. "Ill talk 
it whenever I get ready. I'll talk it every 
Sunday morning and evening. 

"No government can put a ban or a mus- 
tard plaster on your mouth. Freedom of 
speech is a thing George Washington, Abra- 
ham Lincoln and the country's other great 
men gave us and we are going to keep it. 

"There are no wages too high for the 
laborer. If he gets $10 a day, he is earn- 
ing it." 



In the last hundred years the United 
States has had fourteen depressions of great- 
er or less magnitude. As business is a 
human activity, these depressions had their 
causes in human actions. Study of these 
causes has been more pronounced and pro- 
ductive in the last few years than ever be- 
fore ; and as such study and discussion clari- 
fy the understanding of these causes and 
their effects, it becomes increasingly evident 
that much of the loss is avoidable and un- 
necessary. 

Which element in business is responsible 
for these losses and whose duty is it to mini- 
mize these evils? Is it the investor's? True, 
it is his money that has been lost, but the 
ordinary investor in big business has little 
to say about the conduct of the enterprise 
in which his capital is at stake. Is the pro- 
duction force responsible? Manifestly not! 
The production force, as such, stands willing 
and ready to produce. Is the sales force at 
fault? Again, manifestly not, for the sales 
force cannot squeeze the life blood of orders 
out of a dead market. 

There remains, then, only one other ele- 
ment and that is the dominating one whose 
policy must be followed by the production 
and sales departments. It is the financial, 
or ultimate management element. 
— Ernest F. DuBrul, General Manager, Na- 
tional Machine Tool Builders' Association. 



GREAT LAKES STRIKE 



On October 1, 1922, all wheelsmen, watch- 
men, boatswains, able seamen and ordinary 
seamen on vessels of the Lake Carriers Asso- 
ciation will demand the three-watch system, 
or eight-hour day, and will refuse to sail on 
any Association vessel which does not estab- 
lish the new watch system for the deck crew. 

The foregoing notice has been issued by 
the Sailors Union of the Great Lakes in 
accordance with the referendum vote which 
was practically unanimous in favor of action 
to enforce the eight-hour day. 

In all cases crews are requested to report 
to the nearest office of the Sailors' Union of 
the Great Lakes. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON, Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



far.,^© 



OCTOBER 1, 1922 



IMPORTING CHINESE CREWS 



Mythical "high-priced American crews" are 
still receiving a great deal of free adver- 
tising by the would-be subsidy grabbers. 

One would think that for the time being, 
at least, ordinary prudence should discourage 
the further importation of Chinese crews. 
But no such luck. The Pacific Mail liner 
President Lincoln arrived at San Francisco 
from the Orient during the month with 130 
Chinese who will form part of the crew of 
the new Pacific Mail liner President Pierce. 
These Chinese seamen signed shipping arti- 
cles before the American consul at Hong- 
kong. Their length of service is six months, 
wages beginning upon departure from China 
as passengers bound for San Francisco. 

While Chinese are thus flagrantly imported 
for service on American ships, thousands of 
American seamen, who were considered good 



enough seamen when the submarine was a 
menace to shipping, have been deliberately 
driven into other occupations. The San Fran- 
cisco agency of the United States Shipping 
Board's Sea Service Bureau frankly admits 
that the percentage of Americans signing on 
Shipping Board vessels is constantly decreas- 
ing. The pretense is still made that "Amer- 
icans have the preference" — that is, after the 
imported Chinamen have been assigned to 
congenial jobs. 

What a brazen hypocrisy there is behind 
it all. The buccaneers who sailed the Span- 
ish Main never attempted anything half as 
bold as these jolly landsmen who are about 
to perpetrate a raid on the United States 
Treasury. For, whatever else may be said 
about those gentlemen, it must be admitted 
they have a magnificent nerve. Making a 
spectacular drive for a Ship Subsidy Oil the 
strength of non-existing "high priced" Amer- 
ican crews and importing shiploads of the 
cheapest available labor — all at the same time 
and in the same breath — by the shades of 
Christopher Columbus and all other odds 
that requires real nerve! 



FEDERAL STRIKE-BRE AKI X< \ 



The reactionary gentlemen temporarily in 
control of the United States government 
have cast all pretense to the winds. They 
are now frankly asking for more power to 
break strikes. 

When the President of the United States 
delivered his message t<> Congress on the 
controversies in the mining and railroad 
industries he coupled with it the necessity 
for the passage of Senate bill 1943. introduced 
by Senator Kellogg of Minnesota, providing 
"for the better protection of aliens and the 
enforcement of their treaty rights." Not 
only does the bill provide that the attorney 
general can go into the Federal courts and 
secure injunctions in controversies in which 
aliens are involved, but the police p« 
of the various states would be given over to 
the Federal courts. Where convictions are 
found the sentences are executed in tin- 
same manner as sentences for conviction un- 
der the laws of the United States. The I 
dent is authorized to carry out the tin. 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



of the Federal courts by Section 4, which 

with proposed amendment, is as follows : 

The President of the United States is hereby 
expressly authorized to use the marshals of the 
United States and their deputies to maintain the 
peace when DISTURBED by the commission of 
such acts are are CREATED CRIMES in the pre- 
ceding section; and should, in his judgment, the 
circumstances demand it, he is empowered to use 
the army and navy for the same purpose. 

It is freely charged that if this bill should 
become a law, it would make the Federal 
government a strike-breaking agency in which 
the army and navy could be used in the in- 
terest of the privileged few. The fact that 
the President will be empowered to send 
the army and navy into states without the 
consent of he governors of the states is a 
most reactionary blow to state rights. Ap- 
parently there is a strong movement to cen- 
tralize all government in the United States 
under one head. 

All wage earners and just-minded citizens 
should enter the most vigorous protest 
against this stealthy step toward a dictator- 
ship. The sponsors of the bill are consid- 
ered to have only one object in view, and 
that is to deport aliens who refuse to work 
for low wages and under undesirable con- 
ditions and to protect with the army and 
navy those who are willing to act as strike- 
breakers. 

In view of President Harding's special 
strike-breaking message, it is scarcely sur- 
prising that his attorney general has put on 
a special war dance of his own. Not satis- 
fied with demanding an injunction that de- 
nies constitutional rights to striking shop 
men, Attorney General Daugherty has noti- 
fied big business that it could depend on 
him to fight for the sacred rights of every 
scab and to perpetuate the non-union shop. 
While no one ever doubted the position of 
the attorney general, he made it a matter 
of record by the following declaration : 

But it may be understood that so long and to 
the extent that I can speak for the government 
of the United States, I will use the powers of the 
government of the United States within my con- 
trol to prevent the labor unions of the country 
from destroying the open shop. 

The attorney general's public avowal for 
the case of anti-unionism will be welcomed 
by the National Association of Manufactur- 
ers, the United States Chamber of Com- 
merce, and allied organizations. These bod- 



ies now know that Mr. Daugherty's secret 
service system, headed by the "great de- 
tective," Burns, is at their disposal to aid 
them in their fight against organized labor. 

Mr. Daugherty's assumption that he speaks 
"for the government of the United States" 
recalls the reply made by Congressman 
Huddleston to the President when the latter 
stated in his recent message to Congress that 
"I am resolved to use all the power of the 
government to maintain transportation and 
sustain the right of men to work." 

"The President is not the government," 
said Congressman Huddleston. "In using 
'government' as meaning the administration 
he forgets America in his old world phraseol- 
ogy. There is no 'government' in or of 
the United States except that composed of 
three co-ordinate branches, of which the 
President represents only one — the execu- 
tive." For all of which we should be duly 
grateful. Our country could not long en- 
dure if such types as Mr. Daugherty were 
vested with unlimited authority and power. 
If our country is to remain a Republic in 
fact as well as in name, Daughertyism will 
have to be stamped out or laughed out ! Judg- 
ing by the comment of the press, the latter 
process is the more popular and already in 
full operation. And that, after all, is an 
eminently fitting treatment for Wall Street's 
harlequin. 



SEAMEN AS HARVESTERS 



Because of the fact that many of the seamen 
who have been available for ocean and coastwise 
voyages have gone harvesting in Western Canada, 
Montreal shipping papers report that there is a 
scarcity of seamen and that it has been difficult 
to secure crews for ocean freighters sailing from 
that port. — Press item. 

It seems to be the same story everywhere. 
In America, Canada and elsewhere, many 
seamen respectfully decline to work for 
wages established by hungry men's needs. 
Happily the general employment situation 
is rapidly becoming better. The reported 
scarcity of labor has become real in certain 
spots. Moreover, the increase of corporate 
income which has come from improved busi- 
ness conditions have already been reflected 
in the wage scales of workers in various 
parts of the country. The wage-cutting 
campaign is practically over. A general 



8 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



tendency towards wage increases has already 
set in. Labor is in a better position now 
than for two or three years to resist cuts 
and obtain increased scales. 

The National Industrial Conference Board 
(financed by employers) issues a monthly 
report on wage changes. In the month end- 
ing May 15, fifty-four companies reported 
wage reductions, and only nine reported in- 
creases. In the month ending July 15 no 
less than 26 reported increases, while only 
21 reported decreases. This does not by 
any means purport to be a complete list, 
as it has been prepared from a very limited 
number of sources. It is interesting, how- 
ever, as illustrating the present wage tend- 
ency in various industries and localities. 

For two years men have been hunting jobs. 
Now jobs are beginning to hunt for men. 
The United States Employment Service 
keeps the most extensive records in the coun- 
try on employment. The report of the serv- 
ice for recent months shows a steady de- 
crease in the number of men out of work 
since January. The increases in employ- 
ment, naturally, are found in those indus- 
tries in which increased activity and pros- 
perity are recorded. In certain sections of 
the country there is an actual shortage of 
labor now in the building trades, the steel 
industry and in automobile plants. The 
harvest fields are always short of labor dur- 
ing the peak of the crop season. And con- 
sidering the niggardly wages paid to seamen, 
does any reasonable person think it strange 
that seamen show a preference for the har- 
vest fields? 



LA FOLLETTE'S TRIUMPH 



"Britannia rules the waves." So it is al- 
leged in song and story — but the prime min- 
ister of the Commonwealth of Australia has 
recently refused permission for British ves- 
sels to trade between Australian ports be- 
cause he deems that it would result in the 
lowering of the standard of wages and ac- 
commodation for Australian seamen, or else 
drive Australian vessels out of the coasting 
trade. Is this another case of "home rule 
for Ireland?" 



The 200,000 majority which Wisconsin 
voters gave to Senator La Follette is "the" 
political event of the year. Politicians do 
not understand the Wisconsin primary elec- 
tion returns. But plain people everywhere 
will understand and rejoice when they read 
and digest the issues upon which Senator 
La Follette was renominated. 

Here are the La Follette issues that were 
so overwhelmingly endorsed by the people 
of Wisconsin: 

The repeal of the Esch-Cummins law, the en- 
actment of a law taxing excess profits; immediate 
increase of Federal inheritance tax rates upon real 
estate to be applied upon war debt; defeat of the 
proposed ship subsidy bill and all measures of 
like gratuities to special interests; unalterable op- 
position to any tariff rate in excess of the differ- 
ence in the cost of production at home and abroad; 
Newberryism condemned and Newberry's expulsion 
from the Senate demanded; publicity of all in- 
come tax returns, both State and Federal to pre- 
vent the cheating and tax-dodging whereby great 
corporations have unlawfully withheld sums of 
money from the public treasuries; just compensa- 
tion for all former service men; condemnation of 
present excessive expenditures for military and 
naval purposes; unalterable opposition to universal 
military training and pledging support for consti- 
tutional amendment for a referendum vote to the 
people on every declaration of war except in 
case of actual or imminent danger of invasion; for 
amendment to the Constitution to meet the recent 
decision of the Supreme Court nullifying the child 
labor law; abolition of the use of the injunction 
in disputes between employer and employes and 
declaring strongly for the right of farmers to 
organize and bargain collectively and conduct 
such co-operative enterprises as they require for 
their protection. 

Truly, the most confirmed pessimist must 
find some encouragement in the ratification 
of these vital issues. 

The seamen of America have especial 
reason to be grateful to Wisconsin for re- 
turning La Follette to the Senate with such 
a magnificent vote. No abler nor more 
loyal champion has ever pleaded the cause 
of American seamen. La Follette ranks 
second to none as a humanitarian, a states- 
man and a "man." May the Great Ruler 
of the Universe grant him health and 
strength, so that he may long continue to 
battle for progress and human freedom ! 



Analyze almost any radical "ism" and you 
will find that it is composed mainly of sole- 
cism and cynicism. 



Why is it that so many trade unionists 
lose their nerve, so loudly extolled in the 
meeting room, when they fail to demand the 
union label when making purchases? 



October, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

RAMPANT MILITARISM WHO IS GUILTY? 



During the late world war the assertion 
was often made that "this is a war to end 
war." 

The war was fought to a successful con- 
clusion. And now, almost four years after 
the signing of the armistice, an official 
conference of the International Federation 
of Trade Unions finds it necessary to adopt 
the following declaration : 

It is a monstrous state of affairs that after such 
a war as that through which the world has passed, 
and despite the disarmament of Germany, the total 
strength of the standing armies of Europe is 
4,700,000 as against 3,700,000 before the great war. 
The unproductive military burdens weigh upon the 
lives of the peoples and hinder the restoration of 
the ruins left by the war. This reduction of arma- 
ment is so insistently demanded by the peoples 
not only because of the tremendous loss of life and 
waste of resources which war involves, but also 
because these armaments are a grave menace to 
peace. 

Truly, the aftermath of the war is any- 
thing but what had been anticipated. 

Not only are more men under arms in 
Europe, but there are indications aplenty 
that the by-products of militarism are flour- 
ishing in Europe as never before. 

Read and digest the following item, culled 
from a San Francisco morning newspaper : 

"Almost 100 per cent of the Rumanian army offi- 
cers wear corsets and use powder and lip rouge," 
writes Attorney Nicholas Klein from Bucharest, 
Rumania. 

"It is a treat to see these handsome army fig- 
ures, corseted and with red lips, using a powder 
puff before your eyes!" 

Corsets, lip sticks and powder puffs in 
Rumania. Two hundred thousand colonial 
native conscripts serving "their country" in 
the French army. The Turks doing the 
usual "come back" stunt, and the Greeks 
hollering for help in the name of an out- 
raged Christianity! And thus current his- 
tory rolls on — from the grotesque to the 
ridiculous. 

Yes, indeed, the boys who sailed across the 
Atlantic and offered their lives "to make the 
world safe for democracy" have ample cause 
for serious reflection. 



If the labor movement falls short of being 
as perfect as it might be you can generally 
trace the chief reason for this straight to 
the door of those who are most prone to find 
fault with the way the unions are run. 



The official investigation into the sinking 
of the P. & O. liner Egypt, with the attendant 
heavy loss of life, revealed that lack of disci- 
pline and proper boat drills were responsible 
for the loss of life. The master was sus- 
pended for six months and the chief officer 
severely censured. Evidence was submitted 
to show that the Lascar seamen, to whom 
cowardice was imputed, cannot be relied upon 
in an emergency when the question of life 
or death is uppermost in the minds of men. 
The Nordic's traditional order, "Women and 
children first," finds no response in men from 
Oriental civilization. 

The Egypt's crew consisted of eighty-six 

Europeans, 208 Lascars and other Indians, 

and the court found that the panic among 

them was "not properly controlled" by the 

European officers, most of whom were unable 

to speak the Indian dialect. In summing up 

the court said : 

A great company like the Peninsular & Oriental 
Line would do well to take a lesson from this 
unhappy disaster and set for themselves a higher 
standard of care and efficiency in the future. 

This, to be sure, is the usual aftermath of 

such disasters. The officers are punished, 

either by suspension or revocation of license. 

The lightest punishment is severe censure. 

The owners, on the other hand, who are 

solely responsible for the employment of 

unskilled and untrained crews, receive only 

a gentle admonition! 



If all working people were as willing to 
work in the labor movement for general 
betterment as most of them are to work for 
some boss to secure individual preferment, 
even the self-seekers would in the course of 
years be far ahead of what most of them 
ever get as a result of trying to hog things 
for themselves regardless of what happens to 
the other fellow. 



Senator King of Utah has introduced a 
resolution in the Senate which seeks "to as- 
certain whether the Shipping Board was en- 
gaged in propaganda to help the passage of 
the ship subsidy bill and was spending pub- 
lic money for this purpose." A very timely 
and most pertinent inquiry! 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



ADVANCES IN FOREIGN PORTS 



Section 10A of the Seamen's Act deals 
with advances on foreign ships made with- 
out the United States. 

The Supreme Court of the United States 

in the case of Rhine vs. Windrush, 248 U. S., 

205, held that Congress did not intend this 

act to apply to advances made in foreign 

countries ; that if Congress had so intended 

it would have plainly said so. Consequently, 

and immediately after said decision of the 

Supreme Court, which was handed down in 

the spring of 1921, the following amendment 

(new language printed in black face type) 

was introduced : 

The payment of such advance wages or allot- 
ment, whether made within or without the United 
States or territory subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, shall in no case except as herein provided 
absolve the vessel or the master or the owner 
thereof from the full payment of wages after the 
same shall have been actually earned, and shall 
be "no defense to a libel suit or action for the 
recovery of such wages. 

This amendment was passed as part of 
the Jones bill. And now there have been 
court decisions indicating that this par- 
ticular section of the Seamen's Act has been 
properly amended. 

In a recent case, known as Sheppard vs. 
Lamport and Holt, the amended act was 
held to render invalid the advance of £17, 5s. 
made to John Sheppard 48 hours after sign- 
ing articles on the steamship Bernine of 
the Lamport and Holt Line, at Liverpool. 
Sheppard cashed his note in a public house. 
Upon arrival in New York he quit his ship 
and retained Attorney Axtell to sue for 
half wages. Judgment was rendered for 
plaintiff in the full amount — about $75. An 
appeal was then taken to the Appellate Di- 
vision by the defendant, Burlingham, Vee- 
der, Masten & Feary appearing as attorneys. 
The case was argued before the Appellate 
Term, consisting of three judges of the Su- 
preme Court of the State of New York, in 
March, 1922. They affirmed the opinion of 
the judge of the lower court without giving 
an opinion. Leave to appeal to the Appellate 
Division of the State of New York was de- 
nied and the defendants have abandoned any 
effort to carry the case further. 

As Judge Groner mad< a similar decision 
in another case in the Fourth Circuit, it 



seems well established now that advances 
made in foreign countries are not recognized 
as valid in American courts. 



SEAMEN'S WORLD CODE 



According to the International Labor Offices 
of the League of Nations, national seamen's 
codes are in preparation in Argentina, Canada, 
France, Italy, Poland and South Africa, while 
Denmark, Norway and Sweden are revising the 
Maritime Acts which constitute their chief 
maritime code, in conjunction with Finland, 
the commissions set up by the four States 
having submitted draft seamen's codes to their 
respective governments. With regard to the 
establishment of an International Seamen's 
Code, which will he facilitated by the drawing 
up of these national codes, much preliminary 
work has already been accomplished. 

The Joint Maritime Commission, which was 
set up by the governing body of the Inter- 
national Labor Office to assist the technical 
maritime section of the office and to be con- 
sulted on questions affecting maritime labor, 
has decided that, as a preliminary measure, a 
scheme should be drawn up for the inter- 
national codification of articles of agreement. 
Information has just been received that a report 
of the progress of the preliminary work accom- 
plished by the International Labor Office in this 
direction will soon be available. 



The Pacific Mail steamship Ecuador, run- 
ning between San Francisco and United 
States Atlantic ports, has discharged the 
fifty Chinese recently imported from the 
Orient for that purpose. Although the vacil- 
lating attitude of the authorities at Wash- 
ington rather encouraged the Pacific Mail 
Company to try out their Chinese crews in 
the coastwise trade, the vigorous opposition 
of the International Seamen's Union of 
America has caused them to back up. Howl- 
ing for ship subsidy and at the same time 
introducing Chinese in the coastwise trade 
is certainly an inexplicable maneuver. 



We admire the man who "dares to be in 
the right of two or three," provided his 
daring is not inspired mainly by a desire for 
notoriety. 



October, 1922 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

SHIPPING OFFICES IN INDIA. THE INJUNCTION FARCE 



11 



The government of India has informed the 
International Labor office that it proposes to 
appoint a committee of inquiry into the con- 
ditions under which seamen are shipped at 
Bombay and Calcutta, the only ports in India 
where such labor is hired in large numbers. 
A preliminary inquiry was undertaken at 
these two ports, and a committee under the 
chairmanship of Mr. A. G. Clow, I. C. S. 
has been appointed by the government to 
examine the evidence collected. A copy of 
a unanimous report presented by this Sea- 
men's Recruiting Committee has just been 
received by the International Labor Office 
from the Government of India. 

Referring to the provisions of the Draft 
Convention adopted by the Genoa Interna- 
tional Labor Conference for establishing fa- 
cilities for finding employment for seamen, 
the Committee recommends the establish- 
ment of a State employment bureau in each 
center. The hope is expressed, however, that 
the State organization may in the near fu- 
ture be replaced by one maintained by repre- 
sentative associations of shipowners and sea- 
men, when the seamen's unions are suffi- 
ciently developed for this purpose. It is re- 
commended that each bureau should have at 
its head a single officer with experience in the 
mercantile marine and of shipowners and of 
seamen's organizations, and that one of the 
main features of the bureau should be the 
maintenance of a general register of seamen 
of each grade, including recruits, with separ- 
ate registers for each shipping line that so 
desires. In accordance with Article 6 of the 
Draft Convention which reads, "In connec- 
tion with the employment of seamen, free- 
dom of choice of ship shall be assured to sea- 
men, and freedom of choice of crew shall be 
assured to shipowners," the shipowners shall 
be entitled to demand the removal of any 
seaman's name from the register of the line 
concerned and the seaman has the right to 
have his name removed from the register of 
any line. 



Every additional function vested in the 
Government is a step backward toward 
despotism. 



If — as its defenders claim — the labor in- 
junction is such an efficient method to en- 
force law in strike times, why not make its 
application general? 

Why restrict its use to strikers? Why not 
stop all crime, injustice and wrong by the 
injunction process? 

If the Constitution can be scrapped when 
strikers are involved, why not in the case 
of bootleggers and land thieves? 

If an injunction judge can take every guar- 
antee from strikers on the word of a detective, 
stool-pigeon or spy, why not accord the 
same treatment to mail robbers and dealers 
in fake stock? 

Why not issue an injunction to the bank- 
ing fraternity that no bank shall be looted 
or wrecked, as that interferes with business. 

Why are these law violators accorded 
rights that are denied wage earners who ex- 
ercise their right to suspend work? The 
bank looter is assumed to be innocent until 
the State proves him guilty, after a trial by 
jury. The striker is assumed to be guilty 
until he proves his innocence, not to a jury, 
but to the judge who issued the injunction. 

Why not assign the enforcement of all 
law to an injunction judge? Advocates of 
the labor injunction cannot object to this 
procedure — unless they believe wage earn- 
ers are entitled to less consideration than 
opium smugglers. 

Why not be logical in the use of the in- 
junction as a law enforcer? 

Make every police officer a process server 
for an injunction judge. Let all common 
law be repealed by statutory enactment, and 
then repeal all statutory law, both criminal 
and civil. 

Burn all law books and court decisions. 
Forget every fundamental right. Then, with 
every law, custom and guarantee destroyed, 
have one injunction judge — preferably Judge 
Anderson or Judge Wilkerson — issue a 
sweeping edict, "No one shall do evil." 

Let the edict be as all-inclusive as the ad- 
ministration's injunction against the shop 
men. If a person violates the edict, or some 
one claims he is liable to do evil, let him 
be rushed forthwith before the injunction 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



judge. Then he will find how much his 
boasted American rights amount to when an 
irresponsible injunction judge supplants statu- 
tory law and constitutional guarantees. 

Then he will discover that the injunction 
judge considers him guilty ; that he "must 
show cause why he should not be punished 
for contempt of court." It devolves on him 
to prove his innocence, rather than the ac- 
cuser to prove his guilt. 

He will also discover that punishment is 
at the discretion of the injunction judge, who 
can jail or fine, according to the prejudices 
and moods of a court unfettered by law. 

If the injunction method is to govern when 
strikers are involved, let it also apply to 
profiteers. 

If the injunction stops crime among 
strikers, let injunction advocates be logical. 
Let kidnapers and holdup men be enjoined. 
Stop the terrific loss by fire in this country 
by enjoining arson. 

If injunction advocates do not accept this 
reasoning, let them acknowledge they are 
untruthful when they defend the labor in- 
junction. 

Let them acknowledge that if strikers are 
accorded rights freely given dope peddlers 
and influential bank wreckers, the judiciary 
could find no excuse to aid reaction and 
privilege in industrial disputes. 

Let us have government by injunction for 
all the people or government by injunction 
for none. 



CANADA'S NEW FLAGS 



GERMANY'S MERCHANT FLEET 



The German merchant fleet is creeping 
back toward its pre-war tonnage, according 
to a report made to the Commerce Depart- 
ment from Commercial Attache C. E. Herring 
at Berlin. 

On July 1, Mr. Herring reported, the 
German merchant fleet was estimated at 
1,618,000 gross tons, as compared with a 
pre-war tonnage of 5,459,000 gross tons and 
with 1,500,000 gross tons for the calendar 
year 1921, figures for June 30, 1921, being 
unavailable. During June, he said, eight 
ships were launched in Germany, aggregat- 
ing 66,600 tons ; eight ships were completed, 
totaling 48,600 tons, and seven ships were 
purchased, amounting to 22,200 tons. 



The Canadian Department of the Naval 
Service has just issued colored prints of the 
new Canadian Red and Blue Ensigns. These 
prints have been distributed to Dominion 
Government departments, provincial author- 
ities, and to flag manufacturers. The Red 
and Blue Ensigns are marine flags. When 
used by Canadian vessels they are defaced 
by the shield of the Canadian coat of arms 
in the fly. The Canadian Red Ensign was 
authorized by Admiralty warrant of the 2nd 
of February, 1892, and is flown by Canadian 
registered merchant vessels. The Canadian 
Blue Ensign is flown by Canadian Govern 
inent ships. 

With tin- adoption of a new Canadian 
of arms it was necessary also to adopt new 
flags. The Canadian red and blue ensigns 
were altered by substituting the shield of the 
new coat of arms for that of the old. The 
new ensigns are authorized for immediate 
use, but authority has also been granted t<> 
use the old flags up to March 31, 1924, in 
order that stocks of flags at present held by 
mercantile concerns may net be lost. 



PRESIDENT'S PLEDGE BROKEN 



In his speech before the annual conven- 
tion of the International Typographical 
Union President Gompers told the delegates 
of moves in connection with the shop men's 
strike that are not generally known. 

The trade unionist recalled the prolonged 
meeting of the shop men's executives and 
President Harding, when the President rec- 
ommended that the strike be called off; 
that the strikers be returned to their former 
positions, and that other questions be re- 
ferred to the Railroad Labor Board. 

In urging the shop men's executives to 
accept the plan, President Harding said: 

"If you men accept this proposal for the 
settlement of this strike, I will use the big 
stick, if necessary, upon the executives to 
compel them to accept it." 

The shop men's executives accepted the 
plan, which was rejected by the railroad 
executives. How the President swung the 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



big stick is best told by President Gompers 
before the Typographical convention : 

"The President swung his big stick, not 
upon the railway executives who rejected his 
suggestion, but upon the railway shop men 
who accepted his offer — a club in the form 
of this injunction secured by his attorney 
general, Daugherty." 

The Locomotive Engineers' Journal veri- 
fies Samuel Gompers' statements in the fol- 
lowing language : 

"Forces behind the screen did their work 
secretly and well. The following morning 
President Harding delivered his message to 
Congress on the industrial crisis, climaxed by 
a pledge placing the full forces of govern- 
ment behind the strikebreakers and railroads. 

"It is believed that an advance copy of 
the President's address was brought to New 
York the night before. Certainly a copy lay 
before the railway executives the following 
morning before the President had delivered 
his message to Congress. From that time on 
endeavors to effect a peaceful settlement 
satisfactory to both sides were out of the 
question." 

The Locomotive Engineers' Journal refers 
to the President's second settlement offer as 
"evidently drafted either by those ignorant 
of the issues at stake or else deliberately con- 
triving to prolong the strike with an utterly 
impossible proposal." 

This settlement provided that the question 
of seniority would be referred to the Railroad 
Labor Board. It was made following the 
President's declaration that he would use the 
big stick over the rail executives if they 
rejected his first offer, which would reinstate 
the strikers. 



SEAWORTHY AND LUCKY 



After being tossed about on the Pacific, 
their rudder carried away twice during the 
gales which they were forced to ride out 
in their frail craft, Captain George W. Waard 
and his wife arrived at Victoria, B. C, on 
September 19. aboard the Chinese junk 
Amoy, ninety-one days out of Shanghai. 
The tale of their three months' battle with 
the storms of the Pacific rivals the most 
thrilling of sea fiction. Virtually one con- 
tinuous storm buffeted the little ship, but 



always she managed to make shelter or 
successfully fight her way through. Then, 
almost within hailing distance of her goal, 
while Captain Waard was guiding his craft 
through dense fog that settled over the Strait 
of Juan de Fuca outside Victoria, came the 
climax to the tempestuous voyage. A great 
black form loomed dead ahead. Captain 
Waard shoved the tiller hard over and the 
Amoy spun around in her own length, a 
turn only a junk can make. The towering 
black form came on and the steel hull of 
a Japanese steamer passed within four feet 
of the Stern of the Amoy. In spite of the 
strenuous times they had passed through 
during the voyage even Captain Waard was 
heard to remark that this last was a close 
call, and that he thought "all was up for a 
time." 



BRITISH SHIP SUBSIDIES 



An official statement on the subsidies paid 
to British shipping was made in the British 
parliament last month in answer to the ques- 
tion by a member, in the following language: 
"No payments are made by H. M.'s govern- 
ment to British lines, save as mentioned be- 
low, except in return for services rendered 
in the carriage of mails. The contracts under 
which • these payments are made sometimes 
include clauses relating to the speed of ves- 
sels employed, the frequency of the service 
and ports of call, etc., but these are only 
introduced in order to secure the regularity 
and security of the postal service. In addi- 
tion to the above, the Admiralty make a 
small contribution to the Union Castle Line 
in order to secure calls at Ascension for the 
benefit of the naval personnel, and pay 
£90,000 a year to the Cunard Co., under a 
contract of 1903 which expires in 1927. By 
this contract the Cunard Co. agreed to main- 
tain a ship, namely the Mauretania, of ap- 
proved speed, and to admit the right of the 
Admiralty to pre-emption of this and cer- 
tain other vessels in case of emergency. The 
total annual payments under the above head- 
ings are about £600,000, while the payments 
made by the U. S. Post Office for mail con- 
tracts only are calculated at above $6,000,000 
(say £1,364,000 at present rate of exchange)." 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Attorney Axtell has furnished the JOURNAL 
with the following summary of recent court 
decisions of special interest to seamen : 
The Question of Release 

The recent decision of the Supreme Court 
of the United States in the case of Lucas vs. 
Pacific Mail, reported in Lawyer's Co-opera- 
tive Reports, Volume 12, page 348, is of 
great importance on the question of mutual 
release. It is consistent with the recent de- 
cision of Judge Dooling in the Brown case, 
stating as follows : 

"It is provided that notwithstanding the 
statutory release, any court having jurisdic- 
tion may upon good cause shown, set aside 
such release and take such action as justice 
shall require." Act of March 4, 1915. 

Thus affirming the opinion of the District 
Court and the Circuit Court of Appeals in 
California, Justice Holmes wrote the opinion. 

Of no less importance to seamen is the 
decision of the Supreme Court of the United 
States in the case of Carlisle Packing Co. 
vs. Ole Sandanger, Supreme Court, Ad- 
vance Sheet, July 1, 1922, where the court 
holds that a vessel is unseaworthy that de- 
parts from port with a quantity of gasoline 
in a container marked kerosene. Somebody 
used it to light a fire with the result of an 
explosion. This decision supports the con- 
tention that I have made consistently be- 
fore the courts for the past 15 years on the 
doctrine of unseaworthiness as is annunci- 
ated in The Osceola, 189 U. S., 159. 
Seamen's Rights in State Courts 

Section 33 of the Jones bill, amending 
Section 20 of the Seamen's Act of March 4, 
1915, was considered by the Appellate Divi- 
sion, Second Department, City of New York, 
in an appeal of August Tammis vs. Panama 
Railroad Company. Tammis was severely 
burned by an explosion of a worn out and 
defective windlass engine on the steamer 
Christobal. It was a good case under the 
maritime law of unseaworthiness, as well as 
under the new Act of Congress. 

The Appellate Court reversed the decision 
of Judge Lewis and four other judges of the 
Supreme Court of the State of New York, 
who had previously held that, under this 



statute, which makes the Railroad Employes 
Liability Act of the United States applic- 
able to seamen, the State courts did not 
have jurisdiction. Now, unless the Appel- 
late Division is reversed the State courts of 
New York and probably all other states of 
the United States, will have jurisdiction to 
enforce the rights of the seamen under this 
Act. If the contention of the Shipping 
Board and Fleet Corporation, which has been 
asserted in the other cases, were upheld, 
seamen would have to go to Washington 
to prosecute all cases where the United 
States Emergency Fleet Corporation was 
the principal defendant. This would mean 
that their only other remedy would be to 
sue in admiralty where the facts as well as 
the law would be determined by the judges. 
These Federal judges, while fair and hon- 
est, are appointed for life and under such 
conditions and terms that the average seaman 
will doubtless prefer to submit the issue of 
fact to a jury when possible. 



HOW FREEDOM COMES 



The world now pretty well agrees that, 
after all, its greatest progress will come from 
the greatest freedom to all men. While 
definite gains may be made by autocratic 
control of business, yet, in business as in 
government, our experience has shown us 
that democracy is the safest road, and in 
spite of all its weaknesses this is the domi- 
nant political faith of today. Democracy is 
based on freedom. Freedom is not just an 
eagle screaming on a crag, as we used to 
be told as Fourth of July celebrations. 

The fundamental basis of freedom is the 
margin men have in their income over their 
outgo. No man is really free if he does not 
have more than enough with which to pur- 
chase the necessities of life for his wife, his 
children and himself. Under a code of ethics 
which requires business to sell cheaper and 
cheaper, the necessaries of life will be more 
easily obtained, and gradually the so-called, 
cheaper, the necessaries of life will be more 
available for less and less hours or days of 
work; and thus men will become more and 
more free. — Edward A. Filene in Colli x's 
Weekly. 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



THE SHIP SUBSIDY BILL 



"As a means of perpetuating the upper 
personnel of the Shipping Board, and of 
allowing it to put money into the pockets 
of its friends, the present bill should be a 
great success." 

The above quotation is taken from an 
editorial in a recent isse of The Nation, en- 
titled "Shoveling Money Into the Sea." It 
summarizes very well the general argument 
of the editorial. 

In a subsequent issue of The Nation ap- 
pears a "Ship-Subsidy Catechism" by O. W. 
Villard, who makes his questions and an- 
swers so snappy that the reader does not 
need to be afraid of being bored by this par- 
ticular catechism. One or two questions and 
answers taken from the catechism indicate 
Mr. Villard's feeling toward the proposed 
Shipping Bill: 

Question: — What is a subsidy? 

Answer : — It is a grant of public money to 
support a business which for one reason or 
another cannot support itself. 

Question : — Does a subsidy benefit Amer- 
icans who go to sea? 

Answer : — It benefits only the stockholders, 
that is, the shipowners, and bears no rela- 
tion to and has no effect upon wages or con- 
ditions of service. 

Question : — But is it not a fact that the 
Americans are naturally less fitted to go to 
sea than the Germans, Scandinavians, and 
other foreigners? 

Answer : — Americans are inferiors to no 
others in their adaptability for the sea, their 
initiative, and their self-reliance. They are, 
on the contarary, in their natural attributes, 
their love of adventure, and their ability to 
go from one trade or position to another, 
ideally fitted to follow the sea for a livelihood. 

Question : — Then why have they not been 
going to sea all these years? 

Answer : — Because conditions, especially on 
American ships, have been such that self- 
respecting Americans did not want to subject 
themselves to them; since the passage of the 
LaFollette Act and the building of the new 
fleet with decent accommodations for the 
crew, on the theory that they are human 



beings, Americans are turning to the sea 
again wherever owners and the Shipping 
Board permit them to do so. 



ATTEND UNION MEETINGS 



Don't say you are too tired ; the weather is 
bad, or there is too much quibbling and "hot 
air" to interest me. 

Every time you miss a meeting and leave 
it to the other fellow to look out for your 
interest, you are doing an injustice both to 
yourself and your organization. 

Your views on especially vital subjects 
should be represented in discussion and by 
vote and the only way for this to be done 
is for you to be at your union meeting. 

You are responsible for the good and 
welfare of your organization, and non-attend- 
ance of union meetings on your part is not 
excuse enough for you to voice your opinion 
after a measure has been passed. It is then 
time for you to concur in what has been done 
and work in harmony with the officers and 
other members of your union. 

Go to your union meetings regularly and 
induce others to do the same, because one 
important thing to remember is the meaning 
of this slogan : "In Unity Is Strength." 



42,000 SPIES ON PAYROLL 



Less than a quarter of a century ago, in 
the greater enjoyment of individual rights 
and local self-government, our Federal au- 
thorities found it necessary to have upon the 
payroll of the Federal government fewer than 
200 sleuths and special agents and inspec- 
tors to aid in the enforcement of Federal 
laws. Will any one defend the policy of 
the Federal government which today em- 
ploys more than 42,000 inspectors, sleuths 
and inquisitorial agents to dog the footsteps 
of him who should be, in the exercise of 
his constitutional rights, enjoying the hither- 
to dignity and freedom of an honest Ameri- 
can citizen? Such policy is an invasion of 
the inherent rights of the American citizen, 
of the rights of the local people to self- 
government, and of the rights of the country 
to limit its taxation to public necessity. — 
Congressional Record. 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



ARGENTINA'S NAVY 



Because the Munson liner American Le- 
gion started cutting capers in the harbor 
of Buenos Aires and took it upon herself 
to sink the pride of the Argentine navy and 
cause collisions which resulted in damage to 
five auxiliary cruisers, Argentina may get a 
brand new navy furnished by the United 
States, says the Nautical Gazette. Accord- 
ing to reports, the American Legion rammed 
the gunboat Azopardo, which was cut in 
two, but, before sinking, bounced off onto 
a cruiser, which in turn caused five other 
collisions. The battleships came out of this 
unexpected engagement bearing all the marks 
of actual warfare, but now the Shipping 
Board is confronted with the problem of 
indemnifying the southern republic for the 
loss and damage. William J. Love, vice- 
president and general manager of the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation, has discussed with 
Admiral Coontz, chief of naval operations, 
the proposal to replace the ill-fated gun- 
boat with one of the United States naval 
vessels due to be scrapped under the dis- 
armament agreement, and if there are no 
smaller naval vessels available, to draw upon 
the Shipping Board fleet for some of its 
tonnage to replace the damaged auxiliary 
vessels. Anyhow, the Shipping Board has 
got to provide the Argentine with a new 
navy, and a use might yet be found for the 
naval vessels doomed to be scrapped, even 
if it is only to offset the vagaries of the 
Board's vessels. 



AGE OF WORLD'S TONNAGE 



Some very interesting statistics are pub- 
lished in a recent issue of Shipbuilding and 
Shipping Record regarding the age of ton- 
nage still afloat. According to these esti- 
mates there are now throughout the world 
nearly 3000 vessels of between twenty and 
twenty-five years of age, representing about 
6,000,000 tons gross, and some 6000 vessels 
of twenty-five years old and upwards repre- 
senting about 7,000,000 tons gross. There 
are, consequently, some 13,000,000 tons gross 
of shipping which may be described as old. 
They represent about 21 per cent of the 



world's tonnage at present afloat. It can- 
not be very long before much of this ton- 
nage will really become unfit for use, and 
the question is whether owners will decide 
to replace it or not. In this matter they 
will be guided by considerations of the gen- 
eral state of trade and by the level of costs. 



HOUSE OF LORDS STUFF! 



Daugherty's injunction in the rail strike 
— at Harding's request — shows that the 
United States stands industrially today where 
England was between 1825 and 1871 so far 
as labor is concerned. 

England started the practice of issuing 
labor injunctions, but abandoned it. 

The people forced its abandonment. There's 
the lesson for the United States. 

In the United States reaction is intrenched 
in our courts, especially in our Federal 
courts, and most of all in our Supreme Court. 
In England reaction reigned in the House 
of Lords. 

In the Taff Vale Railway case the House 
of Lords held that a union could be sued 
just like a corporation. In the Coronada 
case our own Supreme Court quoted the 
Taff Vale case in defense of a similar de- 
cision. 

But the people of England rebelled. Par- 
liament passed the Trades Dispute Act of 
1906 and thereby put the House of Lords 
in its place. Since then no court in England 
has dared grant an injunction against a 
union — to do so would be illegal. 

Of course the Clayton Act makes the 
Daugherty injunction illegal in the United 
States. Everybody knows, however, that 
Daugherty cares nothing for the law except 
to flaunt it and violate it in behalf of male- 
factors of great wealth. That's the reason 
for the impeachment proceedings against 
him. If the people of the United States 
were properly represented in Congress, Kel- 
ler's resolution would not be suppressed in 
committee, as Republican leaders assert it 
will be. 



Society is always in greater danger from 
its own weakness than from the Govern- 
ment's tyranny. 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



"THE WOODEN HORSE' 



In ancient times it is told that the Greeks 
besieged the Trojans for a period of ten 
years. In spite of divine assistance and 
superhuman courage, every effort they made 
ended in failure. At last they decided to 
give up altogether, and go home, leaving the 
Trojans in peace. Ulysses, one of the Greek 
chieftains, renowned for his wisdom and 
cunning, persuaded them to one more effort. 
His plan was followed. The Greeks con- 
structed a huge wooden horse and placed 
Ulysses and sixty renowned warriors inside 
it. They then dedicated the horse to the 
valor and intelligence of the Trojans and de- 
parted in their ships. The rejoicing Trojans, 
despite the warnings of a few of their proph- 
ets and leaders, brought the trophy into the 
city and set it up in the citadel with great 
celebration. In the night Ulysses and his 
warriors, emerging from the statue, opened 
the city's gates and admitted the Greek hosts 
who had returned under cover of the dark- 
ness. Troy was destroyed and its people 
either killed or dispersed, and but for the 
strange method of its capture, would have 
been speedily forgotten. 

Well, the enemies of labor are evidently 
students of antiquity. "Mortius vivos do- 
cent" — the dead teach the living, is un- 
doubtedly their motto. Moreover, they 
apply their learning. If you cannot beat 
labor by opposing it, play up its differences 
and create internal dissension within its 
ranks. Any difference will do — racial, religi- 
ous, or theoretical — not one is neglected. En- 
courage anything that mav cause a split. 
Ambitious fools and downright jackasses can 
always be found. Any man that works is 
bound to have some sore spot, some pet the- 
ory to clear him of his woes; he is sure his 
way is right — encourage him. Point out the 
difference between his lot and that of other 
workers. It does not need to be truthful, 
only be sure to make the program pleasant. 
That's the "wooden horse." 

The present situation existing in American 
Marine industries has now really become 
complicated. In the port of San Francisco, 
alone, we have several new organizations 



preaching salvation to us; we have two 
Marine Transport Workers organizations in 
addition to the regular maritime unions. In 
addition we have the shipping and longshore 
employment agencies maintained to confound 
the already bewildered workers. The ship- 
ping board also maintains a shipping office 
at considerable expense. 

With all these different organizations func- 
tioning, the number of men employed remains 
the same. Not one of the organizations can 
increase employment. They can and do de- 
crease the number of competent men em- 
ployed in operating the ships by discrimina- 
tion, and because a great deal of the em- 
ployment is based on other considerations 
than fitness or experience. 

The Shipping Board's employment office 
on the Embarcadero is labelled a "recruiting 
service." This is the literal truth. The 
"Transport Workers" through their organ- 
izers are campaigning for an "open shop" in 
all marine industries, whereby their red card 
will enable a man to be a cook one day, a 
wiper, sailor, messman, foreman, or teamster 
the next, and all without any other qualifica- 
tion than that he has their particular card. 
They preach unity and solidarity, while prac- 
ticing disruption and disorganization. The 
real rats carry a couple of cards and always 
believe in the other organization when ques- 
tioned, but of course they pay dues to none. 

The shipowners' campaign against the mari- 
time unions can attribute all its success to 
the jealousies, misunderstandings, and stupid- 
ity of the men in these organizations. Faction 
triumphed supreme over the real interests of 
the organizations. Personal grievances of 
individuals were the real basis of the on- 
slaughts against the officers of marine unions. 
Any "ism" received support, provided it 
sounded violent. To this hour no sane reason 
has been advanced why the original organ- 
izations are at fault. When closely questioned 
as to what is wrong, many of the men have 
only the stock answer, "the system's wrong." 
The system, of course, includes the entire 
world and the race of mankind. Now, for 
eight thousand years of recorded history, man 
and his systems have been wrong, yet he has 
made some progress and has come to rec- 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



ognize some human rights that seemed ludi- 
crous only a few centuries ago. 

The real test of all these organizations is, 
"Will they work? Will they endure?" Time 
alone can tell, hut time flies; at the best ac- 
cording to the present situation, a generation 
will pass before we know the answer. As 
the knowledge of this hits the majority of 
those involved, they are likely to change 
their minds very materially and question 
whether we are accomplishing anything by 
our present tactics. Of course the present 
curse of the waterfront of any port in the 
world is the incredible ignorance of actual 
conditions of life and the childlike credulity 
with which any pleasing prospect, no matter 
how improbable, is received. This situation 
is greatly aggravated at present in San Fran- 
cisco by hordes of nondescript youths from 
God knows where, seeking employment at 
sea. In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred 
this employment is only to the next port, but 
with such a crop entered in the game, the 
stories from the Arabian nights are really 
probable and reasonable in comparison with 
the ravings along the Embarcadero that pass 
for truth and are believed and practiced to 
the detriment of all concerned. 

The fact that never seems to strike home to 
the average man at present is that his life 
and working time are limited; that while we 
all wish to improve the lot of the future gen- 
erations, this can only be accomplished by 
improving our own. Any benefit which the 
men in the ranks of labor enjoy today was 
won by sacrifice, rigid self-discipline, and the 
ability to submerge personal likes and dis- 
likes in order to secure that essential unity 
that alone makes labor a factor to be dealt 
with. 

As soon as the actual seafarers realize that, 
while any individual or organization will take 
their money and pat them on the back but 
will do nothing — not even devote time to 
their personal advance and betterment — the 
sooner will the seafarers realize their true re- 
lation to the world. "You must live by your 
own strength or die" was told us long ago. 
It is truer today than e\ er, because your 
enemies have inaugurated a far cleverer cam- 
paign than was ever before attempted. For- 



merly they attacked you and openly pro- 
posed to kill you and your organizations. 
They have, however, profited by experience. 
This program they found .impossible and they 
even discovered that it strengthened you. 
Well, now what do they try? They calmly 
permit you to commit suicide. The ship- 
owner steps out of the way and you your- 
selves, divided on every immaterial point of 
view, run off chasing rainbows and insanely 
accomplish the one thing the enemy des- 
paired of ever doing. 

The trick is as old as the wooden horse of 
Troy, and we might take for a new motto 
the ancient words "Timeo danaos et dona 
ferentes" — beware the Greeks bearing gifts. 
The "Square Deal." the "O. B. U." the 
employment agencies, are all gilts and 
moreover gifts maintained and supported 
by your enemies. Their primary aim is to 
divide you, and then to crucify you as in 
former years they crucified you. It was easy 
to do then, for you were divided and had no 
common policy. The law of every country 
aided your enemy. Today, with favorable 
laws and many other factors in your favor, 
you actually aid your enemies to exploit and 
degrade you, and those who will for genera- 
tions follow in your steps. — Samentu. 



KNOTS AND SPLICES 
(Reviewed tor the Seamen's Journal) 



i Knots, Splices and Rope Work, by A. 
Hyatt Verrill ; The Norman W. Henley Pub- 
lishing Co., New York. Price $1.00.) 

While not written especially for seafarers, 
this is a practical book giving complete and 
simple directions for making all the most use- 
ful and ornamental knots in common use, 
with chapters on Splicing, Pointing, Seizing. 
Serving, etc. The book is fully illustrated 
with 154 original engravings, which show 
how each knot, tie or splice is formed, and its 
appearance when finished. The book will be 
found of greatest value to ambitious young 
seamen who have had no sailing ship expe- 
rience. It will be useful also to anyone hav- 
ing occasion to use or handle rope or knots 
for any purpose. The book is thoroughly re- 
liable and practical, and is not only a guide 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



but a teacher. It is the standard work on the 
subject. Third revised edition, 104 pages, 

The author of this little book has cleverly 
woven some very readable knot romance into 
his introduction. 

The history of ropes and knots, says the 
author, is so dim and ancient that really 
little is known of their origin. That earliest 
man used cordage of some kind and by his 
ingenuity succeeded in tying the material 
together, is indisputable, for the most ancient 
carvings and decorations of prehistoric man 
show knots in several forms. Doubtless the 
trailing vines and plants first suggested ropes 
to human beings ; and it is quite probable 
that these same vines, in their various twist- 
ings and twinings, gave man his first idea of 
knots. 

Since the earliest times knots have been 
everywhere interwoven with human affairs ; 
jugglers have used them in their tricks; they 
have become almost a part of many occupa- 
tions and trades, while in song and story 
they have become the symbol of steadfast- 
ness and strength. 

Few realize the importance that knots and 
cordage have played in the world's history, 
but if it had not been for these simple and 
every-day things, which as a rule are given 
far too little consideration, the human race 
could never have developed beyond savages. 
Indeed, it would be safe to state that the 
real difference between civilized and savage 
man consists largely in the knowledge of 
knots and rope work. No cloth could be 
woven, no net or seine knitted, no bow 
strung and no craft sailed on lake or sea 
without numerous knots and proper lines or 
ropes ; and Columbus himself would have 
been far more handicapped without knots 
than without a compass. 

History abounds with mention of knots, 
and in the eighth book of "Odyssey" Ulysses 
is represented as securing various articles of 
raiment by a rope fastened in a "knot closed 
with Circean art" ; and as further proof of 
the prominence the ancients gave to knots, 
the famous Gordian Knot may be mentioned. 
Probably no one will ever learn just how this 
fabulous knot was tied, and like many mod- 
ern knots it was doubtless far easier for 
Alexander to cut it than to untie it. 



The old sorcerers used knots in various 
ways, and the witches of Lapland sold sail- 
ors so-called "Wind Knots," which were un- 
tied by the sailors when they desired a par- 
ticular wind. Even modern conjurors and 
wizards use knots extensively in their ex- 
hibitions and upon the accuracy and manner 
in which their knots are tied depends the 
success of their tricks. 

In heraldry many knots have been used as 
symbols and badges and many old Coats of 
Arms bear intricate and handsome knots, or 
entwined ropes, emblazoned upon them. 

As to the utility of knots and rope work 
there can be no question. A little knowl- 
edge of knots has saved many a life in storm 
and wreck, and if every one knew how to 
quickly and securely tie a knot there would 
be far fewer casualties in hotel and similar 
fires. In a thousand ways and times a knowl- 
edge of rope and knots is useful and many 
times necessary. Many an accident has oc- 
curred through a knot or splice being im- 
properly formed, and even in tying an ordi- 
nary bundle or "roping" a trunk or box few 
people tie a knot that is secure and yet read- 
ily undone and quickly made. In a life of 
travel and adventure in out-of-the-way places, 
in yachting or boating, in hunting or fishing, 
and even in motoring, to command a num- 
ber of good knots and splices is to make life 
safer, easier, and more enjoyable, aside from 
the real pleasure one . may find in learning 
the interesting art of knot tying. 

Through countless ages the various forms 
of knots and fastenings for rope, cable, or 
cord have been developed ; the best kinds 
being steadily improved and handed down 
from generation to generation, while the 
poor or inferior fastenings have been dis- 
carded by those whose callings required the 
use of cordage. 



HARD COAL MINERS SETTLE 



The five months' strike of the 155,000 
anthracite coal miners came to an official 
end on September 9, when the Tri-State 
convention at Wilkes-Barre, Pa., ratified the 
wage agreement, applying the wage scale in 
effect when the strike was declared on 
March 31. 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Alaska salmon fishing fleet, with but 
few exceptions, has returned with the sea- 
son's catch. Generally speaking, the fisher- 
men's pay days have been better than for 
several preceding years. 

The Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, reports 95 sailing, steam, gas 
and unrigged vessels of 11,511 gross tons 
built in the United States and officially num- 
bered during the month of August, 1922. 

The Commercial Pacific Cable Company 
has placed an order with the Sun S. B. Com- 
pany, Chester, Pa., for a cable steamer, 169x 
30x15 ft., with triple-expansion machinery 
and two oil-fired boilers, to cost nearly 
$1,000,000 and to be delivered in March, 1923. 

A loss estimated to be in excess of $5,- 
000,000 was caused by fire at New Orleans, 
on September 15, when five blocks of wharves 
and warehouses along the Mississippi River 
front burned to the water's edge. The 
wharves and warehouses were erected by the 
Federal government in 1918 and 1919 at a 
cost of more than five million dollars, army 
officers said. 

Rear Admiral C. S. Williams will be 
named president of the Naval War College 
at Newport, R. I., to succeed Rear Admiral 
William S. Sims, when he retires, October 
15, Secretary Denby announced. Rear Ad- 
miral Williams is at present head of the 
war plans section of naval operations, and 
previously he was vice-admiral, assigned to 
the Pacific fleet. 

Shipbuilders on the Great Lakes are 
steadily receiving new orders. The Ameri- 
can Shipbuilding Company will build for the 
Cleveland and Buffalo Transportation Com- 
pany two passenger vessels, 544x58 feet., 
driven by side paddles. Each ship will ac- 
commodate 2000 passengers in 600 state- 
rooms. The vessels will be the largest ever 
built for inland service. 

The Pusey & Jones Company, Wilmington, 
Del., will build two passenger boats for the 
Wilson Line. Philadelphia, from the designs 
of George C. Sharp, New York. The vessels 
will be 220 feet long, with single screw, triple 



expansion machinery, giving a speed of 

18 miles. The deck space will be sufficient 
for 3000 people. No sleeping accommodation 
is provided. The price is $529,000 the two. 
The Shipping Board cargo boats in the 
trade between Xew York and Bremen and 
Hamburg, which had been operated by the 
Kerr Steamship Company, have been with- 
drawn from the berth on tin- ground that 
there is enough American tonnage in the 
trade to take care of it. At the same time 
the Shipping Board service to India and 
Java has been consolidated and placed un- 
der the single management of the Kerr con- 
cern. 

Plans for converting one or two of the 
former German sailing vessels into oil bar 
for storage purposes in the ( Orient has been 
tentatively decided upon by the Robert Dol- 
lar Company, it was stated by officials of the 
company. The work of installing tanks to 
hold the oil will be done at San Francisco. 
The vessels will act as supply fuel vessels 
for the Dollar fleet. If the plan is carried 
out one of the vessels to be converted will 
be the David Dollar, formerly the Thielbek, 
now lying in this port. 

The Hawaiian Pineapple Company an- 
nounced it had obtained an option to pur- 
chase the entire island of Lanai from the 
Baldwin interests. The island contains ap- 
proximately 90,000 acres and the company 
plans to plant pineapples on the arable por- 
tion, consisting of approximately 60,000 
acres. It was also announced that negotia- 
tions have practically been completed where- 
by the Waialua Agricultural Company is to 
obtain a one-third interest in the pineapple 
corporation in exchange for a paid-up lease 
on approximately 12,000 acres and SI. 250.000 
in cash. 

The Pacific Coast will hereafter have two 
coast and geodetic survey steamers instead 
of one, the San Francisco office of the sur- 
vey announced during the month. The 
coast and geodetic survey steamer Lydoni.i 
left Marshfield, Ore., after having completed 
a hydrographic survey of the coast in that 
vicinity. The vessel will shortly proceed to 
the East Coast, where she will be stationed 
hereafter. Two converted mine planters, 
the Discoverer and the Pioneer, will be sent 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



from the East Coast, one to be stationed on 
the Pacific Coast of the United States, and 
the second in Alaska waters. 

Deadly cyanide fumes, used in fumigating 
the Japanese liner Shinyo Maru as she lay 
docked at pier 36, San Francisco, on 
September 15, caused the death of five 
men, all employed by the United States 
Public Health Service, and so badly poisoned 
a sixth that his life is despaired of. In 
addition to the death toll of five, seven city 
firemen, one physician and one member of 
the U. S. Customs Service were overcome by 
the deadly gas when, disregarding their own 
peril, they plunged into the depths of the 
big liner and dragged the bodies of the dead 
and dying to the open air. 

The whale catch of the 1922 season is 
larger than any season for the past five 
years, according to the officials of the Cali- 
fornia Sea Products Company. During the 
present season the company has maintained 
two whaling boats at Trinidad and two 
boats at Moss Landing. The season's catch 
to date is 325 whales, most of them caught 
ofif the Trinidad station. The Moss Landing 
crews were unfortunate in their catches 
because of the heavy fogs prevailing during 
most of the season. In spite of that, they 
caught more whales than any previous sea- 
son for a period of five years. The 325 
whales were caught in four months. 

Profiteering by a government agency re- 
ceived quite a jolt in the Federal Court at 
Brooklyn, when Judge Chatfield awarded the 
Prince Line, Ltd., $144,035.60, and the 
American - Hawaiian Steamship Company 
$212,453.41 compensation for government 
possession and use of piers 4 and 6, Bush 
Terminal, Brooklyn, from May 18, 1918, to 
May 1, 1919. When the government returned 
the piers the Prince Line was awarded $32,- 
100.02 and the American-Hawaiian, $31,- 
799.90. The two companies were dissatisfied 
with these awards and submitted to Judge 
Chatfield evidence to show that the govern- 
ment had not used the piers, but sublet them 
at $250 a day. The Prince Line asked for 
$360,972.07, and the Hawaiian Line, $485,101. 

A survey of the remaining vessels of the 
Shipping Board's wooden fleet, to determine 
an average valuation which will attract pur- 
chasers, is being conducted by the Ship Sale 



Division. At present the board has on hand 
226 wooden craft in various stages of con- 
struction, the majority of which are in the 
James River. A price of from $1,200 to 
$1,500 each might be fixed on the basis of a 
purchaser bidding for the entire lot, the price 
named being considered as a general average. 
When the wooden ships are sold, the next 
problem will be the disposal of the remaining 
lake-type ships, of which there are approxi- 
mately 200. The great obstacle to the sale 
of these ships abroad is their excessive draft, 
making them unsuitable for general trades. 

The engines and machinery of seventy- 
seven of the 226 wooden vessels bought from 
the Shipping Board by George D. Perry of 
the law firm of Lent & Humphrey of San 
Francisco will be placed in hulls already in 
California waters and which are to be used 
in the Pacific Coast lumber trade. This was 
made known by Humphrey, who called at 
the offices of Chairman Lasker to arrange 
details of payment. The price for the 
wooden fleet, which cost the United States 
$300,000,000, was $750,000. Some of the 
hulls mentioned, which are controlled by 
San Francisco interests represented by Hum- 
phrey, are now being used as lumber barges 
in the Sacramento River. The other 149 
vessels bought from the government are to 
be dismantled. 

A world's record for rapid loading of grain 
is claimed by the Port of Montreal for the 
British steamer Clearpool, 2714 net tons, 
which loaded 240,000 bushels of wheat be- 
tween the hours of 7:30 a. m. and 6 p. m. 
and was ready for sea in a little more than 
twelve hours after she had entered the port. 
The Clearpool arrived in Montreal Harbor 
at 5 :30 a. m. and was assigned to a grain- 
loading berth an hour later. At 7:30 a. m. 
loading was commenced and continued with 
only the interruption of an hour for the 
men's mid-day meal until 6 p. m., when the 
full cargo for the vessel was on board. Dr. 
W. L. McDougald, president of the Montreal 
Harbor Commissioners, claims that this de- 
spatch is the quickest ever given a freight 
steamer. The new marine tower jetty at 
elevator No. 2 will be able to load two grain 
vessels at the same time at the rate of 36,000 
bushels an hour each. 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



Permission has been given by the German 
Reichstag - to convert Kiel into a free port. 
This will be of great importance to the city, 
which is the key to the Baltic. Hugo Stin- 
nes has erected a large bunker oil station 
there. 

A concrete sailing vessel has just been 
built in Italy by the Societa Anonima Navi 
Italiane Cemento Armato, at Lavagna. The 
Perseveranza, as she is called, is constructed 
entirely of reinforced concrete and has a gross 
tonnage of 4700. 

The Australian government has decided to 
place the Commonwealth Line of steamers 
under independent control, properly capital- 
ized, and competing with other shipping com- 
panies, as a result of the criticism of gov- 
ernment trading. 

The Greek mercantile marine is growing 
rapidly. In 1918 it comprised a total of 
295,000 tons (steamers and sailing ships), 
which had been increased by the beginning 
of 1920 to 562,000 tons, while at the present 
time the total is 847,000 tons. 

Australia has officially resumed trading 
with Germany, but the proclamation pro- 
hibiting the entry of goods from ex-enemy 
countries without the consent of the min- 
ister of customs has not yet been revoked. 
Australian customs officials do not expect an 
inrush of German imports. 

The catch of spring herring in Norway 
gave a total result of about 750,000 barrels, 
against 518,000 barrels in 1921. The price, 
however, obtained this year was so much 
better that the total value of the catch 
amounted to about 7,000,000 kroner, com- 
pared to 2,780,000 kroner for the previous 
year. 

The General Steam Navigation Company, 
Ltd., of London lays claim to being the old- 
est seagoing steamship company in the 
world. It was founded in 1820, twenty years 
before the Cunard Line was started. The 
oldest non-seagoing steamship enterprise is 
the Clyde Shipping Company, which was es- 
tablished in 1815. 

The government of Newfoundland will 



open an all-year freight and limited passen- 
ger service between St. John's and the West 
Indies in October if steamers can be secured 
at a reasonable rate. One boat will leave 
St. John's every six weeks, and, should con- 
ditions warrant, another will be added in 
October, 1923, and a three weeks' service 
maintained. 

The British Trinity House authorities have 
decided to increase largely the power of the 
light at the famous Needles Lighthouse, 
built on the huge chalk rocks at the western 
extremity of the Isle of Wight. The pres- 
ent 35,000 candlepower tight is to be re- 
placed this month by one of 500,000 candle- 
power, to give greater penetrative effect 
during foggy weather. 

In 1914 there were 263 steam trawlers in 
the German fishing fleet. Of these only 82 
remained after the Armistice terms had been 
carried out. The surrendered vessels have 
been more than replaced by newly con- 
structed trawlers which are much better 
than the old time craft in use before the 
war. At the present time Germany's steam 
trawler fleet consists of 300 units. 

Spanish shipowners are complaining about 
the alleged indifference of the government 
in regard to the national mercantile marine 
and are demanding the introduction of meas- 
ures of protection. The government is now 
said to be studying ways and means for com- 
ing to the aid of the maritime industry. At 
the present moment 350,000 tons of shipping 
are laid up at Barcelona and Bilbao. 

The enormous drop in the price of ship- 
ping is shown by the experience of the War 
Convoy and War Chariot, good wartime 
ships built in the Coughlan yards in Van- 
couver. They cost $1,750,000 to build, and 
were offered for sale some time ago, but 
did not reach the upset price of $150,000. 
In 1908 a ship of about this size (5750 tons 
gross) and class had an average value of 
about $175,000 as against $1,250,000 in 1920. 

The Chungwha Navigation Company, Ltd., 
which operates the S. S. Hwaping between 
Hongkong and Callao, via Honolulu and 
Balboa, is said to be in the market for 
two additional vessels. The Hwaping is a 
former Austrian liner chartered from the 
Chinese government. She makes the run 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



across in 45 days. The company is capital- 
ized at $4,000,000 (Mex.). Both passengers 
and cargo are carried, there being a number 
of Chinese established in Peru. 

Among the ships delivered to the Allies 
under the terms of the peace treaty were 
a number of units belonging to owners 
domiciled in ports of South Jutland, which 
have since been ceded to Denmark. As the 
owners of these boats have now become 
Danes, representations have been made to 
the British committee for Maritime service in 
London with a view to obtaining compensa- 
tion for the tonnage surrendered, which is 
said to be worth one million gold marks 
($240,000). 

The Peruvian government is negotiating 
for the reconstruction and rearmament of 
the two cruisers Almirante Grau and Coronel 
Bolognesi, built in England about 15 years 
ago. They are to be reboilered, converted 
to oil-fuel burning and fitted with new gun 
barbettes. The contract will probably be 
placed in England, in spite of the fact that 
an American naval mission is now in charge 
of reorganizing the Peruvian navy. The 
Spanish government is also making inquiries 
in England at present for the construction 
of small naval units. 

The construction of sailing ships threatens 
to become a lost art on the Clyde. Of open- 
sea ships for propulsion by sails not one is 
now being built on the Clyde, states The 
Shipbuilder. No doubt vessels of any type 
can still be turned out on the river since 
there are plenty of men conversant with all 
kinds of work, but the fact remains that 
very little experience is being obtained in 
the building of wind-propelled craft apart 
from sailing yachts. There has not been one 
real sailing vessel on the stocks on the river 
for probably a score of years. 

The Cie Generale Transatlantique has in- 
augurated monthly sailings between Ham- 
burg and San Francisco via Panama Canal. 
The company also maintains a branch serv- 
ice between Memel and Havre for the trans- 
portation of Lithuanian emigrants to the Uni- 
ted States, in connection with the liners plying 
between Havre and New York. The serv- 
ice is maintained by the S. S. Pologne, 
3490 tons, carrying 700 passengers and 1000 



tons of cargo. Sailings are monthly. It is 
also reported that several English companies 
intend to call at Memel for passengers. 

Among recent arrivals in the Mersey was 
the Polish government's three-masted bark 
Lwow, laden with a cargo of timber. She 
carries a crew of 30 and has accommodations 
for 50 boys, who are to be trained as fu- 
ture officers of the Polish mercantile marine. 
The Lwow is of 963 tons and was built at 
Birkenhead in 1868 for the Brocklebank 
Line. Originally christened the Chinsura, 
she became later the property of a Rotter- 
dam firm and was renamed The Nest. The 
Polish government acquired her about a year 
ago and fitted her with two 180 h. p. motors. 

The Swedish shipping company Svenska 
Lloyd has made a second application to the 
government for a loan of 2,000,000 kr. out 
of the shipping fund created by the State 
to assist in the development of the merchant 
marine. The company points out that al- 
though it had a large income in the period 
when shipping freights were very high, it was 
insufficient to cover the cost of acquisition of 
many new ships, especially as since 1914 
the company has had to pay about 45,000,- 
000 kr. in tax^s. During this time the com- 
pany has not received any advance from 
the shipping loan fund. 

Before the war the I. A. Vinnen Co., of 
Bremen, was the largest sailing shipowner in 
Germany. After the armistice, however, all 
of its ships had to be surrendered, but the 
fleet is now being rebuilt. The company has 
ordered from the Germania yard, Kiel, six 
sailing vessels of 2,000 tons each, of which 
the first has just been delivered. The rigging 
is of unique character. Originally planned 
as a five-masted schooner, the vessel was 
finally given two masts for square sails, one 
forward and one aft, with a schooner mast 
between them ; this arrangement, it is claimed, 
enabling a better use to be made of the 
square sails in a following wind, and making 
it possible to carry a smaller crew. The 
crew of twenty-three consists of the master, 
two mates, two engineers, two assistants, one 
boatswain, one sailmaker, eight sailors, four 
boys, a cook and a steward. All the ships 
will be rigged on the same plan and each will 
have an auxiliary motor. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



LABOR NEWS 



Lawrence textile strike, which began last 
March, officially ended during the month. 
Fourteen thousand operators returned to 
work under the old wage. 

The Supreme Court of North Carolina, one 
of the states where little children are de- 
nied education and herded into cotton mills 
to sweat out profits for millionaires, has de- 
cided that "public schools are not a public 
necessity." 

Secretary Hoover claims the government 
has no power to keep coal prices down. Of 
course it hasn't. All the government can 
do is to keep down wages. For further in- 
formation consult the awards of the Rail- 
way Labor Board. 

Secretary Hoover of the Department of 
Commerce declared that one of the most 
vital issues before the people was the devel- 
opment of a plan whereby the voice of the 
public may be heard in conflicts between 
employer and employe. 

The American Federation of Labor dem- 
onstrated that it doesn't intend to play the 
part of a sheep and stupidly wait to be 
slaughtered, when it decided to establish a 
legal department in Washington and employ 
the best legal talent possible. 

The United Drug Company, of New York, 
reports a clear profit of $1,678,686 for the first 
six months of the present year. This is a 
gain of more than $500,000 over the same 
period last year, and is exclusive of all 
charges, including depreciation, taxes and 
doubtful accounts. 

As near as the average man can under- 
stand it, the United States Supreme Court 
believes Congress has the power to protect 
war babies like the dye interests, but pro- 
tecting children of the working class is an- 
other matter. It is unconstitutional to pro- 
tect the children ! 

President Gompers of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, speaking at a gathering 
of nearly 3000 in Philadelphia, declared that 
President Harding, while a member of the 
Senate, voted for compulsory labor and that 
now his administration, through the attorney 



general, is trying to force free men to work 
in spite of the conditions. "High finance 
and big business are making radicalism 
more radical," declared Mr. Gompers. 

The United States Sugar Association has 
furnished Congressman Longworth figures 
showing that beet sugar is the smallest crop 
grown in the United States. Even the pea- 
nut crop exceeds that of sugar, the associa- 
tion declares, yet the Fordney-McCumber 
tariff bill imposes an annual tax of nearly 
$200,000 upon sugar from outside the United 
States in order to protect the $175,000,000 
invested by domestic beet sugar interests. 

The National Personnel Association, in- 
augurating a move toward the study of the 
human factor in industry, as a means of 
promoting both social and economic prog- 
ress, has appointed a committee to make 
inquiries into various fields of industrial 
relations with the object of advancing the 
understanding of the principles, policies and 
methods of creating and maintaining satis- 
factory relations between commerce and in- 
dustry. 

Officers of the Brotherhood of Railway and 
Steamship Clerks say the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road refuses to discuss grievances and that 
the attitude of the management is one of 
"fight." It is stated that freight handlers 
are forced to work seven days a week and 
that the railroad still contracts some of its 
work. The unionists declare that this cor- 
poration is "out to smash all unions on that 
system and establish its own hand-picked 
company union." 

Bishop C. D. Williams of Detroit in a 
statement issued in Portland, Ore., at the 
annual Episcopal convention, declared that 
"the course that is being adopted toward 
labor is hastening a revolution. The Daugh- 
erty injunction is going to make things 
frightfully worse. Heretofore labor has been 
conservative, but if this goes on it will 
throw American labor into radicalism. Un- 
der the present system there is bound to be 
anarchy in the labor ranks." 

In its State platform the Democratic party 
of Kansas favors the repeal of Governor Al- 
len's "can't-strike" law and the passage of 
an act creating a board of conciliation and 
mediation. The party's candidate for gov- 
ernor is making the repeal of the Allen law 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



one of his campaign features. The candi- 
date of the Republican party favors the Al- 
len law. This wide divergence of opinion 
among the two leading political parties in- 
dicates how near Governor Allen and his 
defenders are right when they say the hand- 
cuff law is satisfactory to Kansas citizens. 

United States Senator Borah has notified 
colleagues on the Committee of Education 
and Labor that he will resign as chairman 
if it is to be controlled by hard-boiled cor- 
poration men and tories. The Idaho law- 
maker demands that this important com- 
mittee be liberalized. The committee is 
composed of the following Senators : Borah, 
Idaho, chairman ; Sterling, South Dakota ; 
Phipps, Colorado; Warren, Wyoming; Short- 
ridge, California; Du Pont, Delaware; Raw- 
son, Iowa; Jones, New Mexico; McKellar, 
Tennessee; Walsh, Massachusetts, and Cara- 
way, Arkansas. 

Normalcy in this country consists of 
1,500,000 persons seeking jobs and another 
1,500,000 idle through part-time employ- 
ment, according to Secretary of Labor Davis, 
who addressed the annual meeting of the 
International Association of Public Employ- 
ment Services. Mr. Davis assured the visi- 
tors that during the past year between 
3,000,000 and 4,000,000 workers have been 
returned to their employment. He said in- 
vestigation made during the past year has 
demonstrated that the 3,000,000 idle and 
part-time employment "is the normal con- 
dition in America." 

Local papers give prominence to a dispatch 
from Schenectady, N. Y., that the General 
Electric Company has paid a bonus, amount- 
ing to more than $1,000,000, to employes who 
have been in the company's service more 
than five years. The bonus represents 5 per 
cent of the earnings of the employes for the 
six months ended on June 30. The dispatch 
fails to state that the company's recent wage 
cuts average 25 per cent, and in some cases 
are 28 per cent. A terroristic policy has been 
maintained to drive employes out of their 
unions, and workers who have been in the 
company's service for 30 years have been 
discharged because they refused to give up 
their union cards. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



A settlement has been effected of the strike 
of dock workers and coal loaders at Marseil- 
les, France. 

The recently created Norwegian Arbitra- 
tion Court has ordered a reduction of 35 per 
cent in the wages paid seafarers from the 
basis of the 1920 scale. 

At Mukden the Chinese police have regis- 
tered the Russian unemployed, and the total 
reaches 14,000. The Chinese authorities 
propose to open a number of factories to 
engage these aliens. 

Among the regulations of the new Ger- 
man mining law, enacted by the Reichstag 
on July 17, 1922, is the provision for shorter 
hours for employes working underground in 
a temperature of more than 76 degrees Fahr- 
enheit. 

After more than three months' strike in 
the building trades in Antwerp there appear 
no signs of settlement. Many bricklayers, 
masons and plasterers have gone to the devas- 
tated regions of France, where reconstruc- 
tion is under way. 

Supported by the Swedish Union of Loco- 
motive Engineers, employes of the Rosta- 
gens private railroad are on strike. Wage 
increases demanded by the employes would 
augment running expenses by $2,681,000, it 
is alleged by the Railroad Employers' Union. 

Although the number of workmen em- 
ployed in the coal industry of Upper Silesia 
is about 50 per cent greater than in the 
pre-war period, the output is said to be 24.4 
per cent below that of 1914. Shorter shifts 
and the elimination of overtime are contrib- 
uting causes of the decreased output. 

For the four months ending July 31, 
1922, immigration to the Dominion of Can- 
ada has decreased 34 per cent, as compared 
with the same period in 1921. Arrivals from 
the United States totaled 10,449, as against 
14,219 last year. British arrivals fell off 
6,230 and those from all other countries, 
3077. 

Efforts toward conciliation in the strike 
of the metal workers at Havre, France, which 
were undertaken by the authorities of that 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



city, have proven futile. The strike has 
been on for two months and came about by 
a reduction of wages. The employers claim 
that stagnation in the shipbuilding industry 
necessitates reduction of expenses. 

The dockers of the Bristol Channel ports 
recently decided to boycott the Italian steam- 
ship Emmanuele Accame, because she was 
manned by Fascisti, the ultra-nationalists of 
Italy who are fighting the regular unions. It 
is stated that the Fascisti then notified the 
British unions that unless the boycott were 
called off, they would boycott British vessels 
in Italian ports. 

"The Welfare Courier," Manila, which has 
just appeared for the first time, is a mimeo- 
graphed bulletin published by the office of 
the public welfare commissioner, and in- 
tended "to carry helpful suggestions and en- 
couraging messages from welfare organiza- 
tions to one another." Its first number is 
devoted largely to news of puerieulture 
centers in the Philippines. 

A commssion for child welfare established 
by a recent decree of the Peruvian govern- 
ment is entrusted with the duty of protect- 
ing childhood in every possible way. Half of 
the 10 per cent tax on amusement tickets 
is appropriated for the work of the commis- 
sion, which has already proposed converting 
the exposition park into playgrounds for 
children and holding a national child-wel- 
fare congress. 

Dr. Royal Meeker, who used to be commis- 
sioner of labor statistics in the Department 
of Labor in America, is now chief of the re- 
search division of the International Labor Of- 
fice in Geneva. There are two other Americans 
with that organization, international experts 
in their fields. One is Leifur Magnussion, 
formerly of the Department of Labor, and 
the other is William Atherton Du Puy, 
American journalist. 

In spite of the depressed condition of the 
tin and rubber industries. 191,043 Chinese 
immigrants were listed in Singapore last 
year, an increase of 51.1 per cent over the 
previous year. However, 92,057 of these 
nationals returned to China during the same 
period. The balance of these immigrants 
was readily absorbed, it i^ said, on account 
of the vast number of East Indian laborers 



returning from this port to their own 
country. 

The total number of immigrants into Aus- 
tralia from 18f>l to 1920 was 1,015,066. Nearly 
half, or 499,682, went to New South Wales; 
nearly one-third, or 307,679, to Queensland, 
and 188,772 to Western Australia; 582,146 
were men and 432,920 women. If the net 
immigration is compared with the gain to 
the population by excess of births over 
deaths (3,251,668), it will be seen that no 
less than 23.8 per cent of the increase in 
population arose from immigration. 

According to the Berlin correspondent of 
the Scandinavian Shipping Gazette there 
has lately been a noticeable scarcity of la- 
borers at most of the German shipyards, a 
situation attributable partly to the attraction 
of higher wages in other industries and 
partly to the recent rapid development of 
the ship-building business. The wages in 
the yards engaged in the latter business are 
not included in the wage tariff ruling in the 
shipbuilding industry proper, with the conse- 
quence that the former establishments offer 
the inducement of high rates of pay in order 
to attract men, and so make it possible to 
take the utmost advantage of the boom 
which they are now experiencing. 

According to an article appearing in a 
recent publication of the International Labor 
Office, the minister of labor of Great Britain 
announced recently that the expenditures on 
the relief of unemployment since the armis- 
tice amounted to a total of 258,843,460 
pounds sterling, or approximately $1,300,- 
000,000. Of this amount 144,000,000 pounds 
sterling was expended for unemployment in- 
surance, etc., including out-of-work dona- 
tions to soldiers and civilians and to the 
unemployment benefits including depend- 
ents' grants. About 40,000,000 pounds ster- 
ling was expended for unemployment relief 
works, and included State loans, State subsi- 
dies and contributions of local authorities 
to relief works subsidized by the govern- 
ment. The balance of the grand total of 
expenditures was given out for settlement 
training, overseas settlement, land settlement 
for ex-service men, acceleration of govern- 
ment contracts, etc. 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



International Seafarers' Federation 



C. Damm, Sec'y, 9 Dubois St., Antwerp, Belgium 



AFFILIATED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL 
UNIONS 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

International Seamen's Union of America 

Thomas A. Hanson, Secretary-Treasurer 

355 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

[A complete list of the district unions and 
branches affiliated with the International Seamen's 
Union of America will be found on page 2.] 



BELGIUM 
Belgische Zeemandsbond (Belgian Seamen's Union) 
30 Brouwersvliet, Antwerp J. Chapelle, Sec'y 



DENMARK 

Dansk S6-Restaurations Forening (Danish Cooks 

and Stewards' Union) 

Lille Strandstrede 20, Copenhagen. .K. Spliid, Sec'y 
Somendenes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Seamen's 

Union) 
Toldbodgade 15, Copenhagen. .. .C. Borgland, Sec'y 
S6-Fyrbodernes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Fire- 
men's Union) 
Toldbodgade 13, Copenhagen. .. .E. Jacobsen, Sec'y 



FINLAND 

Finska Sjomans-och Eldare Unionen (Finnish 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Circusgatan 5, Helsingfors, Finland.. C. Ahonen, Sec. 



FRANCE 
Federation Nationale des Syndicats Maritimes de 

France (French Seamen's Union) 
4 Ave. de L'Opera, Paris. .Monsieur L. Reaud, Sec. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 
National Sailors & Firemen's Union of Great 
Britain and Ireland 
St. George's Hall, Westminster Bridge Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. 1. E. Cathery, Sec'y 
Hull Seamen's Union 

1 Railway St., Hull G. W. McKee, Sec'y 

United Kingdom Pilots' Association 
69 Queens Square, Bristol Joseph Brown, Sec'y 

GREECE 
Federation Panhellenique des Ouvriers Corpotations 

Maritimes (Greece Seamen's Federation) 
Le Pireaus, Greece T. Mallossis, Sec'y 

HOLLAND 

Zeelieden Vereeniging-Eendracht (Dutch Seamen's 

Union) 
Vestaland 22, Rotterdam D. L. Wolfson, Sec'y 



ITALY 

Federazione Nazionale di Lavatori de Mare (Italian 

Seamen's Federation) 
Piazza St., Larcellino, Genoa.. Capt. G. Gulietti, Sec. 



NORWAY 

Norsk Matros & Fyrboter-Union (Norwegian 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Grev Wedels Plads 5, Christiania. . A. Birkeland, Sec. 

Norsk Sjorestaurations Landsforbund (Norwegian 

Cooks & Stewards' Union) 
Gronlandsleret 5, Christiania. .H. Johannessen, Sec'y 



SWEDEN 

Svenska Sjomans Unionen (Swedish Sailors' 

Union) 

Fjerde Langgatan 25, Gothenburg. .E. Griph, Sec'y 

Svenska Eldare Unionen (Swedish Firemen's Union) 

Andra Langgatan 46, Gothenburg 

S. Lundgreen, Sec'y 

Nya Stewartsforeningen (New Swedish Stewards' 
Union) 

Stigsbergsgatan 12, Gothenburg 

C. Q. Johannsan, Sec'y 



International Seamen's Union 
of America 

(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Eox 875 

SAN PEDRO. Cal WILLIAM MEEHAN, Agent 

128% Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska p. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



75,000 Friends 

HTHIS bank, through its various departments and branches, serves 
more than 75,000 customers. These customers are our friends 
and it is our endeavor to render an efficient and complete banking 
service to them at all times. Qwe cordially welcome you to our 
ever-growing list of customers. One splendid way to become a 
depositor in this bank is to open a savings account. Savings 
accounts may be started with $1 or more and the same courteous 
friendly service is given to both small and large depositors. 

Anglo-CaliforniaTrust Col 



COMMERCIAL SAVTNCS TRUST BOND 



DEPARTMENTS 




Trhe CUy^Wide BankZ 

Market & Sansome Streets 
Sao Francisco 





A COPY OF AXTELL'S HAND BOOK, 

"Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen" 

WILL SAVE SEAMEN TIME, LITIGA- 
TION AND MONEY. WILL PREVENT 
MUCH INJUSTICE IF SHOWN TO 
OFFICERS AND CONSULAR AGENTS. 
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH 
A POUND OF CURE. 

You can also learn much about the 
political law making and law enforcing 
institutions of your country from this 
book; equal opportunity before the law 
is the essence of American democracy. 
Read this and find out what equal 
opportunity means. 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES PUB. CO. 

Iver Olbers, A. B., Sales Manager 
4 South St., 3rd floor, New York City 



SAILORS ! ATTENTION ! 
When in Eureka, drop in at — 

BENJAMIN'S 

The old reliable Clothier and Shoe Man 

Fourteen years of square dealing with Seamen 

325-329 Second Street, EUREKA, California 



SMOKERS 



See that this label (In light blue) appears on 
the box In which you are served 



5 St PI 1880 AJ^ 
Makers' Internal k 



Union of Amer 

Union-made Cigars. 

2fltjJ Gflliflrt. 1hrtth«Ci9W»co«l«iMdinthi»boxh»wb^m^«byirilSlClKWBllaa| 
~M9fR0f THf OCMMAMIO'lHURNATIOWl. UNION of Ammcj in oruiUMm devoted tl tfit a ' 

went of the NORAi mauriaum iNTliUClUAl WU'Aftl Of TMt OU/l Tavsftrua imeam 

i Cws to til ynoUr* Utrauahoot tht moni. 
MlNtiny— « a v¥* Uu uw «U 






fAnttHca 



&m&*ms*5&i,ym*J<g*tiy-<&*- 8^5 ssfig £■*■ <^ •. <c»*v.cj»i. ^"ii^m^s^»k^9^}ts^yMat' 



DEMAND THE UNION LABEL 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 

Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"If you want a becoming 
hat, be coming to ** 

Largest Exclusive Hatters in the West 
MAIN STORE 1082 MARKET 

26 THIRD 605 KEARNY 

3242 MISSION 2640 MISSION 

gAUo in Los Angeles 
cAgencies in other California Cities 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Meteorological. — First Gentle- 
man — Did you get home last night 
before the storm? 

Second Gentleman — That was 
when it started. — London Mail. 



Moonshine Visibility Test. — One 
moon — pretty good; two moons— 
the real stuff; no moon — wood al- 
cohol. — Life. 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



Standard Seamanship 

for the 

Merchant Service 

By FELIX RIESENBERG, E. C. 

Late Commander of. the schoolship "Newport" 



942 Pages and 625 Illustrations — Price, $7.50 
D. Van Nostrand Company, Publishers 



Containing virtually all the knowl- 
edge extant that conquers the sea 
through seamanship 



Descriptive Folder Mailed on Application 

SEND YOUR ORDERS TO 

THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

525 Market Street - - - San Francisco, Calif. 



Do You Want the Truth? 



This year there will be stirring 
times in the Nation. Under news 
censorship by the "interests" it is 
increasingly difficult for the aver- 
age man to get the real meaning 
of the social and political move- 
ments of the day. 

LaFollette's 
Magazine 

will be specially represented at 
Washington and will analyze and 
present the news from the capital 
truthfully and fairly. Senator La- 
Follette is making a real fight to 
life some of the tax. burdens from 
the common people and place them 
where they belong — on excess prof- 
its, war profits and surplus fortunes 
and incomes. 

Send in your order today 
$1.00 Per Year— Agents Wanted 
La Follette's Magazine, Madison, Wis. 



TACOMA, WASH. 



Seafaring Men ! 

When at 
TACOMA SMELTER (RUSTON) 

Visit 

WARD & GRUNDEN'S 

POOL HALL 

All Leading Brands of Cigars and 

Tobacco — Soft Drinks 

5811 North 51st St., corner Pearl St. 

(Close to Car Line) 



SEAMEN 



ATTENTION! 



When in TACOMA, Visit 

Brewer & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 
CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Sing Singers. — Teacher (to class 
in Natural History)— What kind 
of birds are frequently kept in 
captivity? 

Tommy — Jail birds. — Christian 
Sun. 



BEST SMOKE ON EARTH 

RED SEAL CIGAR 

UNION MADE 

RED SEAL CIGAR CO. 
Manufacturers 

762 Valencia St., San Francisco 
Phone Park 9401 



ABERDEEN, WASH, 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BEINDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

EVERYTHING GUARANTEED 

UNJON MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



Office Phone: Main 5190 
Residence Phone: Elliott 5825 



CAPT. T. E. MARSHALL 
CAPT. F. A. MARSHALL 



MARSHALL'S 

LIFE BOAT SCHOOL 

We Teach and Drill You in a Life Boat 
435 Globe Bldg., First and Madison SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1— Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 
Connection 
Jroadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



UNITED STATES 



L ABOR 

on«fonnoi.an«rL lr> 
'sconcededby ^' 
authontytobe^ 
grealestADVERnsmo 

> treach «th etn:l „,. 



pKESS 

j> ere a Community, 

£?BCIAl DEVELOPMENT . 

£iat>oi Paper publish d I 

I 

fototefe R n, "d 

EMPLOYEE ER,ind I 



ASSOCIATION 



NEW LOCATION 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, ' HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



^vw>, Guard Your Health 

- •** Be Sure To Use 




y 



CATARRH 
of BLADDER 



The HandyTrophvlactle Kit for Men 

PREVENTIVE 

Affords Utmost Protection 

Tube 85c. Kit (4 s) $1 

All Drunrrifiu or San-Y-Kit Co. 

92 Bggkman St.. New York 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 
For the BEST there is in TAILORING 

Less the Fancy Prices 
NOTE — S. G. Swanson is not con- 
nected with any dye works and has 
no solicitors. Clothes made also from 
your own cloth. Repairing, cleaning 
and pressing. Second floor. Bank of 
San Pedro, 110 W 6th St., San Pedro, 
Los Angeles Waterfront, Cal. 



Might Be Called Gossip. — Mrs. 
Jameson — Do you believe that 
awful story they tell about her? 

Mrs. Johnson — Of course I do! 
What is it? — Kasper (Stockholm). 



INFORMATION WANTED 



The crews of the Oregon and 
of the Edna will do well in cor- 
responding with me about their 
pay, which was cut off when the 
vessels were captured by the Eng- 
lish in 1916. S. T. Hogevoll, 909 
Pacific Building, San Francisco. 



Wanted information as to the 
whereabouts of James Dolan, who, 
in 1886, was coal passer on 
steamer George W. Elder. Com- 
municate with B. I. La Selle. 504 
Phelan Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 



SEAMEN 
You Know Me 




I am 
"YOUR HATTER" 

FRED AMMANN 

I sell 
UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



Navigation Laws of 
the United States 

The Seamen's Act -and all other 
features of the law applicable 
to seamen. 
Handbook, Navigation Laws of 

the United States 
Third edition. Including wage 
tables, department rulings, etc. 
Completely indexed. A ready 
reference work for practical sea- 
men, shipmasters and ship own- 
ers. Price $1.50. 

The Seaman's Contract 
A complete reprint of all laws 
relating to seamen as enacted 
by Congress, 1790-1918. Includ- 
ing the laws of Oleron and a 
summary of the history of each 
law. Reprinted verbatim from 
the Statutes at Large and Re- 
vised Statutes, Tables and In- 
dex. Designed for the use of 
admiralty lawyers. Price $4.00. 
Compiled by Walter Macarthur 
Published by 
JAMES H. BARRY CO. 
1122 Mission St., San Francisco 



Larger Exemption Helps. — "I 
wonder why Bill married." 

as to have some one t< 
help him live within his income: 
he couldn't do it alone." — Xn\ 
York Morning Telegraph. 



October, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



BOSS ™ TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Pfjj^yil Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



Statement of the Ownership, Manage- 
ment, Circulation, Etc., Required 
by the Act of Congress of 
August 24, 1912 
Of SEAMEN'S JOURNAL, published 
monthly at San Francisco, Calif., for 
October 1, 1922: 

State of California, City and County 
of San Francisco — ss. 

Before me, a Notary Public in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, 
personally appeared Paul Scharren- 
berg, who, having been duly sworn 
according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the editor and manager of 
the Seamen's Journal and that the 
following is, to the best of his knowl- 
edge and belief, a true statement of 
the ownership, management (and if 
a daily paper, the circulation), etc., 
of the aforesaid publication for the 
date shown in the above caption, re- 
quired by the Act of August 24, 1912, 
embodied in section 443, Postal Laws 
and Regulations, printed on the re- 
verse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses 
of the publisher, editor, managing 
editor, and business managers, are: 

Publisher: International Seamen's 
Union of America; editor, Paul Schar- 
renberg; managing editor, Paul Schar- | 
renberg, 525 Market St., San Fran- j 
Cisco, Calif. ; business managers, none. 

2. That the owner is (If the pub- 
lication is owned by an individual, his 
name and address, or if owned by 
more than one individual the name 
and address of each, should be given 
below; if the publication is owned by 
a corporation the name of the cor- 
poration and the names and addresses 
of the stockholders owning or holding 
one per cent or more of the total 
amount of stock should be given): 
International Seamen's Union of 
America, Andrew Furuseth, president, 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. ; 
Thos. A. Hanson, sec'y-treas., 355 N. 
Clark St., Chicago, 111. 

3. That the known bondholders, 
mortgagees, and other security hold- 
ers owning or holding 1 per cent or 
more of total amount of bonds, mort- 
gages, or other securities are (If there 
are none, so state): None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next 
above, giving the names of the own- 
ers, stockholders, and security hold- 
ers, if any, contain not only the list 
of stockholders and security holders 
as they appear upon the books of the 
company but also, in cases where the 
stockholder or security holder appears 
upon the books of the company as 
trustee or in any other fiduciary 
relation, the name of the person 
or corporation for whom such trustee 
is acting, is given; also that the said 
two paragraphs contain statements 



embracing affiant's full knowledge 
and belief as to the circumstances 
and conditions under which stock- 
holders and security holders who do 
not appear upon the books of the 
company as trustees, hold stock and 
securities in a capacity other than 
that of a bona fide owner; and this 
affiant has no reason to believe that 
any other person, association, or cor- 
poration has any interest direct or 
indirect in the said stock, bonds, or 
other securities than as so stated by 
him. 

5. That the average number of 
copies of each issue of this publica- 
tion sold or distributed, through the 
mails or otherwise, to paid subscrib- 
ers during the six months preceding 

the date shown above is (This 

information is required from daily 
publications only). 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 

Sworn to and subscribed before me 
this 22nd dav of September, 1922. 

ALFRED FUHRMAN, 
(Seal) Notary Public in and for the 
City and County of San Fran- 
cisco, State of California. 

(My commission expires December 
29, 1922.) 



TOM WILLIAMS 

UP-TO-DATE TAILOR 

Also Ready-to-Wear Clothes 

28 SACRAMENTO STREET 

Phone Douglas 4874 ban Francisco 



Phone Garfield 2457 

HOTEL EVANS 

ED COLL, Prop. 

LARGE SUNNY ROOMS 
Clean, Comfortable — Low Rates 

CORNER FRONT AND BROADWAY 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Kearny 3863 

JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 



Never Again. — A philanthropic 
lady visited an asylum not long 
ago and displayed great interest 
in the inmates. One old man par- 
ticularly gained her compassion. 
"And how long have you been 
here, my man?" she inquired. 

"Twelve years," was the answer. 

"Do they treat you well?" 

"Yes." 

After addressing a few more 
questions to him the visitor passed 
on. She noticed a smile broaden- 
ing on the face of her attendant, 
and, on asking the cause, heard 
with consternation that the old 
man was none other than the med- 
ical superintendent. She hurried 
back to make apologies. How suc- 
cessful she was may be gathered 
from these words: "I am sorry, 
doctor. I will never be governed 
by appearances again." 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing. All kinds of Watches and 
Jewelry 

676 THIRD STREET 

At 3rd and Townsend, San Francisco 

Phone Kearny 519 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 5348 



Phone Kearny 693 

Argonaut Outfitting 

Company 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING. FURNISHINGS, HATS, 
SHOES, ETC. 

A Complete Stock at Most Reasonable 
Prices : : : : Union Made Goods Only 

103 EAST ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



October, 1922 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
( any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
n the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION-MADE 



A complete line of seamen's shirts and 
garments of all kinds, union made right 
C l_| I D T C here in California, sold direct from factory 
to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 



and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 

Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Pier No. 1, Rooms 37-38-39 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



L The Popular Price Jewelry Store llf^x*" 

Sorensen Co. ' 



Watches 

Jewelry 

Silverware 

Clocks Cut Glass 

Optical Goods Umbrellas 



715 Market Street 



Third and Fourth 

Repairing Out 
Speci 




Telephone Sutter 5600 

A Good Place 
to Trade 

A Thoroughly 
Human Store 

Your Custom 
Cordially Invited 



MARKET AT FIFTH 
SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished — Hard wearing 

$QQ WORSTED 
OO SUITS 

- See Them in our Windows — 




85?-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 

SAVINGS BANK 



783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 




Official Organ of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^iioiiiiiiiiiiiuwuiiiiiioiimiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiim 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

Page 

A LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT 3 

SHIPPING PICKING UP 4 

UNION BUSTERS USE THE I. W. W 4 

EDITORIALS: 

WAGES VERSUS DIVIDENDS 6 

WOBBLIES IN OTHER LANDS 7 

TRADING BOOZE FOR SUBSIDY 7 

THE INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT 8 

SEAMEN'S COMPENSATION BILL 9 

STRIKEBREAKERS (As Others See Them) 9 

THE STRIKE ON THE GREAT LAKES 10 

THE COURTS AND THE PEOPLE 11 

NEW SWEDISH SEAMEN'S ACT 12 

MOTOR SHIP TONNAGE 13 

THE "NEW" DEMOCRACY 14 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 14 

THE COWARDLY QUITTER 15 

I. S. U. OF A. CONVENTION CALL 16 

PACIFIC COAST SALMON CATCH 16 

SEAMEN'S WAGES IN NORWAY 16 

THE NEW U. S. IMMIGRATION LAW 17 

THE COMING OF COAL 18 

PRICES IN MOSCOW •••■ 18 

"STANDARDS" 19 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 24, 25, 26 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 20, 21, 22, 23 



VOL. XXXVI, 
WHOLE No. 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce 

M Q 7 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

•nailing at special rate of postage provided 

1QDfi for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

±:,uu authorized September 7, 1918. 



.N FRANCISCO 
NOV. 1, 1922 



S?niiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiin uiiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiioiiri; 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. G. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRTOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

70 South Street 

BALTIMORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S. OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 

ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Phone John 0975 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa FAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

206 Moravian Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

S04 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex CHAS. W. HANSON, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va PETER McKILLOP, Agent 

513 East Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La THOMAS M1LLIGAN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 

NEW YORK, N- Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

111 South Street 

ATLANTIC CITY, N. J H. F. McGARRIGEL, Agent 

700 North Rhode Island Avenue 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE. Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y _ 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca 6048 

Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 
CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 
MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

Phone Dearborn 6413 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ASHTABULA, HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO, 111 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 Day Street 

TOLEDO, 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, N. Y 122% Main Street 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

BAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay 

<;r.<jRGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C P. HOCKADAY, 

135 Cordova Street, West 
P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, 

Central Labor Council. 1151% Broadway 
P. O. Box 102 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, 

51 North Union Avenue 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, 

P. O. Box 67 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, 

P. O. Box 314 



Street 



Agent 
Agent 

Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



A LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT 




N AMERICAN SHIP is American 
territory! So we are told by numer- 
ous editorial writers who have at- 
tempted to fathom the depths of the 
latest prohibition ruling in its appli- 
cation to American and foreign ships. To 
the uninitiated landsman with "dry" lean- 
ings, the latest prohibition ruling will appear 
perfectly sound and eminently just. Does 
not our learned Attorney General prove by 
numerous heavy and apt citations that a ship 
under our national ensign is constructively 
United States territory? He certainly does! 

But if an American ship is to be held 
American territory as far as booze is con- 
cerned, does it not follow as a logical sequence 
that the same legal construction should apply 
to the crew? 

Surely, this is a fair and reasonable con- 
tention. As a matter of fact, however, Ameri- 
can Courts have held the very opposite. In 
this respect Demon Rum appears to have 
superior rights over American seamen. 

Of course, the average newspaper editor is 
not aware of these perplexing ramifications 
in the case. Most American editors have 
been literally stuffed with ship subsidy propa- 
ganda. As a result, the impression has been 
created that American seamen are highly 
pampered by our navigation laws, that they 
are overfed and overpaid, so much so that the 
poor American ship operator needs a subsidy 
to enable him to compete with the low-wage, 
rice-eating coolie crews employed on other 
nations' vessel's. 

That all of these allegations are fiction is 
well-known to readers of the Journal. 

Andrew Furuseth, president of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, has hit 
upon a plan of getting some publicity for the 
cold and cruel facts in the case by address- 
ing a letter to the President of the United 
States, briefly reviewing existing conditions 
in relation to liquor, ship subsidy, and the 
present status of American seamen. 

Furuseth's letter follows in full : 
Dear Mr. President: 

According to the press, you have declared the 
intention of calling a special session of Congress 
for the purpose of having the Ship Subsidy Bill en- 
acted into law. In this connection 1 deem it my duty 
to call your attention to certain pertinent facts. 



The organized seamen of America, as you know, have 
not been able to see any merit in the pending Ship 
Subsidy Bill. We rejoice, however, in the present 
efforts of your administration to obtain a binding 
declaration from the Courts of our land that an 
American ship is American soil. Even though such 
a declaration will only be applicable to the liquor 
problem, we earnestly hope that some day in the 
near future your administration will initiate a move 
again declaring that the American ship is American 
soil, even as regards the crew. 

We feel that you scarcely realize the present 
deplorable position of American seamen in this re- 
spect. The workers ashore are protected by the 
Federal Contract Labor Law and the Chinese Ex- 
clusion Act, not to mention recent immigration 
restriction laws. American seamen enjoy no such 
protection. At the present time American vessels 
owned by the United States Government are to a 
large extent manned by Chinese, although compe- 
tent and qualified Americans are available. 

In the trans-Pacific trade the following Govern- 
ment-owned merchant vessels are partly manned by 
Chinese: President Cleveland, President Lincoln, 
President Taft, and President Wilson, sailing out of 
San Francisco; President Grant, President Jefferson, 
President Madison, President McKinley, and Presi- 
dent Jackson, sailing out of Seattle. The foregoing 
are passenger vessels. In addition, the following 
Government-owned freighters, sailing out of Seattle, 
are wholly or partly manned by Chinese: Wheat- 
land, Montana, Edmore, Pomona and Eldridge. 

The present tendency, particularly in Seattle, is to 
discharge still more Americans and substitute 
Orientals. No doubt you will be told that the 
Ship Subsidy Bill as reported aims to remedy this 
situation. A brief analysis of the reported Bill 
should prove to you that it expressly permits the 
employment of Chinese and other Orientals in the 
steward's department of each subsidized vessel. Of 
course, you will appreciate that the steward's de- 
partment in passenger vessels usually constitutes 
the majority of the vessel's crew. It has been 
claimed by spokesmen for the Shipping Board that 
Americans cannot be found to serve in the stew- 
ard's department of American ships. This is a 
claim based upon imagination only. Americans do 
not and will not shrink from any honest toil if con- 
ditions are tolerable. To be sure, the American 
boy has refused to work, eat and sleep with 
Chinese coolies, and this is exactly what certain 
shipowners and managers expect him to do. 

We have taken the liberty of submitting the 
foregoing facts for your consideration because we 
are convinced that you are desirous of laying the 
foundation for a real American merchant marine — 
the basis of genuine sea power for our country. 
We are convinced that the most liberal subsidizing 
will never create a genuine American merchant ma- 
rine. This can be done only by the development 
of a personnel at least of equal skill and efficiency 
with the personnel of any competing nation. We 
feel that highly trained, skilled and efficient Ameri- 
can crews are the essential factors to the future of 
our merchant marine. Yet the tendency for the 
past two years, at least, has been in the opposite 
direction. Men in high authority have made it their 
business to discourage efficiency, to mock at skill 
and to ridicule proper training of young native 
Americans. The inevitable result of such a policy 
spells failure for America's future upon the sea. 
Native and naturalized Americans who so gladly 
responded to the call of the sea issued by President 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



Wilson when the submarines were creating havoc 
in the north Atlantic have virtually all been driven 
into other occupations and the exodus still con- 
tinues. 

We call attention to this distressing state of af- 
fairs because the lessons of history upon that 
subject are exceptionally clear and emphatic. From 
the days of the Phoenecians and Tyrians mastery 
of the sea has been won and held by the nation 
which could furnish the greatest number of skilled 
and valorous seamen. No nation has ever devel- 
oped a sea power unless it furnished the seamen 
from its own population. No nation has long re- 
tained sea power after its men quit the sea. Ships 
alone have never won a battle and the fruits of 
naval victories are easily dissipated unless the 
victors are backed by a sufficiently numerous sea- 
faring population in their home land. For in the 
final analysis sea power is in the seamen. Vessels 
are but the seamen's tools. And tools have always 
belonged to the races or nations who can use them 
most effectively. 

Trusting that you will give the facts contained 
herein your earnest consideration and assuring you 
that my sole motive in writing is to co-operate 
with you for America's future upon the sea, I 
remain. 

Respectfully vours, 

ANDREW FURUSETII. 
President, International Seamen's Union 
of America. 
Hon. Warren G. Harding, 
President, United States of America, 
Washington, D. C. 



SHIPPING PICKING UP 

Foreign trade continues small in comparison 
with war and boom years, but considerably 

greater than the pre-war period. Post-war 
trade has not caught up with the enormous 
expansion of the merchant marine during the 
Avar; but a substantial decrease in idle ships is 
recorded since the beginning of the year. 

Exports and imports combined in the first 
eight months of 1922 total $3,300,000,000. The 
1920 figure was SO, 300.000,000 but the pre-war 
level was $2,500,000,000. 

August imports were the largest recorded 
for two years but this was due primarily to 
a wish to get shipments into the country be- 
fore tariff becomes effective. 

The American Steamship Owners Association 
reports that there has been an eight per cent 
decrease in privately owned tonnage idle since 
January 1. The Shipping Board's total idle 
tonnage has been reduced from 4,300,000 to 
3,977,000 tons. 



UNION BUSTERS USE I. W. W.! 

(By Basil M. Manly*; 

As a result of my personal experiences 

and investigations, I have become convinced 
that, during recent years, it has been a policy 
on the part of certain groups of employers 
to plant their provocatory agents in the form 
of detectives among the I. W. W., at leasl 
in some localities, and to use this weapon as 
an instrument in their campaign to smash 
labor unions and establish the open shop. 

I believe the T. W. W. was original] 
tablished by ardent revolutionists who be- 
lieved sincerely in industrial unionism, and 
had a firm conviction that the workers could 
take control of the industries by "organizing 
on the job." During this period the I. W. W. 
organizers, at great personal sacrifice, endan- 
gered their lives by working among the un- 
organized men in the lumber camps, the hop 
fields, and in other industries where working 
conditions were terrible and the employers 
were in autocratic control. As a result of 
their militant tactics, they undoubtedly im- 
proved wages and working conditions in 
many localities and aroused a spirit of revolt 
in workers who hacl hitherto been completely 
submerged. 

About the time of the war, however, a 
notable change began to take place. The 
I. W. W. organizers practically ceased their 
attempts to arouse the unorganized to a 
of their injustices, and began working pri- 
marily to disrupt existing labor organiza- 
tions. For some time I thought that the 
activities of the I. W. W. in attempting to 
create dissatisfaction within the existing labor 
organizations was due simply to a desire to 
spur the old-line trade unions to greater 
activity, and to convert their members to the 
philosophy of syndicalism. But I began to 
notice that, in a few cases in which the 
1. W. W. succeeded in getting control of an 
organization, they never attempted to accom- 
plish anything for the workers, nor did they 
attempt to use the militant and sensational 
tactics which had been so effective during 
the early days of the organization. 



In the contest for justice and humanity the 
trade union movement has a strong auxiliary 
in the union label, shop card, and working 
button. 



* Mr. Manly has many years of unusual i 
ence in planning and directing industrial inv< 
tions. He was one of the big nun who carried 
on the work of the United States Industrial 
lations Commission. During the war he w.< 
chairman of the National War Labor Board. 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



I could not help but suspect that there was 
a "nigger in the woodpile." But it was not 
until I was engaged in the investigation of 
the beef packers in Chicago, about January, 
1918, that I had any real evidence of the 
cause of this significant change in the tactics 
and methods of the I. W. W. My work in 
connection with the investigation of the 
packers made it necessary for me to spend a 
great deal of time in the offices of the Fed- 
eral District Attorney. Soon after the big 
raid on the I. W. W. headquarters, when 
the principal officers of the I. W. W. were 
seized, a request was made on the Federal 
authorities for the release of one of the most 
prominent of these officials, because he was 
a Burns detective in the pay of the Mer- 
chants and Manufacturers' Association of 
Minneapolis. I knew enough about the in- 
side workings of the I. W. W. to know that 
this particular I. W. W. official had been the 
leader in insisting on the destruction of exist- 
ing labor organizations. As soon as I found 
out who he was, it, of course, became clear 
at once that this propaganda which he had 
been carrying on was really being directed 
by the employers' association, and was the 
work of a traitor to the labor movement. 

A little later in the same year I was ap- 
pointed joint chairman of the War Labor 
Board. One of the cases which came before 
the Board was that of the employes of a 
California cotton mill, who protested against 
the unjust wages and working conditions im- 
posed by their employer, and asked for a 
substantial increase. The cotton mill owner 
replied that this was an I. W. W. plot to 
interfere with war production, and refused 
to take up the grievances cf his employes so 
long as they were under the leadership of a 
man who, he assured me, was an active I. 
AY. W. The War Labor Board sent an in- 
vestigator to California to make a thorough 
inquiry into the situation. This investigator 
wired back, asking the Board to secure per- 
mission for him to examine the files of local 
agents of the Department of Justice, so that 
he might discover, if possible, the real status 
of this alleged I. W. W. leader. This per- 
mission was secured for him with some diffi- 
culty, but he found, upon consulting the files, 
that this alleged I. W. W. leader was in 



reality a detective from one of the big New 
York agencies, and was actually in the pay of 
the cotton mill. It appeared, also, that while 
he had been acting as an alleged leader of these 
cotton mill workers, he had been even more 
active in stirring up dissension and discord 
among the labor organizations in that locality. 

About the same time the War Labor Board 
received a communication from the District 
Attorney of Montana, who has since become 
one of the leaders of the Non-partisan League 
of that State. He stated that, in the course 
of an investigation which he had been recently 
conducting, he had secured proof that a num- 
ber of I. W. W. leaders, who had been most 
active in bringing about the disruption of the 
Butte Miners' Union, had for a long time been 
on the payroll of the big copper companies. 
While pretending to be revolutionists, their real 
purpose had been to destroy this great union, 
which had for many years been regarded as the 
stronghold of organized labor. 

In 1921, I assisted Samuel Untermeyer of 
New York in that part of his investigation 
which dealt with the attempt of the National 
Erectors' Association, the bitterest anti-labor 
association in the United States, to destroy the 
Structural Iron Workers and to prevent a 
union iron worker from securing a job in the 
city of New York. When we finally succeeded, 
after a hard battle, in getting possession of 
some of the books of the National Erectors' 
Association, we found some strange items. 
Among others, we found records showing pay- 
ment of sums of money by the National Erec- 
tors' Association to the I. W. W. The officials 
of the National Erectors' Association were un- 
able to explain these items, but there is no 
doubt that they actually represented payments 
for work done to destroy the Structural Iron 
Workers' Union. 

I could give a number of other similar cases 
which have come to me from trustworthy 
sources, but these cases which I have enumer- 
ated above, which have come under my own 
direct personal observation in different parts of 
the country, are enough to convince me that 
the I. W. W. is today honey-combed with de- 
tectives and other agents of employers' asso- 
ciations who are using the rank and file of the 
I. W. W., not to improve working conditions, 
but to destroy the labor movement. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH. President 

A. F. of L,. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FT.YNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR. Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



*>© 



NOVEMBER 1, 1922 



WAGES vs. DIVIDENDS 



It's a dreary day on Wall Street, when the 
strips of tape that roll out of the tickers 
fail to announce another good, tat stock 
dividend. 

A new record was reached when the 
Standard Oil of New Jersey announced its 
intention to declare a 400 per cent stock 
dividend. 

During the month the Standard companies 
have declared other dividends, as follows: 
Standard Oil of New York, 200 per cent ; 
Standard Oil of California, 100 per cent. A 
100 per cent dividend is reported as pending 
from the Standard Oil of Indiana and 
Vacuum Oil is to declare a 200 per cent cut. 

These "stock" dividends involve millions 
and hundreds of millions — sums so big that 
common folks, not on the inside, are asking, 
"What's it all about, anyway?" 



Well, to put it bluntly, a stock dividend is 
nothing more than a clever piece of book- 
keeping to evade the income tax. It works 
somewhat like this : A given corporation has 
a total of $100,000 of common stock, on 
which it pays a dividend of 20 per cent, or 
$20,000 a year. Piled up in the bank it has 
surplus, or accumulated profits of $400,000. 
If this $400,000 were distributed as a bonus 
or ordinary dividend to stockholders, the 
Government would consider it taxable in- 
come. 

But the bookkeepers have found an easy 
way out. Instead of paying out the $400,000 
as cash dividends, a stock dividend of $400,000 
is declared. So the stockholders, formerly 
owning $100,000 of stock, now own $500,000. 
This hokus-pokus process is "lawful" be- 
cause an accommodating Supreme Court has 
ruled that a stock dividend is nut taxable as 
income. 

But this is not the worst part of the stock 
dividend scheme. In the future, this imagi- 
nary corporation will pay dividends on a 
capitalization of $500,000, instead of $100,000. 
Then, if objections are made to the high 
price of oil, the company can claim that its 
profits only provide a "fair return" for its 
capitalization. 

So much for dividends. I low about the 
wages paid to workers employed by these 
oil companies? Have the wages of workers 
who produce, refine, and transport oil, kept 
pace with the recorded phenomenal earnings 
of the companies? 

Oh, but that is another story altogether. 
Don't you know, you poor ignorant inquirer, 
that there has been a general nation-wide 
deflation of wages? Don't you realize that 
it was necessary, for the sake of national 
prosperity, to return to normalcy as rapidly 
as possible and reduec wages to the pre-war 
level? 

The oil workers, who are largely unorgan- 
ized, have had their wages cut several times 
since the war came to an end, and anyone 
employed in that industry who speaks of a 
"fair return" for labor is promptly branded 
an un-American demagogue. 

The seamen employed on oil-tankers, also 
partly unorganized, have been forced to ac- 
cept wage reductions, pay for overtime work- 
has been abolished, and their working condi 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



tions, in general, have been made more 
oppressive and onerous. 

A representative of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America recently called on 
the manager of the Marine Department of 
the Standard Oil Company of California, with 
a view of remedying matters. The worthy 
manager, however, was not disposed to listen 
to any union agitator. In fact, this gentle- 
man allowed that there was no need for a 
union of seamen, that he himself could and 
would do more for the seamen employed on 
Standard Oil tankers than any union. The 
manager in question is said to receive a sal- 
ary of $25,000 per annum, yet he was one 
of those who shrieked from the house-tops 
that a wage of $90 per month for an able 
seaman was indefensible, outrageous, etc. 
And the same gentleman is the spokesman 
for a corporation that is distributing a 100 
per cent stock dividend ! 

Truly, the contrast between wages and 
dividends is appalling. 

But what is the remedy? There may be 
certain short cuts, but none of these have 
stood the acid test in practical application. 

Collective self-help, or organization on the 
part of the workers, is the only remedy that 
has so far brought real, tangible results. 
Just as long as Standard Oil employes re- 
main unorganized, just as long as they are 
disposed to agree with the $25,000 a year 
manager, just so long will conditions gravi- 
tate from bad to worse. 

There is no help on earth for those who 
refuse to help themselves. Unionism is self- 
help! 



WOBBLIES IN OTHER LANDS 



The current issue of the New Zealand 
Transport Worker, official organ of the Fed- 
erated Waterside Workers, Seamen, Tram- 
waymen, and Drivers of New Zealand, con- 
tains some interesting information about 
recent performances of New Zealand wobblies. 

The Seamen's Union of New Zealand got 
'into a scrap with the Marine Department of 
the New Zealand Government recently re- 
garding proposed wage reductions on certain 
Government-owned vessels. 

While the fight was on a number of New 
Zealand wobblies and ex-solidarity shouters 



promptly went scabbing. Of course, there 

is nothing unusual about this performance. 

The self-styled radicals of New Zealand are 

merely running true to form. However, our 

contemporary's comment is worthy of note : 

Some of the men who joined the vessel were mem- 
bers of other organizations, and it is to be hoped 
that they realize that they are assisting the Govern- 
ment to ignore industrial unions and also assisting 
the Government in its wage-slashing campaign, and 
also assisting to beat the unionist who still has 
the courage to put up a fight when his conditions 
are attacked. Two or three of these individuals 
could not get a handkerchief red enough to wipe 
their nose on when times were good along the 
waterfront; they were past masters in giving advice 
on job action; they were often ready with super- 
fluous advice as to how other unions should be 
run; they were the quintessence of industrial union- 
ism; they were always ready with advice about the 
education of the uneducated unionist — in fact, they 
were "it" when times were good. They are some 
job actionists now! 

How perfect this description fits some of 
the wonder workers who "functioned" in the 
American Seamen's unions not very long ago ! 
It is a genuine word picture of the contemp- 
tible creatures who foment strife and discord 
within the unions when times are good — but 
grasp at the first opportunity to go scabbing 
when jobs are scarce. 



TRADING BOOZE FOR SUBSIDY 



Trading booze for ship subsidy. That's 
the latest slogan at Washington. The Ad- 
ministration wants to put over the big sub- 
sidy bill, and it has not had the votes. It 
is hinted that a change is likely to take 
place — that is if the Anti-Saloon League 
really can deliver the "dry" Congressmen. 

To be sure, it took the Attorney-General 
a long time to decide whether or not it was 
unlawful to sell intoxicating liquors on ships 
under American registry. But he has finally 
concluded that it is unlawful. 

American ship owners declare that they 
cannot compete with foreign ships unless 
they are permitted to furnish passengers 
with intoxicating liquors. That is what they 
have claimed all along, but they are not so 
despondent over the Daugherty ruling now 
as they formerly were. A new hope has 
come to them. The astute politicians who 
direct the affairs of the Anti-Saloon League, 
according to news reports, will throw their 
support to the iniquitous Ship Subsidy bill 
in return for the order banishing rum from 



s 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



American ships. That's real log-rolling. It 
is a mixture of a little purity with a good 
bit of wickedness. If it were a personal trade 
it would not be countenanced by Christian 
gentlemen. 

The Anti-Saloon League, possessed of but 
one idea and running on a single track, has 
shown a disposition to train with the forces 
of greed and plunder to maintain its power 
and strength at Washington. It joined with 
Wall Street in the fight on La Follette in 
Wisconsin. It has never co-operated with 
the progressives at the nation's capital in 
efforts to bring material relief to the people 
by the passage of helpful social legislation, 
to the contrary, their idol — Mr. Volstead — 
voted to re-establish the twelve-hour work- 
day for marine firemen on the Great Lakes. 
This, and similar incidents, lend color to the 
charge that the Anti-Saloon League gets the 
greater portion of its revenue from the forces 
that are fleecing the masses. Such a partner- 
ship is a menace to the people, and in the 
end it will be bad for prohibition. 

The organized prohibitionists are today in 
relatively the same position as the liquor in- 
terests were before the days of prohibition. 
They bartered and traded with the special 
interests to save their business. A substantial 
number of American people who were not 
prohibitionists voted against the saloon in the 
hope that it would remove the liquor inter- 
ests from politics and thus make it easier to 
enact popular legislation. Since prohibition 
it seems more difficult than ever to get a 
popular bill through Congress. Indeed, in 
many respects, the situation is less favorable 
than formerly. Reaction is more marked and 
the forces of privilege are more brazen and 
bold. It is not the fault of prohibition so 
much as it is of the unholy alliance the 
Anti-Saloon League seems to have made 
with the forces of greed and plunder. But 
we shall wait and see — and watch the votes 
of the statesmen who are so dry that every 
noble principle in their bosom has long since 
withered, shriveled, and died! 



THE 1XTKRNATIONAL MOVEMENT 



In proportion as the workers help them- 
selves by the power of trade unionism there 
is the less need of help from the law-making 
powers and the less disappointment because 
of failure on the part of the latter. 



The impression has been created that inter- 
national trade unionism received a severe jolt 
during the war. There is some truth in the 
claim that the international movement re- 
ceived a setback, but it was only of a tem- 
porary nature and the "come-back" has been 
truly phenomenal. 

The International Federation of Trade 
Unions in its present form was founded at 
the International Trades Union Congress held 
at Amsterdam from July 28 to August 2, 
1919. The conference which immediately pre- 
ceded the general congress liquidated the old 
Trade Union International, which had main- 
tained international relations between the 
national centers of trade unions since 1903. 
Primarily as an International Secretariat, but 
since 1913 as the "International Federation of 
Trade Unions/' this body performed the pio- 
neer work of compiling international trade 
union statistics on uniform lines, and also of 
systematically collecting and publishing infor- 
mation regarding the international trade union 
movement in the principal languages. 

The growth of the international trade union 
movement in the pre-war period and the ex- 
traordinary recovery of the movement in re- 
cent years is shown herewith : 

Prc-War Period 
Year Membership 

1904 2,378,975 

1905 • • 2,849,680 

1906 3,706,425 

1907 • • 4,079,805 

1908 4,313,516 

1909 •••... 5,859,257 

1910 6,121,711 

1911 6,900,995 

1912 7,394,461 

Post-War Period 

1919 17,633,000 

1920 23.662.om 

1921 23.907.Ooi) 

There can be no question that the trials and 
tribulations of the post-war period have 
greatly strengthened the position of the trade 
unions in economic life. The recognition of 
the trade unions as the accredited representa- 
tives of the economic interests of the workers, 
the joint industrial councils (Germany, Greal 
Britain, etc.), and the introduction of lawful 
representation of working people in the man- 
agement of industrial undertakings (Germany, 
Austria, etc.)— are all signs of a chanj 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



the balance of power in favor of the workers. 
And if any one does not have faith in "signs" 
the membership statistics on international 
unionism presented herein ought to be quite 
sufficient to convince even a doubting Thomas 
that progress is being made. 



SEAMEN'S COMPENSATION BILL 



The recent enactment of the Longshore- 
men's Compensation bill ought to clear the 
way for early action on the Federal Seamen's 
Compensation bill, introduced by Senator 
Hiram W. Johnson of California. 

There is one feature of the Johnson Com- 
pensation bill that ought to have special 
attention at once. A compensation bill that 
covers only "accidents" will hardly meet the 
demand of the times. To make the measure 
acceptable, occupational diseases ought to be 
specifically included. To illustrate this point 
attention is directed to the "Return of Deaths 
of Seamen," issued by the Registrar-General 
of Shipping and Seamen. An examination of 
these returns shows the number and causes 
of deaths among British seamen for the 
period May, 1921, to April, 1922, as follows: 

Drowning 517 

Accident 131 

Heart disease 133 

Pneumonia 128 

Malaria 48 

Tuberculosis 47 

Dysentery 32 

Typhoid fever 20 

Hemorrhage 20 

Enteric fever 19 

Heat stroke 18 

Phthisis 17 

Syncope 16 

Peritonitis 14 

Cardiac failure 14 

Bronchitis 14 

Beri beri 13 

Influenza 12 

Consumption 11 

Appendicitis 10 

Bowel trouble 10 

Miscellaneous (including 76 separate diseases) . 197 

Total 1421 

Eliminating the cases of drowning and 
accident, there remain 773 cases of sickness, 
or more than one-half of the total. Assuming 
the average rate of mortality to be 25 per 
cent of the persons afflicted with a given 
sickness, it is necessary to multiply the 
above figures by four — i. e., 773 x4 = 3092. 
Comparing the latter figure with the total 



mortality from drowning and accident, it ap- 
pears that cases of sickness exceed those of 
accident by nearly four to one. It is quite 
apparent that a system of compensation 
limited to cases of accident would leave out 
of account by far the larger number of 
sufferers. 

A careful analysis of the figures quoted 
will show that many of the cases were in the 
nature of "occupational diseases," and there- 
fore rightly entitled to be classed as acci- 
dents for the purposes of a compensation 
law. 

Similar figures for the American merchant 
marine are not available, but the general rates 
of accidents and occupational diseases are 
doubtless about the same as in the British 
merchant marine; therefore, the urgent need 
for a more liberal definition of the word 
"injury" as it appears in the Johnson Sea- 
men's Compensation bill. 



STRIKEBREAKERS 



Strikebreakers and their characteristics are 
ably described in an article by Whiting Will- 
iams published in Collier's for October 21, 
1922. Mr. Williams, who has been writing a 
series of articles on the railroad strike, is 
well-known as a student of labor problems. 
In addition to his lecture work, Mr. Williams 
was director of personnel and vice-president 
of the Hydraulic Steel Company in 1919 and 
1920, and since 1920 (to gain actual expe- 
rience) has been working as a laborer in the 
coal mines and on the railroads. During 
the recent railroad strike he served both as 
striker and strikebreaker. He finds three 
classes of workers acting as strikebreakers. 
The majority of strikebreakers, according to 
Mr. Williams, are drifters and loafers, scaven- 
gers of society, who work only long enough 
to earn a small stake and transportation to 
some other part of the country, their philoso- 
phy being that anywhere is better than here. 
These, together with the second class, who 
are professional strikebreakers, constituted a 
menace to public safety during the just 
settled strike. Neither the drifters nor the 
professional strikebreakers are skilled or 
trained men, nor do they take the slightest 
interest in their work. Of them Mr. Williams 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



says: "Most of these men were as far as it 
is possible to conceive from possessing any 
degree of either skill or responsibility. Ex- 
cept possibly during the war, unskilled, semi- 
skilled, and unattached (not to say floating) 
labor has never had such a joy ride as this 
strike gave it. Even during the war the 
average employer could not be as free with 
transportation as are the railroad employers." 

The third class Mr. Williams calls "strike- 
breaking strikers" — the men who are striking 
in one community and breaking a strike in 
another place. They give as their excuse the 
necessity of earning support for wives and 
families. Yet, despite the strength of this 
argument, they actually do more harm to the 
cause of the strikers than any other class and 
very frequently prolong strikes. Mr. Will- 
iams found that these merr, though compara- 
tively few in number, usually possess skill 
and training for their work, and really did 
most of the work in the shops. 

Mr. Williams laughs at the argument put 
forth by so many railroad executives that it 
was unfair to restore seniority to the striking 
employes whose places had been rilled by 
what these executives described as "loyal and 
hard-working laborers." Of all the strike- 
breakers whose rights the railroad executives 
were so amazingly anxious to protect, Mr. 
Williams believes that 80 per cent will "lin- 
ger only a few days on the railroad after 
they are deprived of the special 'war-time' 
advantages of much overtime with free board, 
room, and transportation. Most of them, 
furthermore, have not the ability to earn the 
pay they can get under the stress of strike 
labor shortage." Most of the other 20 per 
cent, we can assume, will return to their 
own work, leaving the field entirely clear for 
the return of the striking employes. 



THE STRIKE ON THE GREAT LAKES 



America went to war in 1812 because the 
British searched our ships for sailors. Now, 
110 years later, our unbalanced prohibition 
fanatics insist upon searching British ships 
for booze. 



Since the strike was called on October 
1, four vessels have collided in Lake Erie 
section, according to K. B. Nolan, Secretary 
of the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes. 
"These ships," declared Mr. Nolan, "were 
manned by crews hired by members of the 
Lake Carriers Association and by the Steel 
Corporation, which dictates the policy of the 
association." 

Reports from various ports on the Lakes 
indicate that many boats are departing under- 
manned and in violation of the Federal law. 
Complaints have been filed with the col- 
lector of customs, but without any results. 

Reports from the Soo indicate that there 
is a falling off in vessel passages up and 
down the locks. In many instances boats are 
operating without deck crews. 

Lower Lakes reports indicate that the 
strike is more effective than the carriers are 
willing to concede. The only issue involved 
is the eight-hour day. All seamen, except 
the deck crews, are employed on the eight- 
hour basis of three watches. They merely 
ask that the eight-hour day be made general 
on all Lakes ships for all men on board and 
without discrimination. 



Labor unions are here because they are 
an absolute necessity when it comes to pro- 
tecting and advancing the interests of the 
workers. 



Robert Dollar is at it again. The old 
gentleman who achieved international fame 
some years ago by asserting his right to 
import Chinese coolies for the purpose of 
manning American ships in American ports, 
is again incoherently babbling about the La 
Follette Seamen's bill. In a lengthy arti- 
cle, published in World's Work, under Mr. 
Dollar's name, we find most of the same old 
half-truths and untruths that have been told 
about American shipping ever since the la- 
bor crushes of the Dollar type were defeated 
in Congress during the early part of 1915. 
It is a waste of time to reply to Mr. Dol- 
lar's strange vagaries. But let us hope that 
he will some day tell us about his rich ad- 
ventures in importing Chinese coolies. For, 
strange as it may seem to the uninitiated. 
Mr. Dollar has never in his life given em- 
ployment to an American seaman as long as 
a Chinaman could be found to take the job. 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



THE COURTS AND THE PEOPLE 

(By Victor A. Olander) 



When that greatest of American statesmen, 
Thomas Jefferson, author of the immortal 
Declaration of Independence, uttered his pro- 
phetic warning against usurpation of power 
by the judiciary, he foresaw and practically 
foretold a very dangerous development in 
American history which did not become 
apparent until about thirty years ago. ''It 
has long been my opinion, and I have never 
shrunk from its expression," said Jefferson, 
"that the germ of dissolution of our Federal 
Government is in the judiciary — the irrespon- 
sible body working like gravity, by day and 
by night, gaining a little today and gaining 
a little tomorrow, and advancing its noiseless 
step like a thief over the field of jurisdiction 
until all shall be usurped." From the pages 
of history and his observations of the Colonial 
Courts exercising the arbitrary power of the 
king, he gleaned the lesson which enabled him 
to warn the people against the danger that 
lurked in their midst, hidden under the ermine 
of the judge. Irresponsible authority and 
power, though not granted to the Courts by 
the people, still remained within reach of the 
judges and Jefferson knew, as history pro- 
claims, that they would be unable to resist the 
temptation to "stealthily" advance their juris- 
diction and, "like a thief," usurp powers until 
in time they would be able to proclaim them- 
selves as the supreme rulers of the people. 

There are but two forms of government 
exercised by the human race — government by 
law, expressing the will of the people, and 
personal government, under which the people 
are forced to submit to pioclamations and 
orders arbitrarily issued by persons occupying 
high governmental positions. The encroach- 
ment of personal government upon govern- 
ment by law has always been made upon the 
hypocritical plea that the exercise of increased 
discretionary power by governing officials is 
necessary for the protection of the people. 
The first step is always made where it will 
attract least attention and is therefore directed 
against the poor and lowly. Thus it is in 
America today. Personal government reared 
its ugly head against government by law in 
our great country thirty years ago when the 



kingly power to issue proclamations against 
the people was revived in the form of an 
injunction or so-called restraining order, pro- 
claimed against a group of workers for the 
alleged purpose of maintaining the peace. 

Equity jurisdiction administered in chan- 
cery — which had been limited to the field of 
property and tangible property rights, in 
cases where the law provided no remedy, 
was extended into the domain of personal 
relations and personal rights, in utter dis- 
regard of the law. Freedom of speech, the 
liberty of the press and the right of assem- 
blage were arbitrarily denied by judicial proc- 
lamations. Men and women were subjected 
to imprisonment without trial by jury for 
alleged violation of those judicial orders. 
The practice grew steadily and today it has 
reached proportions challenging the very ex- 
istence of government by law. The king and 
his chancellor — in whose name the injunc- 
tion judge "sitting in chancery" now acts — 
has again asserted irresponsible authority in 
the persons of Federal and State judges sup- 
ported by the aristocracy of today, that is to 
say, by the financial magnates of our land 
and their hirelings. 

As in past centuries, so today. The usurp- 
ers are calling upon the legislatures to give 
legal sanction to their usurpations. Having 
first restricted the right of working people 
to go on strike for improved conditions of 
work and wages by issuing arbitrary procla- 
mations in the form of injunctions, the usurp- 
ers are now calling upon the legislatures to 
enact anti-strike laws and to establish highly 
centralized State police systems, justifying 
their demands by arguing that such proce- 
dure is necessary in the interests of the 
people. It is well now that we should recall 
the words of the famous British statesman, 
Pitt, who said, "Necessity is the argument 
of tyrants and the creed of slaves." That is 
simply another way of saying that nothing 
can be so essential as to warrant slavery. 
Let it be made clear to all that the use of 
the injunction process as a means of regu- 
lating or restricting personal relations or per- 
sonal rights leads to the loss of freedom 
among the people and to the establishment 
of serfdom and finally to abject and complete 
slavery. 

In order to obtain jurisdiction over the 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November. 1922 



rights and liberties of the people, the courts, 
moving first against the workers, have 
already declared that "labor is property." 
Labor is inseparable from the individual 
laborer in whom it is inherent as an attribute 
of his life. Property is interchangeable in 
its ownership. Therefore, if one man may 
have a property right in the labor of another, 
it follows that he has a property right in 
the man — the laborer. The usurpers are now 
defending themselves against the charge that 
they are violating the Constitution by claim- 
ing that they do not restrict the freedom of 
the individual in that they issue their procla- 
mations only to prevent group action. They 
make the absurd, illogical and unreasonable 
claim that it is possible to restrict freedom 
of action on the part of a group of citizens 
without restricting the individual members of 
that group. 

Until recent months this irresponsible 
power was directed solely against the work- 
ing people. In all injunction cases involv- 
ing labor disputes the complainant's chair 
was reserved for the employer and labor 
always appeared as the defendant. Lately, 
some judges have used the power against 
employers without relinquishing its exercise 
against the workers. It has also been di- 
rected against the executive department of 
the government and, indirectly, even against 
the legislative department. The "germ of 
dissolution" against which Jefferson warned 
the American people has now multiplied itself 
many thousandfold. 

The judicial usurpers are gnawing at the 
very heart of our republic. America must 
awaken to its danger. Labor must sound a 
warning everywhere throughout the length 
and breadth of our land. America will 
awaken. The common people, the workers 
of our nation and their children, who are still 
taught to recite the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence in the public schools of the land, will 
not permit the nation to forget that the cor- 
nerstone of our republic is that glorious 
proclamation which announced to the world 
that our government is based upon the 
equality of man as a creature of God, en- 
- lowed with inherent and inalienable rights. 
Government by law must and will be re- 
stored within our borders. Personal govern- 
ment — the discretionary exercise of practi- 



cally unlimited power by the judiciary — will 
not be permitted to overwhelm us. The mar- 
tyred Lincoln uttered a great truism when 
he said, "No man is good enough to govern 
another man, without that other's consent." 
He, too, warned against usurpation of power. 
Jt is our solemn duty to echo the warning 
again and again. Let us not forget. 



NEW SWEDISH SEAMEN'S ACT 



A new Seamen's Act has passed both Cham- 
bers of the Swedish Riksdag and is to come 
into force on January 1. 1923. The new Act 
abstracts from the Maritime Code the sections 
dealing with crews and the masters' contract 
and relations with the crew. 

In various respects the strict tic- binding 
the seamen to the ship have been relaxed. A 
seaman, if of Swedish nationality and er. 
in Sweden, may give notice in a Swedish port, 
but otherwise in any port, the period of no- 
tice being seven days for the crew and a 
month for officers. A seaman is further en- 
titled to give notice in any port if he has 
completed a year's service on the vessel (a 
year and a half in the case of sailing v< 
Formerly he could only leave after two or 
three years' service. A seaman is bound to 
remain on duty at most two days — in the 
of sailing vessels four days — after arrival in 
port, instead of seven days as provided in 
the Maritime Code. 

The right of the seaman to quit his job has 
been extended to cases when he is promoted 
to mate or engineer or when there is a dan- 
gerous epidemic in the port of destination, or 
when after his engagement circumstances 
arise that make it a question of his welfare to 
leave the service. A seaman who has been 
engaged for a definite voyage may quit if the 
route is changed in any important degree. In 
the event of the expiry of the contract owing 
to shipwreck, etc., both master and crew are 
entitled to pay during the journey home and 
to compensation for lost property, in addition 
to the free passage as under the Maritime 
Code. 

The master's right to dismiss seamen has 
been limited and certain reasons enumerated 
in the Maritime Code, such as postponement 
or interruption of a voyage due to war. block- 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



ade, embargo, etc., are no longer accepted as 
legitimate reasons for dismissal of the master 
or crew. If discharged on account of illness 
a seaman is entitled to one month's pay, an 
officer to two month's pay and a master to 
three month's pay. If a seaman is discharged 
without legitimate cause he is entitled to full 
compensation, and not merely to a certain 
fixed indemnity. 

Under the new Act pay is due until and 
including the day of discharge. For purposes 
of calculating pay over a portion of a month 
the month is taken to consist of thirty days. 
If payment is made in foreign currency the 
current bank rate of exchange must be used. 
The State is responsible for pay sent home 
through the medium of a consul. Seamen are 
empowered to have their pay remitted by 
means of money orders to relatives at home 
or other persons, or else deposited in a 
Swedish bank. The right to withhold pay 
has been limited and not more than a fort- 
night's pay may be withheld. A seamen who 
is engaged at a given rate of remuneration 
for the voyage must receive additional pay if 
the voyage is extended. 

Both masters and seamen are entitled to 
free medical treatment for six or twelve 
weeks, according as it is given in Sweden or 
abroad. The cost of treatment abroad of 
persons suffering from venereal disease must 
be defrayed out of State funds. The ship- 
owner's obligation to pay funeral expenses 
has been extended to cover masters and now 
applies to cases of death after discharge but 
while still under treatment at the shipowner's 
expense as well as to cases of death while 
on duty. 

The general status of the seaman has been 
improved in many respects. Regulations con- 
cerning desertion or intended desertion are 
less stringent than formerly. The disciplinary 
powers of the master are reduced under the 
new Act, and the maximum punishments 
which may be inflicted have been made less 
severe. — From Sociala Meddelanden, No. 5, 
1922. 



MOTOR SHIP TONNAGE 



About the only argument (?) left the non- 
unionist is that of the fox who had lost his 
brush, to-wit, that brushes are altogether too 
common. 



In spite of the severe' shipping depression, 
motor ship tonnage (full-powered ships, 2000 
gross tons or over) increased 37 per cent in 
the year ended June 30, 1922, as against a 
gain of only 4 per cent for steam tonnage 
exclusive of motor ships. On June 30, 1921, 
there were 145 motor ships of 2000 gross tons 
or over, aggregating 692,000 gross tons ; on 
the same date this year there were 186, total- 
ing 946,000 tons. 

The United Kingdom continues to lead 
with 336,000 tons — an increase of 24 per 
"cent. Sweden registered a large percentage 
gain, but continues in third place. Norway 
has displaced the United States as fourth on 
the list. Germany, which did not have enough 
motor ship tonnage to appear separately in 
the list last year, has this year seven Diesel- 
engined vessels, aggregating 32,083 tons. 
Danzig has two ships aggregating 12,087 
tons; one of these is the Zoppot, of 9932 tons 
— one of the largest tankers in the world. 

Tonnage of motor ships over 2,000 gross tons each, 
on June 30. 

1920 1921 1922 

Num- Gross Num- Gross Num- Gross 
Countries. ber. tons. ber. tons. ber. tons. 

United Kingdom 19 108,713 34 217,104 52 335,766 

Denmark 16 93,295 21 121,580 22 129,507 

Sweden 14 63,951 20 91,681 27 123,753 

Norway 19 68,750 21 85,032 27 120,442 

United States... 22 59,807 28 86,457 30 101,672 

Italy 5 24,102 6 26,449 7 36,476 

Other 12 43,071 15 63,467 21 98,325 

Total 107 461,689 145 691,770 186 945,941 

The above totals are for deep water ships. 
In addition to these, there were 605 vessels 
under 2000 tons each, aggregating 234,325 
tons, which were equipped with Diesel en- 
gines. Last year, on the same date, there 
were 553 vessels of this kind, totaling 216,- 
110 tons. 

Sailing ships with auxiliary Diesel-engine 
power have increased from 45 ships, totaling 
13,000 tons on June 30, 1915, to 777, of 
342,530 tons in 1921, and to 870, of 353,181 
tons in 1922. The United States holds the 
lead in this kind of tonnage, with 54 ships, 
aggregating 50,957 tons. 

The union label signifies the application in 
industrial life of those rules which every 
good citizen applies in individual life. 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL November, 1922 

THE "NEW" DEMOCRACY CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



On the Fish River in the territory that 
used to be German Southwest Africa lives a 
tribe of Hottentots called Bondels. After the 
war these people, along with the rest of the 
inhabitants of the district, were mandated to 
the British Empire and put under the direct 
control of the Union of South Africa. (The 
Germans, it will be recalled, were said to 
have treated the natives harshly and alien- 
ated their affections in pre-war years.) The 
Bondels, it seems, own dogs which they use 
not only for herding their flocks, but for 
hunting game. Their new British protectors 
saw that by the aid of their dogs the Bondels 
were able to sustain life with little labor. 
They established a dog tax, rising in amount 
to £10 on five dogs. Quite obviously this 
was a clever thing to do : either the Bondels 
would have to get rid of their dogs and earn 
their living by sweat like honest wage-slaves, 
or they would pay a tax larger than any 
European Government would dare to lay on 
its workers. But the Bondels did neither ; 
they kept their dogs, and, as their protec- 
tors knew before they levied it, they were 
unable to come anywhere near paying the 
tax. Righteously outraged by this example 
of native obstinacy and disobedience, the 
South African Government sent airplanes and 
bombs, and blew to pieces some eighty or a 
hundred men and women and babies of the 
Bondel tribe. Then they sent the League of 
Nations a modest report of their stewardship, 
which was duly filed, but not read. And that 
would have been the end of it, except that 
a delegate from the Republic of Haiti at the 
recent meeting of the Assembly got up and 
told the members of the League all about it 
with enough vivid detail to send them to the 
file of reports to look the matter up, and to 
induce the New York Times correspondent 
to send a humorous account of the incident 
to his paper. And that, as far as we know, 
is the end. of it. At any rate, the mandate 
still rests in the hands of the British, who 
have supplanted the unkind Germans in 
Southwest Africa; and eighty or a hundred 
black people are dead; and those who are left 
have, doubtless, killed their dogs and gone 
to work for white men. And the world is 
still absolutely safe. — The Nation, New York. 



John Leibert, a seaman on the Phoenix, is 
suing the Redwood Lumber Co. of San Fran- 
cisco for damages on account of the negligence 
of the engineer who allowed the engine to 
revolve while Leibert was in the crank pit. 
Attorney J. Hampton Hoge argued in Judge 
Van Fleet's court at San Francisco that the 
law was unconstitutional, as Congress had no 
power to grant seamen such a beneficial law as 
that. Judge Van Fleet said that Congress un- 
doubtedly had such power, and the law was 
enacted for the Seamen's benefit. It surely was 
constitutional, said Judge Van Fleet from the 
bench. 

Several members of the crew of the Edna 
which was captured by the British on the 
Kaiser's birthday, January 27, 1916, have 
(through Attorney Hogevoll) filed a libel for 
wages in the United States Court at San 
Francisco. The owners. Sudden & Christen- 
Son, won their suit in England on March 10, 
1921. The vessel had been condemned as a 
prize by a prize court, hut that judgment was 
reversed by the House of Lords, and there is no 
reason why the crew cannot now obtain a 
judgment for their wages for the interrupted 
trip. The law is that if the vessel had never 
been returned to the owners, then the seamen 
would have no redress, but in this case the 
vessel was returned to the owners together 
with "freight earned." 

Section 33 of the Jones Bill, making the 
Federal Fmployees Liability Act applicable to 
seamen and abolishing the fellow-servant rule, 
was upheld by the Appellate Division, Fourth 
Department, in the case of Lynott vs. Great 
Lakes (195 N. Y. S. 13). Hamilton Ward 
of r.uffalo. was attorney for the seaman. It 
was a death action. 

In the case of Manson vs. Pochasset (281 
Fed., 875), Judge Brown, Rhode Island, holds 
that a seaman who receives severe and per- 
manent injuries, incapacitating him for life, 
who was given whisky until he became rav- 
ing drunk on the ship before he was put in 
the hospital, and whose disability was ren- 
dered permanent, can recover only mainte- 
nance and cure, $519 going to the St. Luke's 
Hospital, $50 to the doctor, and the seaman's 
portion of the award being $50, totaling $619. 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



No allowance was made for further treatment 
or cure, although this court found at the 
time of the trial that the broken leg was still 
draining pus, and that the man was still not 
cured. A motion for reargument is pend- 
ing, and if this is insufficient an appeal will 
be taken by the attorney for libelant, Mr. 
Axtell. 

In the case of the West Jester (281 Fed., 
877, Advance Sheets), Judge Neterer, Dis- 
trict of Washington, held that a seaman can- 
not maintain an action for personal injuries 
on a right created by Section 33 of the Jones 
Bill in an Admiralty Court. Decision made 
upon exceptions. Frank E. Hammond of 
Seattle was attorney for libelant. 



THE COWARDLY QUITTER 



To successfully fight the battles of labor 
requires courage of the highest order. The 
wage-earner without means who goes on 
strike for more pay, or resists reduction in 
wages, and does it without flinching, is brave. 

It sometimes requires, or has required, 
high moral courage to be even identified with 
unionism in localities where labor-crushing 
interests are in control, and are unscrupulous 
enough to manipulate the police, the courts, 
and the law to serve their ends regardless of 
the rights of citizens. 

Sometimes in strong union centers feeling 
among union men may run high upon a cer- 
tain issue, and to hold views opposite to the 
majority may be unpopular, but if a member 
is honest in his conviction he is entitled to 
respect, provided he is not running counter 
to the law of his union. 

It is the strong men with the courage of 
their convictions, who have refused to be 
scared by the employers, or by commercial 
interests, or by their fellow-workers, who 
have built up the union movement. 

The quitter never won a strike, nor estab- 
lished a right, nor a union, nor caused a 
principle to be adopted. 

The quitter seeks to avoid trouble, even 
by abject surrender. He seeks to sugarcoat 
the union pill to tickle the palate of commer- 
cial interests regardless of the rights in- 
volved. 

In controversial matters, when his associ- 



ates divide sharply in opposing groups he 
seeks some middle or compromise ground, in 
the vain hope that he can please both sides, 
and consequently has the respect of neither. 

He has the brains of a jellyfish and the 
backbone of an angleworm. He is deeply 
susceptible to flattery and a pat on the back 
by the employing interests will cause his 
chest to expand wonderfully. 

Like a steam engine without a governor, 
he has no control over his own speed, and 
while a glimmer of reason might tell him he 
had a conviction and ought to fight for it, 
his legs will run away with him faster than 
he can think. 

In a controversy among his associates he 
can perform the acrobatic stunt of sitting on 
a fence and hanging over both sides at one 
and the same time. 

He is not of the stuff of which martyrs are 
made. He has not a single historic figure 
in the history of the whole world. 

Men of conviction, of purpose, of resolu- 
tion, determination, and tenacity are the ones 
who make history. The quitter is of very 
little use anywhere, and least of all in the 
trade-union movement. 

His vascillating views and sail-trimming 
methods win for him the contempt of his 
associates. Someone has aid, "The Almighty 
hates a quitter." — The International Steam 
Engineer. 



In accordance with the terms of a treaty 
drafted at the international conference of sea- 
men, held under the auspices of the League 
of Nations at Genoa in 1920, the French Gov- 
ernment has introduced a Bill providing that, 
in the case of seizure, shipwreck or declara- 
tion of unseaworthiness, a seaman shall be 
entitled to an indemnity to be paid during 
the whole period of effective unemployment 
from which he suffers as a result of the 
breach of his contract of engagement. The 
indemnity is to be the rate of wages laid 
down in the employment contract, subject, 
however, to the proviso that the total indem- 
nity shall not exceed two months' wages. 
While the treaty agreed to at Genoa relates 
only to the case of loss by shipwreck, the 
French Bill covers cases of seizure and dec- 
laration of unseaworthiness. 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



I. S. U. OF A. CONVENTION CALL 

The official call for the 26th Annual Con- 
vention of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, to meet at New York beginning 
on January 8, 1923, has been issued by Sec- 
retary Hanson. 

"The importance of this convention," says 
the Convention Call, "demands that each 
District Union elect its most able, experienced 
and faithful representatives in order that the 
questions confronting the seamen may be 
dealt with and acted upon to the best interest 
of the Seamen's movement. 

"While the membership of the International 
Seamen's Union of America has decreased 
during the past year, and each District Union 
has felt such decrease financially, it is, never- 
theless, expected that a full quota of dele- 
gates will be sent from each District Union. 

"The Unions of the Atlantic District will 
make all arrangements for said convention 
and be prepared to meet the delegates and 
tender them every accommodation necessary 
in a function of this nature." 



PACIFIC COAST SALMON CATCH 



Revised and semi-official figures relating to 
the American salmon pack on the Pacific 
Coast indicate a total output of 5,000,000 
cases for 1922, says the Mercantile Trust 
Company in its monthly survey of the condi- 
tion of business. These figures are subject 
to revision at a later date because of the fact 
that the final totals will not be known until 
the close of the salmon season in the first 
week of November. An organization of 
canned fish brokers in Seattle has made an 
estimate of 7,125,000 cases, but common opin- 
ion is that this is high. 

A lively October run of chums, cohoes and 
silvers has been reported in Puget Sound 
waters, and this late run has fortified such 
packers as are in a position to take advantage 
of present conditions. 

Taking the trade by and large, the salmon 
situation is viewed with considerable satis- 
faction by packing and financial interests. 
While the 1922 pack is approximately 2,000,- 
000 cases larger than that of 1921, there are 
actually between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000 cases 



less of chums and pinks in the market. This 
contrasts with a situation at the beginning 
of 1921 that was anything but comforting to 
the packers. 

In the spring of last year there was an 
unsold pack of between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 
cases of chums and pinks. This accumulated 
unsold surplus of lower-priced fish resulted in 
a considerable curtailment of the 1921 Alaska 
pack. Now the situation is different. 

A careful survey of the salmon market by 
Seattle interests is reported to have shown a 
shortage of chums, which may have been 
oversold. Competent authorities say that the 
Puget Sound pack of chums this season will 
be materially reduced. Usually something 
like 85 per cent of the pack has been produced 
from fish taken in British Columbian waters, 
and it is predicted that the new tariff of 2 
cents a pound will make this source of supply 
prohibitive. 

All in all, it is considered doubtful if more 
than 50,000 cases will be packed on Puget 
Sound this fall. 



SEAMEN'S WAGES IN NORWAY 



The Norwegian Arbitration Court has fixed 
the following monthly scale of wages to ap- 
ply to foreign-going vessels, terminable on 
one month's notice after January 1, 1923: 
Carpenters, 205 kr. ; Boatswains, 205 kr. ; 
Able Seamen, 180 kr. ; Ordinary Seamen, 100 
kr. ; Young Men. 75 kr. ; Boys, 50 kr. ; Motor 
and Donkeymen, 230 kr. ; Stokers, 185 kr. : 
Trimmers. 110 kr. ; First Engineers classes 
1 and 2, 390 kr. ; class 3, 410 kr. ; cla 
440 kr.; class 5, 460 kr. ; class 6, 480 kr. ; 
class 7, 530 kr. ; class 8, 560 kr., and class 9, 
590 kr. ; Second Engineers, on the same grad- 
uating scale as the above, from 320 kr. to 
430 kr. ; Third Engineers, 320 kr., with 
maximum of 350 kr. For service in the 
tropics an additional 15 kr. per month is to 
be paid, while age increments are to be 
allowed after three, six and nine years' service 
with the same owners. 

The following rates apply to ship's officers : 
First Officer, from 350 kr. to 470 kr., accord- 
ing to tonnage; second mate, 280 kr. to 390 
kr. ; and third mate, from 230 kr. to 280 kr. 
Officers performing wireless duty are to re- 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



ceive 50 kr. per month extra. Other condi- 
tions are subject to the same special condi- 
tions as above mentioned. For stewards and 
cooks the rates are : On passenger boats to 
England, France, Belgium, Holland, and 
Germany : Chief steward, 445 kr. ; chief 
cook, 395 kr. to 330 kr. ; second cook, 210 kr. 
On other liners and on tramps : Steward 
(crew up to 20) 300 kr., (crew over 20 and 
up to 30) 320 kr., (crew over 30) 350 kr. 
Cook on two years' voyage (crew up to 20) 
205 kr., (crew over 20) 230 kr. ; Cabin boys, 
50 kr. to 80 kr. Chief stewards and ordinary 
stewards receive an age increment of 20 kr. 
per month after three and six years' service. 
Special rates apply to the Norwegian-America 
Line, In all departments overtime is to be 
paid for extra day work and holiday work. 

The judgment also provides for one week's 
holiday with pay after six months' steady 
employment in the same company; also com- 
pensation for loss of clothing, through wreck 
or fire not to exceed 500 kr. 

All shipments and discharges must be con- 
ducted that no expense connected therewith 
fall upon the seamen. 

Seamen may leave the vessel on one week's 
notice at any place after the seaman has been 
three months on the vessel. 

The following ratings are provided : A 
deckboy must be at least 15 years; a young 
man must be 16, and he must have twelve 
months' service as deckboy; ordinary seaman 
must be 17 and have had twenty-four months 
at sea, of which time he must have served at 
least six months as young man ; able seaman 
must have served at least thirty-six months 
at sea, of which at least six months must have 
been as ordinary seaman ; coalpasser must be 
18 years old; fireman must be 19 years old 
and must have sailed in the engine depart- 
ment at least twelve months, six months as 
coalpasser. 

In addition to this, permission is granted to 
representatives of the unions to visit the 
crews on the vessels at such times as it will 
not interfere with the work. 

Finally, it is provided that the men are 
not to be compelled, in case of strikes or 
lockouts, to perform any work in port which 
they would not have done if there were no 
such labor disturbance. 



THE NEW IMMIGRATION LAW 



According to Secretary of Labor Davis, the 
3 per cent limitation immigration law has 
proved no bar to immigrants from the Nordic 
races, for it fixes the limitation well above 
the number of immigrants of this class nor- 
mally coming to America, but it has effec- 
tually checked the stream from southern and 
eastern Europe. 

This is brought out in the following table, 
which shows the total number admitted in 
the fiscal year ended June 30, as compared 
with the quotas for a number of the principal 
countries, and shows also the number admit- 
ted in the preceding fiscal year : 

Admitted Admitted 

July July 

1, 1921 1, 1920 

Legal to June to June 

Country Quota 30, 1922 30, 1921 

Hungary 5,638 6,035 7,702 

Greece 3,294 3,447 28,502 

Poland 25,827 26,129 95,089 

Italy 42,057 42,149 222,260 

Rumania 7,419 7,429 25,817 

Czecho-Slovakia 14,282 14,248 40,884 

Russia 34,284 28,908 6,398 

France 5,729 4,343 9,552 

Austria 7,451 4,797 4,947 

United Kingdom .... 77,342 42,670 79,577 

Norway 12,202 5,941 7,423 

Sweden 20,042 8,766 9,171 

Germany 68,059 19,053 6,803 

All other 33,369 30,038 261,103 

Total 356,995 243,953 805,228 



The latest available statistics show that on 
September 1, 1922, seagoing merchant vessels 
of 500 tons gross and over flying the Ameri- 
can flag (exclusive of United States Shipping 
Board tonnage), numbered 1948 of 5,747,229 
tons gross, against 1948 of 5,736,794 tons on 
August 1, 1922, an increase of 10,435 tons. In 
addition 1679 vessels of 7,567,059 tons were 
owned by the United States Shipping Board, 
against 1694 of 7,629,781 tons on August 1, 
1922. Altogether, 3627 merchant vessels of 
13,314,288 tons gross were under the Ameri- 
can flag on September 1, 1922, of which 2530 
vessels of 11,641,853 tons were built of steel. 
Of the latter number, 1094 vessels of 4,719,855 
tons were privately owned. 



Battles of life must be fought by you alone 
— your friends will rejoice with you if vic- 
torious ; if whipped, you whine alone. 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



THE COMING OF COAL 

(Reviewed for the Seamen's Journal) 



(The Coming of Coal, by Robert W. Bruere, 
Association Press, Publishers, 347 Madison Avenue, 
New York. Price, $1.) 

Here is a welcome addition to the books 
of the nation because of the Christian prin- 
ciples which it enunciates and the fact that 
it gives a detailed history of the trials and 
tribulations of those people who delve in the 
bowels of the earth for the "black diamonds." 

There are ten chapters in the book and its 
pages include such subjects of immediate 
interest as the awakening of the miners and 
their struggle for organization since the first 
national convention of these workers in St. 
Louis, Missouri, in January, 1861. 

It is practically impossible for the human 
mind to conceive of the possibilities of the 
coal industry, and on the pages of this book 
will be found matters of interest that should 
bring to the Christian spirit undreamed of 
facts as to the methods pursued by the 
sons of toil in their efforts to make 
their stay on this planet as pleasant as pos- 
sible through their organization. Those who 
have followed the industrial troubles in the 
various coal districts of the United States 
during the past few months should take a 
great deal of pleasure in reading this book, 
because in a number of localities of the coal 
regions the same conditions have prevailed 
and still prevail as existed at the time when 
the coal miners first attempted to organize, 
and these points are gone into in a manner 
that proves the author has a fine conception 
of the elements that have injected themselves 
into the perplexing questions involved. 

It is astonishing how ignorant the citizens 
of the country are concerning the produc- 
tion of coal. We do not know the capital 
value of the coal deposits, nor the degree 
of concentration and control of ownership of 
mines or mineral. We do not even know 
who owns the coal beds. The United States 
Geological Survey has issued in the past 
various reports showing production by coun- 
ties, moving of coal by rail and water to the 
markets, stocks of coal in hands of repre- 
sentative consumers and consumption by the 
larger users, but there has not been such a 



report since 1918 and it is uncertain when 
another will be prepared. 

A feature of the book is a map of the coal 
fields of the world, and it will be noted that 
the United States is to the forefront in this 
regard. 



PRICES IN MOSCOW 



How would you feel if you were asked to 
pay 30,000 rubles for a box of matchi 
33,750,000 rubles for a pair of shoes? These 
prices were the prevailing ones in the open 
market in Moscow on June 25, according to 
a table of prices given in the "Russian Sup- 
plement," a publication of the International 
Labor Office. However, the 1922 ruble is 
equal to 10,000 Soviet rubles according to 
this chart, and the exchange of the 1 922 
ruble for the American dollar is 230, so if 
you figure out the real price for yourself, 
you will find that the cost of articles in 
Russia is on a par with what the United 
States called profiteers' prices just after the 
war. 

The following is a list of some of the more 

important articles of daily necessity, and the 

prices asked in the Moscow markets: 

Soviet 
Rubles 

Rye Bread, pound 170.000 

Potatoes, pound 40.000 

Cabbage, pound 60,000 

Beef, pound 850,000 

Butter, pound ... 1,700,000 

Milk, quart 180,000 

Lump Sugar, pound ... 1,350,000 

Crystallized Sugar, pound 990,000 

Salt, pound 100,000 

Coffee, pound 850,000 

Soap, pound 1,050,000 

Tobacco, low grade, % pound 110,000 



AGE OF MERCHANT STEAMERS 



According to a compilation made by 
Lloyd's Register, the 29,255 steam and motor 
vessels afloat on June 30, last, group them- 
selves as follows as regards age: 

Years Np. Ships 

Under 5 8.522 

5 to 10 4,165 

10 to 15 3,540 

15 to 20 3.750 

20 to 25 2.899 

Over 25 6,379 

29,255 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



'STANDARDS' 



It is related by Julius Caesar in his nar- 
rative of the Gallic wars that the standard of 
the famous Tenth Legion once turned dis- 
aster into victory. The Roman army was 
in the habit of always fortifying even their 
temporary camps. While pitching camp one 
night they were suddenly attacked by a 
clan of Gauls or Belgians known as the 
Nervii, considered at that time the bravest 
and most redoubtable of people. In an in- 
stant all was confusion; the Romans beset 
in the midst of fortifying their camp were 
at a great disadvantage. Caesar, alone equal 
to the occasion, raised the standard of the 
Tenth Legion and ordered the bugler or 
trumpeter to sound "Fall in." Immediately 
the disciplined Roman soldiers automatically 
obeyed the call, wherever they happened to 
be and regardless of the unit to which they 
happened to belong. In a short time their 
superior formation and tactical skill tri- 
umphed over the Nervii. The very name 
of the Clan of Nervii would be unknown to 
us today had not Caesar mentioned this bat- 
tle in detail in an endeavor to glorify the 
discipline and unity that made Roman armies 
invincible. 

Labor, today, might take a lesson from 
this incident. We have our "Standard." The 
entire aim of labor constitutes a nobler and 
more important standard for humanity than 
ever did Caesar's brazen eagles. The seamen 
of the Pacific have their "standard." It has 
for some thirty years led the seamen along 
the road of permanent progress, and the rate 
of that progress has depended upon how 
closely the standard set by the Sailors' Union 
was followed. 

This "standard" is the Sailors' Union and 
the Sailors' Union is you men who are its 
members. Each one of you is a standard- 
bearer and you must all fall in under the 
Great Standard, which is the Union. 

Now you are assailed from many sides, yet 
these attacks all come from practically the 
source, barring opposition that results from 
malice and stupidity. If you rally round the 
standard, your unity of purpose and cohe- 
sion will triumph, but if you go as driven 
sheep where enemies wish to lead you, you 
have a long period of misery and oppression 



ahead of you. If as one man you rally to the 
attack which is now about to be launched 
against you, and, setting up your standard, 
refuse to retreat one inch, you will soon see 
a great difference in your condition. 

Do you ask, "What is our present stand- 
ard?" The answer is simplicity itself. The 
standard at all times is that policy and pro- 
gram which we, ourselves, determine upon 
in the district Unions and branches of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
and upon your intelligence, loyalty and per- 
sistence in executing and living up to that 
standard depends success or defeat. Our 
present situation here is a question, but can 
we give the right answer to that question? 
Before this appears in print you will see the 
necessity of answering this most vital ques- 
tion correctly, if you have not already been 
impressed with that necessity. However, 
above all things remember that having once 
planted our standard we propose to stay with 
it until success crowns our efforts. Remem- 
ber our discipline consists of that rule which 
we impose on ourselves for our own salva- 
tion. Remember, too, that the sum total 
of this is the Sailors' Union, the Marine Fire- 
men's Union and the Marine Cooks' and 
Stewards' Union, functioning unitedly 
through the International Seamen's Union 
of America! "May it live through Eternity!" 
— Samentu. 



OTHER KINDS OF SHIPS 

(From the "Neptune Log") 



A ship nobody likes — Hardship. 
A friendly ship — Companionship. 
An aristocratic ship — Ladyship. 
A ship we all want to win — Scholarship. 
A ship that never goes to sea — Township. 
A ship that goes to church — Worship. 
A teaching ship — Tutorship. 
A skilful ship — Workmanship. 
A young ship — Apprenticeship. 
A ship that lovers like — Courtship. 
A ship that is used in business — Partner- 
ship. 

A very jolly ship — Fellowship. 



The conceited man never concedes to other 
men the right to protect their rights, nor 
even admits the wrongs that he may do. 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November. 1922 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Charles R. McCormick Steamship Com- 
pany has been incorporated at Sacramento, 
Cal., for $1,500,000. There are 1,500,000 shares 
of par value of $1 each. 

An item in the cargo of the steamship Felix 
Taussig of the Crowell & Thurlow Inter- 
coastal Line, passing through the Panama 
Canal recently from Pacific to Atlantic ports 
of the United States, was forty-seven bales of 
goats' beards, weighing 23,127 pounds. An- 
other was twenty-one bales of human hair 
stumps, weighing 10,497 pounds. 

The Matson Navigation Company has an- 
nounced a cut in the lumber rate from Puget 
Sound to Hawaiian ports from $12 to $10.50 
for board measurement shipments of 500,000 
or more feet discharged at one port. This 
rate will hold good for the steamers Makena, 
Makaweli and Mahukona. The steamers Lur- 
line and Manulani will continue to maintain 
the $12 rate. 

The plant of the Virginia Shipbuilding 
Company has been leased to the Trent Amal- 
gamated Company, which has for the last year 
occupied a part of the plant. It is under- 
stood that a sublease will be executed in 
favor of the Western Marine and Salvage 
Co. of San Francisco, which recently pur- 
chased 226 wooden ships from the United 
States Government. 

The Postmaster-General and the Shipping 
Board have authorized the establishment of a 
sea post service on the Government vessels 
operated to the Orient by the Admiral Fine. 
This service will be the first to be estab- 
lished on the Pacific Coast and becomes ef- 
fective on November 1. It will speed up the 
delivery of mails to and from the Orient by 
twelve to twenty-four hours. 

Word has been received in San Francisco 
that the Dutch steamer Femdyk, which sailed 
from this port with a cargo of fruit, has 
arrived in Fondon with the cargo in excellent 
condition. The fruit consisted of 2500 cases 
of pears and 1200 cases of peaches, and was 
placed in refrigeration space on the vessel. 
The Kinderdyk, sailing from San Pedro last 
week, took 1000 boxes of plums. 



The Shipping Board has brought suit in the 
United States District Court at Portland, Me., 
to recover $500,000 in charter hire from the 
United States Transport Company, a subsidi- 
ary of the United States Steamship Company, 
one of the C. W. Morse enterprises. The 
ships named in connection with the alleged 
obligations are the Hartford, Holland, Name- 
queeg, Quinnpiac and Worcester. The case 
has been set for November 9. 

The New York State Canal system, at one 
time forgotten by the business world, is be- 
ginning to come into its own. The traffic 
on the canal delivered to the Hudson River 
rose from 281,361 tons to 529,902 tons during 
the year 1921. and for the first eight months 
of 1922 the total canal traffic was at the rate 
of 2,300,000 tons per annum, an increase of 
about 58 per cent. This was done with a 
decrease in the cost of maintenance of the 
canal of more than $600,000. 

Edwin S. Pendleton, of Pendleton Brothers, 
is planning to open a petition among members 
of the Maritime Exchange against the pas- 
sage of the Ship Subsidy bill. .Mr. Pendleton 
expresses the opinion that the pending sub- 
sidy legislation aims to put American ship- 
ping into a "trust. " The Subsidy bill is not 
designed to help the freight steamers of the 
United State-, but has been framed t<. a>>ist 
the speedy cargo liners of thirteen knots or 
more, in the opinion of Mr. Pendleton. 

In a formal statement issued after the ad- 
justment of its affairs with the Shipping 
Hoard, the North Atlantic & Western Steam- 
ship Company, which was the first steamship 
company from Boston, Portland. Me., and 
Philadelphia to enter the intercoastal trade 
after the war, announced that it now owns 
two vessels, the Brush and the Wabash. The 
statement further reads that the company was 
planning to construct a fleet of six Diesel 
driven ships that will enable the company to 
retain its position in the intercoastal trade. 

In a recent lecture before the school of 
foreign service at Georgetown University; 
President J. 1'.. Smull of the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation explained that there was a great 
need for trained men in the steamship busi- 
ness. He illustrated this by pointing out that 
when the Shipping Board sought to sell it> 
vessels to private interests, men who know 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



nothing about the business bought them and 
tried to run them. Of 188 such purchases, 125 
ended in the bankruptcy court, and in many 
cases the Government was forced to take the 
ships back. 

Henry C. Stuart, Acting Collector of Cus- 
toms for the port of New York, refuses to 
discuss the seizure outside the three-mile 
limit of the liquor-laden Canadian schooner 
Emerald, which caused the British Govern- 
ment to protest to the State Department. 
The Emerald, with Captain John Williams, 
and a crew of six negroes, was overhauled 
and taken by the United States cutter Hahn, 
about twelve miles off the Jersey coast. Pro- 
hibition agents said liquor valued at more 
than $50,000 was found in her hold. The 
captain and crew were released. 

The steamer City of Honolulu caught fire 
at sea while en route from Honolulu to San 
Pedro, and is a total loss. All hands were 
saved and taken to San Pedro by the Army 
transport Thomas. The burned vessel was 
not insured, according to the marine under- 
writers of San Francisco. The City of Hono- 
lulu was formerly the steamer Huron and is 
owned by the Shipping Board. It was allo- 
cated to the Los Angeles Steamship Com- 
pany through the efforts of Meyer Lissner, 
a member of the Shipping Board for a period 
of six months. The freight carried by the 
City of Honolulu is said to be nominal. 

A herd of fifty-four reindeer has been 
transported from the Alaska peninsula to 
Kodiak Island, which contains 3,642 square 
miles, half of which is untimbered and is 
good grazing land, on which great herds of 
reindeer can be supported. The natives of 
this island are very poor and have had no 
means of making a living. The bringing of 
the reindeer will give them an opportunity 
to establish an industry for the future, as well 
as give them an immediate supply of food. 
Since the harbors of the island are free from 
ice, reindeer meat and hides can be readily 
exported from them at any time of the year. 

The Union Oil tanker Lyman Stewart went 
on the rocks off Land's End, San Francisco 
Bay, on October 7, after a collision with a 
Luckenbach freighter. All efforts so far to 
pull the tanker from the rocks have been 
unsuccessful. The hull insurance on the 



stranded vessel, it was learned, is $1,200,000,. 
carried in London, while the insurance on the 
cargo of oil and gasoline was $300,000, car- 
ried in San Francisco. The inquiry being 
carried on by the United States inspectors of 
hulls and boilers is still in progress. It will 
probably be several weeks after the hearing 
closes before the findings of the inspectors 
will be made public. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1922, 47,579,084 persons crossed San Fran- 
cisco Bay by various ferry routes, according 
to statistics compiled by John K. Bulger, 
supervising inspector of steam vessels. This 
includes automobile ferries, the San Fran- 
cisco-Vallejo run, the Martinez-Benicia 
ferry, the Richmond-San Rafael ferry, the 
Rodeo ferry and the Six-Minute ferry be- 
tween Carquinez strait and Morrow Cove. 
The Southern Pacific Company on its San 
Francisco-Oakland-Alameda and Creek 
routes carried 22,744,806 people during the 
last fiscal year, as against 27,071,923 for the 
fiscal year ending June, 1921, the decrease 
coming, it is believed, from the fact that 
shipyards operating under full forces in 1921, 
operated on tremendously decreased forces 
the following year. 

For the year ending June 30 last the Amer- 
ican Shipbuilding Company and its subsidi- 
aries report net earnings of $1,369,757 as 
compared with a net profit of $2,391,126 in 
the preceding fiscal year. As the company 
was without any construction work during the 
past fiscal year its operating earnings were 
derived solely from dockages, reconditioning, 
replacements and repairs to Lake vessels. This 
class of work amounted to 60 per cent of 
1921, which made the net earnings from oper- 
ation necessarily small. Many Lake vessels 
were out of commission during the entire 
navigable season of 1921, and few were fitted 
out at the opening of navigation in 1922. The 
revenue received from investments and other 
sources shows a marked increase over the year 
1921. During the months of May and June 
of 1922 the company closed contracts for four 
bulk freight steamers for Great Lakes service, 
having a total deadweight capacity of 48,750 
gross tons. Negotiations for new business are 
under way, with favorable prospects for ob- 
taining other important orders. 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



Norwegian shipping is making headway 
again. The laid-up ships have almost dis- 
appeared from the Norwegian ports, except 
for craft in bad condition or units from the 
war period. Ships are still running at a loss, 
however, and the tendency is toward lower 
rates than the reverse. Time charter rates 
are now about 1 shilling per ton below the 
basis in force at the first of the year. 

The Argentine Ministry of Marine is pre- 
paring the conditions of tender for the con- 
struction of a new lighthouse of first cate- 
gory on Cape Finisterre, to the south of 
Bahia Blanca. The installation of a similar 
lighthouse in Monte Entrada, at the mouth of 
the River Santa Cruz, is also to be consid- 
ered. This light would replace the existing 
one and have a range of twenty miles. 

During August, 1922, incoming vessels at 
Hamburg numbered 1005, of 1,170,920 total 
net register *tons, against 1332 vessels with 
1^153,583 tons in August, 1913. Outgoing 
vessels numbered 1462, of 1,420,426 total net 
register tons, against 1575 of 1,239,846 tons 
in 1913. During the first seven months of 
1922 the traffic at Hamburg amounted to 
6,059 ships with a tonnage of 7,268,255, 
against 4456 ships and 4.758,827 tons during 
the same time in 1921. 

An American engineer has arrived at Cher- 
bourg to discuss the possibility of making 
this port one of the principal freight depots 
which certain financial interests in New York 
are contemplating establishing in Europe as 
a means of permitting large ships to carry 
cargoes across the Atlantic at low freight rates 
and transshipping to small cargo boats for 
various ports near the final destinations. It 
is declared that the Cherbourg Chamber of 
Commerce is entirely favorable to the scheme. 

The Hamburg-Amerika Line's intention to 
place two vessels of twenty thousand tons 
each in the North Atlantic service next spring 
seems comparatively modest. The ships are 
to be named the Albert Ballin and the 
Deutschland, and they are to call at South- 
ampton outward and at Plymouth homeward. 
The resumption of full regular passenger 



and cargo services in the North Atlantic by 
new vessels of the Hamburg-Amerika and 
Norddeutscher Lloyd is clearly only a ques- 
tion of time. 

In an interesting lecture on the beginnings 
and development of sea power delivered in 
the Hull City Hall last month before the 
members of the British Association, Sir 
Westcott Abell recalled that in the early 
years of the Mediterranean shipbuilding in- 
dustry, the timber was always wrought green, 
tlie vessels being left on the stocks for years 
to season. Then came the practice of stov- 
ing and subsequently that of steaming and 
boiling in kilns, and finally the modern prac- 
tice of seasoning. 

The Hamburg-Amerika Line owns at pres- 
ent 43 vessels totaling 165,707 tons, and also 
has under construction 43 additional vessels 
totaling 198,692 tons. The Norddeutscher 
Lloyd owns 25 vessels totaling 127,098 tons, 
with 23 under construction totaling 226,200 
tons. The Hamburg-Sud Amerika Line owns 
8 boats of 59,904 tons, and a further 6 of 
54,336 tons are being built. The Stinnes 
group fleet totals approximately 100,000 tons. 
These figures show the extent of German 
tonnage now to be about one-third of pre- 
war figures. 

The Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
of Trieste has issued a statement on the 
trade of the port, pointing out that in spite 
of the depression prevailing in the countries 
forming its hinterland. Trieste has been able 
to develop a traffic which represents about 
50 per cent of the pre-war volume. Trans- 
ports for account of the Italian government 
have almost entirely ceased, and the traffic 
at the port is resuming its normal movement. 
The sugar and cofTee markets are becoming 
very active. In trade with the Near East, 
a traditional field of activity for Trieste, 
very favorable progress is being made. 

In a review of the fisheries conditions along 
the Chinese coast and inland waters, the 
Chinese government bureau of economic in- 
formation points out that the prevalence of 
piracy and the activities of bandits have 
greatly interfered with legitimate operations 
and caused a general neglect of this impor- 
tant industry. Many fishermen are obliged 
to pay taxes to the pirates who infest the 
territorial waters along much of China's 3000 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'SJOURNAL 



23 



miles of coast line. The navy gunboats af- 
ford a slight measure of protection, it is 
true, but the menace remains unchecked, 
and so militates against the introduction of 
modern methods of fishing. 

A survey of the Yangtse River is shortly 
to be undertaken, preparatory to its improve- 
ment. George G. Stroche, hydraulic engineer 
to the Philippine Government and formerly 
of the United States Reclamation Service, 
has been engaged by the Technical Commit- 
tee of the Yangtse River Commission in the 
capacity of chief survey engineer, and he will 
be assisted by various members of the com- 
mittee. An office is to be established in 
Shanghai as a base of operations. After 
sufficient data have been collected, F. Palmer, 
of the Port of London Authority, will be 
retained to advise the committee on im- 
provement schemes. 

German trade with Argentine is steadily 
growing. Recently the first shipment was 
made of Argentine livestock to Germany, 
some four hundred steers being embarked on 
the Stinnes steamship Hindenburg. Early 
in June the Argentine Minister in Berlin tele- 
graphed to his Government the terms of an 
ad referendum contract entered into between 
Sr. Deneri and a German syndicate. This 
contract committed Argentine to supply the 
German syndicate — apparently Stinnes — with 
not less than fifty thousand head of cattle 
and sixty thousand tons of beef annually for 
at least two years, the Argentine Govern- 
ment to accept payment in kind. 

According to a law passed in July, 1922, 
the Norwegian Department of Finance and 
Customs may now seize ships of under one 
hundred tons which are found inside the 
common territorial frontier having spirits or 
wines on board in excess of what would rea- 
sonably be required for use, in which case the 
smuggling of spirits is presumed to be the 
object. The law was put into force for the 
first time when action was taken against 
the motor cutter Lisbeth of Cuxhaven, which 
was stopped off Riisoer by the Customs au- 
thorities, and found to have from 300 to 400 
litres of spirits on board. The department 
fined the ship's master 1000 kr., and seized 
the cutter and spirits. 

The bottle survey of the North Sea under- 
taken by the Fishery Board of Scotland, in 



conjunction with the British Ministry of 
Agriculture and Fisheries, has now been 
completed. During last year 4800 surface 
and 4760 bottom-drift bottles were liberated 
from Bell Rock Lighthouse, Balta Island 
Lighthouse, and other points off the Coast 
of Scotland. Up to the end of 1921, 38 per 
cent of the surface bottles had been recov- 
ered and 22 per cent of the bottom-drifters. 
Some of the bottles made a long journey, 
being found on the Norwegian coasts, many 
as far north as Lofoten Islands. One trav- 
eled one thousand miles in 167 days. Practi- 
cally all the bottles recovered were found on 
the coasts of Denmark, Sweden, and Southern 
Norway. 

The insurance of British seagoing officers 
against the risk of suspension of their li- 
censes continues to arouse discussion in 
England. The policy is issued by the 
Navigators & General Insurance Company, 
and for an annual premium of 12s. 6d. the 
company guarantees the assured during sus- 
pension the payment each month of a sum 
equal to his monthly salary, plus full allow- 
ance for food, accommodation and attend- 
ance of a character equal to that provided 
for the assured at the time of the incident 
giving rise to the suspension, with a maxi- 
mum monthly payment of £50. In the event 
of cancelment, the company undertakes to 
pay a sum equal to eighteen months' salary, 
plus full allowance for food, etc., with a 
maximum payment of £1000. 

In a review of the shipping situation, 
Norges Handels og Sjofartstidende states that 
evidence of the bad position owing to the 
comparatively low freights and high expenses, 
especially loading, discharging and port 
charges, continue to accumulate. At the 
general meeting of the company owning the 
Norwegian sailing vessel Hjeltenaes, held re- 
cently, it was stated that loading and dis- 
charging expenses alone had absorbed one- 
third of the gross freights earned during 
1921, while in another case 37 per cent of 
the freight on a deckload of coke was ab- 
sorbed by the customs charges for watching 
in a Norwegian port. "We are afraid," says 
the journal, "that an extensive laying up of 
vessels in this country will be witnessed 
during the coming, autumn and winter." 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



LABOR NEWS 



An article of the Boston Transcript on the 
"Reds in America" shows how the American 
Civil Liberties Union is linked with Com- 
munism definitely through the system of in- 
terlocking directorates so successfully used 
by the Communist party of America in pene- 
trating into every possible organization. 

President Harding has appointed John Hays 
Hammond, mining engineer of Washington, 
D. C. ; Thomas H. Marshall, former Vice- 
President and Governor of Indiana ; Samuel 
Alschuler, Federal Judge of Chicago ; Clark 
Howell, editor of the Atlanta Constitution ; 
George Otis Smith, director of the United 
States Geological Survey of Maine; Edward 
T. Devine, economist of New York; Charles 
P. Neill of Washington, D. C, as members of 
the Federal Fact Finding Coal Commission 
which will investigate the coal industry with 
a view of preventing future coal strikes. 

Members of the "Printers' Guild," a Balti- 
more strikebreaking institution formed by 
Promoter Gill, are demanding an accounting 
of money invested. They object to the way 
the "Guild's" sick fund is handled. The 
members are taxed 50 cents a week to main- 
tain the fund and when they get sick they 
are discharged. Gill came here from the 
Northwest, where he officiated as grand fac- 
totum for the company "union" known as 
the Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumber- 
men. With the awakening of Northwest 
lumber workers, Gill departed for pastures 
new, and is now in Baltimore. 

There are "distinct signs of hope and prog- 
ress in the industrial situation in America," 
the Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America declared in its Labor 
Day message for 1922. The workers' edu- 
cation movement "and the new interest of 
labor unions in scientific research give much 
promise. The press, often partisan in labor 
disputes, shows signs of greater fairness 
and discrimination. The new role that is 
being played by the religious press is es- 
pecially gratifying. A large number of 
strikes which have occurred resulted from 
the tendency to deflate labor." 



One-third of the teachers in cities of 2500 
to 10,000 population are teaching for less than 
$1000 a year, and one-half of the elementary 
teachers in this group of cities receive less 
than $1097 a year, says the United States 
Bureau of Education. In the group of cities 
of 10,000 to 25,000 population conditions are 
somewhat better, but even in this group 15 
per cent of the teachers receive less than 
$1000 a year. In cities of 25,000 to 100,000 
population, 7 per cent of the teachers have 
not advanced to the $1000 class. In cities 
of 100,000 or more population comparatively 
few teachers receive less than $1200 a year. 

Congressman Schall wants certain activi- 
ties of the Post Office Department probed, 
and has introduced a resolution to that ef- 
fect. The Minnesota lawmaker declared that 
if the bureaucratic tendencies of postal of- 
ficials is not checked there will be a return to 
Burlesonism. Md, Schall says the Official 
Postal Bulletin, printed and distributed at 
public expense, is being used for personal 
propaganda purposes by First Assistant Post- 
master General Bartlett. The bureau of in- 
formation, created and maintained without 
a specific warrant of law, is said to be largely 
for the purpose of boosting certain postal 
officials. 

The Railway Carmen's Journal, official 
magazine of the brotherhood of Railway 
Carmen of America, makes this statement, 
under the caption, "Shopmen's Represen- 
tative Double Crossed": "Despite the as- 
sertion of President Harding, made at the 
conference held at the White House early 
in August between himself and the chief 
executives of the shop men's unions engaged 
in the present strike, that he would use all 
the power vested in him as President of the 
United States, if it took the entire army of 
the United States, to make the side that 
turned down his basis of settlement of the 
existing strike accept same, all his efforts 
to settle the strike have collapsed." 

As it is no longer necessary to fan the popu- 
lace into a frenzy, the public press is grad- 
ually telling the truth about the shopmen's 
strike. A Washington newspaper says: "Pres- 
ident Harding believes 95 per cent of present 
transportation difficulties is due to defective 
equipment. The President is informed, ac 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



cording to the White House, that during the 
period when the strikes were widespread the 
condition of rolling stock was far worse than 
ever reported by the railroad executives. This 
condition, it was said, applies not only to 
locomotives, but freight cars as well. The 
question of seniority, it was revealed at the 
White House, has never been particularly 
vexatious either to employer or employe." 

United States Senator Heflin wants the 
Federal Reserve system probed because sal- 
aries have been increased more than $15,000,- 
000 during the past few years. He says the 
salary of certain clerks has been increased 
from $1200 a year to $12,000, from $1600 
to $16,000, and from $1800 to $18,000. The 
total increase, it is declared, "is three times 
as much money as it costs the government 
of the United States to pay the annual sal- 
aries of the Vice-President and the Speaker 
of the House, all the members of both 
branches of Congress, all the members of 
the Supreme Court of the United States, the 
President and his cabinet, the members of 
the Federal Trade Commission, the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, the general of 
the army and the admiral of the navy." 

The much discussed question of the effi- 
ciency of American labor, particularly in 
comparison with the standards of output 
which prevailed prior to the war, is the sub- 
ject of the principal article in the July num- 
ber of the Monthly Labor Review, contrib- 
uted by Ethelbert Stewart, United States 
Commissioner of Labor and Statistics. Mr. 
Stewart shows that the basis for much of the 
current belief that the American workman is 
not as efficient now as formerly is found in 
general statements which have no backing 
of statistical proof. Against this state of 
affairs he presents considerable data from 
particular industries showing that a proper 
consideration of all the elements entering 
into production does not evidence a general 
slackening of effort on the part of the work- 
ers, but in a number of industries efficiency 
is shown. Mr. Stewart urges the need of 
time-cost studies as a basis for scientific 
measurement of labor efficiency not with a 
view to "speeding up" industry, but for the 
purpose of establishing a definite standard by 
which the work may be judged. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



According to press reports on the results 
of recent government investigations, there are 
at present 273 unions in Japan, with a total 
membership of 110,688. 

According to one of the heads of the Asso- 
ciation of Glass Manufacturers at Prague, 
more than 4000 glass workers have been re- 
cently thrown out of employment, and no less 
than 7000 are working part time only, as a 
result of the industrial crisis caused by the 
sudden rise in the exchange. 

Among the decisions taken at the British 
Trades Union Congress at Southport. There 
was none of such immediate and far-reaching 
significance as the decision to make the Daily 
Herald the official organ of the Trades Union 
Congress and the Labor Party. The affiliated 
organizations will now raise 2d per- member 
per year — which will amount to about £60,- 
000 — for the financing of the Daily Herald. 

Growth of sweat-shop production in the 
brush and broom industry has led German 
Wood Workers' Union to demand of the 
government legislation prohibiting child 
labor; placing wages for home work on the 
same scale as wages paid to factory work- 
ers ; regulating the sanitation of family 
workrooms, and providing for the gradual 
decrease of sweat-shop labor until finally it 
is entirely prohibited. 

The British Government will allocate a 
total indemnity of £5,000,000 to the depend- 
ents of submarine victims. This sum will 
be distributed among the 60,000 widows or 
orphans of the 16,000 British seamen sent 
to their doom by German submarines while 
manning unarmed vessels. The indemnity 
will not be paid out at once, owing to the 
present financial difficulties, but a sum of 
£100,000 is already available. 

Remittances from Italian emigrants to Italy 
through the Bank of Naples last year totaled 
711,548,721 lire, distributed as follows: 621,- 
973,590 from the United States; 21,144,517 
from Canada; 21,566,040 from Brazil; 46,278,- 
532 from Argentina; 278,350 from Venezuela, 
and 347,690 from Germany. In 1920 the total 
was 880,756,383 lire, and in 1919, 484,388,660. 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



The value of these remittances during the last 
fjew years has to be considered in relation to 
the depreciation of Italian currency, but they 
still represent a notable contribution of liquid 
capital and partially compensate for the un- 
favorable trade balance. 

A recent issue of the Korrespondenzblatt 
(official paper of the German Federation of 
Labor) gives a resume of the present status 
of libraries under the control of German 
trades unions. There are now a total of 
sixty-one central libraries in Germany, for 
the maintenance of which 879,388 marks were 
expended in 1921. Thirty-one of the libraries 
are located in the building of the trades 
unions itself, seventeen are in some other 
building of their respective localities, ten are 
in hotels or inns, and three are in private 
houses. In addition to the central libraries, 
721 of the trade unions associated with the 
German Federation of Labor have their own 
libraries, for which a total of 1,541,257 marks 
were expended. 

Longshoremen's hours of labor in Germany 
are limited by law to eight hours per day. 
Overtime may be worked only if the ship 
can be finished within three hours from the 
expiration of the time of the shift employed. 
Night work may be performed only where 
ships have to pass through locks and are 
dependent on tides, such as Bremerhaven. 
At other ports extra work is allowed only 
if a relief shift can not be engaged. At 
Hamburg, Altona and Harburg, work pro- 
ceeds continuously in three shifts from 7 a. m. 
to 3:30 p. m. (8 hours), from 3 p. m. to 
11 p. m. (7 l A hours), and from 11 p. m. to 
7 a. m. (7 J A hours). Overtime is payable at 
the rate of time and one-third. On Sundays 
and holidays two shifts of six hours each 
are worked from 7 a. m. to 1 p. m.. and 
from 1 p. m. to 7 p. m. 

A copy of every law affecting labor that 
is passed in all the world is sent to the 
International Labor Office at Geneva. Re- 
gardless of the language in which it is writ- 
ten it is read and digested. If it is of any im- 
portance, if it could be of any use to any 
student of labor law anywhere else in the 
world, it is printed. It is printed in three 
languages, English, French and German. All 
such laws passed in a given year are com- 



piled in a weighty volume. They are made 
available to all the nations. So does it be- 
come possible lor the legislator who, in South 
Africa, Finland or Chile, is preparing a 
statute on child labor, factory inspection, or 
safety devices, to have at his elbow all that 
has been done elsewhere in the world. It is 
one of the handy chores that grows out of 
international co-operation. 

The twenty-four-hour strike of French sea- 
men in protest against the Government de* 
cree modifying the eight-hour law in the 
French merchant marine, was preceded by 
the formation of a general union of sea- 
farers including all grades and ratings, from 
captains, sailors and firemen to doctors, purs- 
ers and stewards. This union is known as 
the "Interfederation Nationale Maritime and 
was made possible only after the shipmasters' 
societies had decided to join in order to help 
the work of combating the repeal of the 
eight-hour law and prevent any reduction in 
pay. The new decree restores the conditions 
existing in the French merchant marine prior 
to Feb. 24, 1920, when hours of labor at sea 
were fixed at 12 per day (two watches) and 
10 in port, while the engine room force 
worked 8 or 12 hours per day, according to 
the class of the ship." 

Spain and the Argentine Republic have 
ratified a treaty providing for the reciprocal 
payment of compensation in the case of in- 
dustrial accidents involving the nationals of 
either of the countries in the territory of the 
other. If a subject of either of the nations is 
injured in an industrial accident while em- 
ployed in the territory of the other State he 
will be covered by compensation in that coun- 
try. If a worker dies as a result of an indus- 
trial accident his heirs .an- entitled to com- 
pensation from the country in which the 
accident occurred. The office for the payment 
of compensation must, in either case, advise 
the consular representative of the State of 
which the worker was a national witli a view- 
to communicating with his heirs. The bene- 
fits to the worker are not lost by his migration 
to any other country after the industrial 
accident. This convention is concluded for a 
period of five years and may be abrogated 
only after one year's notice after the original 
period of Wye years. 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



International Seafarers' Federation 



C. Damm, Sec'y, 9 Dubois St., Antwerp, Belgium 



AFFILIATED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL 

UNIONS 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

International Seamen's Union of America 

Thomas A. Hanson, Secretary-Treasurer 

355 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

[A complete list of the district unions and 
branches affi/liated with the International Seamen's 
Union of America will be found on page 2.] 



BELGIUM 
Belgische Zeemandsbond (Belgian Seamen's Union) 
30 Brouwersvliet, Antwerp J. Chapelle, Sec'y 



DENMARK 
Dansk S6-Restaurations Forening (Danish Cooks 

and Stewards' Union) 

Lille Strandstrede 20, Copenhagen. .K. Spliid, Sec'y 

Somendenes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Seamen's 

Union) 

Toldbodgade 15, Copenhagen C. Borgland, Sec'y 

S6-Fyrbodernes Forbund i Danmark (Danish Fire- 
men's Union) 
Toldbodgade 13, Copenhagen E. Jacobsen, Sec'y 



FINLAND 

Finska Sjomans-och Eldare Unionen (Finnish 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Circusgatan 5, Helsingfors, Finland.. C. Ahonen, Sec. 

FRANCE 
Federation Nationale des Syndicats Maritimes de 

France (French Seamen's Union) 
4 Ave. de L'Opera, Paris. .Monsieur L. Reaud, Sec. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 
National Sailors & Firemen's Union of Great 
Britain and Ireland 
St. George's Hall, Westminster Bridge Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. 1. E. Cathery, Sec'y 
Hull Seamen's Union 

1 Railway St., Hull G. W. McKee, Sec'y 

United Kingdom Pilots' Association 
69 Queens Square, Bristol Joseph Brown, Sec'y 

GREECE 
Federation Panhellenique des Ouvriers Corpotations 

Maritimes (Greece Seamen's Federation) 
Le Pireaus, Greece T. Mallossis, Sec'y 

HOLLAND 

Zeelieden Vereeniging-Eendracht (Dutch Seamen's 

Union) 
Vestaland 22, Rotterdam D. L. Wolfson, Sec'y 



ITALY 
Federazione Nazionale di Lavatori de Mare (Italian 

Seamen's Federation) 
Piazza St., Larcellino, Genoa.. Capt. G. Gulietti, Sec. 



NORWAY 

Norsk Matros & Fyrboter-Union (Norwegian 

Sailors & Firemen's Union) 

Grev Wedels Plads 5, Christiania. . A. Birkeland, Sec. 

Norsk Sjorestaurations Landsforbund (Norwegian 

Cooks & Stewards' Union) 
Gronlandsleret 5, Christiania. .H. Johannessen, Sec'y 



SWEDEN 

Svenska Sjomans Unionen (Swedish Sailors' 

Union) 

Fjerde Langgatan 25, Gothenburg. .E. Griph, Sec'y 

Svenska Eldare Unionen (Swedish Firemen's Union) 

Andra Langgatan 46, Gothenburg 

S. Lundgreen, Sec'y 

Nya Stewartsforeningen (New Swedish Stewards' 
Union) 

Stigsbergsgatan 12, Gothenburg 

C. Q. Johannsan, Sec'y 



International Seamen's Union 
of America 

(Continued from Page 2) 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 875 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM MEEHAN, Agent 

128% Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal , 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



75,000 Friends 

"THIS bank, through its various departments and branches, serves 
1 more than 75,000 customers. These customers are our friends 
and it is our endeavor to render an efficient and complete banking 
service to them at all times. €Jwe cordially welcome you to our 
ever-growing list of customers. One splendid way to become a 
depositor in this bank is to open a savings account. Savings 
accounts may be started with $1 or more and the same courteous 
friendly service is given to both small and large depositors. 

Anglo-CaliforniaTrust Cq 



COMMKRCIAI. 



TRUST BOND I)E PARTME NTS 




Trfw Ciiyr*Wide BankZ 

Market & Sansome Streets 
San Francisco 





A COPY OF AXTELL'S HAND BOOK, 

"Rights and Duties of Merchant Seamen" 

WILL SAVE SEAMEN TIME, LITIGA- 
TION AND MONEY. WILL PREVENT 
MUCH INJUSTICE IF SHOWN TO 
OFFICERS AND CONSULAR AGENTS. 
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH 
A POUND OF CURE. 

You can also learn much about the 
political law making and law enforcing 
institutions of your country from this 
book; equal opportunity before the law 
is the essence of American democracy. 
Read this and find out what equal 
opportunity means. 

RIGHTS AND DUTIES PUB. CO. 

Iver Olbers, A. B., Sales Manager 
28 Whitehall Street, New York City 



SAILORS ! ATTENTION ! 
When in Eureka, drop in at — 

BENJAMIN'S 

The old reliable Clothier and Shoe Man 

Fourteen years of square dealing with Seamen 

325-329 Second Street, EUREKA, California 



SMOKERS 



See that this label (in light blue) appears on 
the box in which you are served 




__. SEPT. 1880^-"^ . 
Issued by Authority oi the Cigar Makers" International Union of America. 

Union-made Cigars. 

uJtttS Gflliflrf Ihtt tht CqMi cont«ntd mthit box hi*f b«a nuOi by* lirSl-QSS WMlOU 
iMtUKKOf THt &CM UM[Q 'IHU RMTIOMl UNIOKoT A«tf>c« in otuMX** devoted t» ftt at 
**n«Bfnt of t»e MORAlJMTlHIAlindlNmiiClUALWtlfAWOf TMl 0Wl Itew1«y»3«i !iTMU 



UtM Cojr j to ill vdkMn iVoughout tht moht 



¥. K &L4tCiUi t toe*** 

V CMlUof 



DEMAND THE UNION LABEL 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 

Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"If you want a becoming 
hat, be coining to " 



largest Exclusive Hatters in the West 

MAIN STORE 1082 MARKET 

26 THIRD 605 KEARNY 

3242 MISSION 2640 MISSION 

cAlso in Los Angeles 
cAgencies in other California Cities 



Little Louis had gone to the 
kitchen to observe old Aunt Sarah. 
the colored cook, at work making 
bisCUlt9. After he had sampled 

one. he observed: 

"Aunt Sarah. I can spell now. 
These are made out of d-o, do." 

"But that doesn't spell dough." 
Louis's mother corrected, as she 
entered the kitchen to give the 
cook some orders. 

\\ hereupon, Aunt Sarah thought 
that she, too, would enter the dis- 
cussion. So she said: 

"Dere's two kinds of do, chile. 
'Do,' what you shuts, an' 'do,' what 
you eats." — Philadelphia Public 
I .edger. 

Mystery Note.— When financiers 

dine together they talk about art. 
When artists dine together tln\ 
talk about money. 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



Standard Seamanship 

for the 

Merchant Service 

By FELIX RIESENBERG, E. C. 
Late Commander of the schoolship "Newport" 



942 Pages and 625 Illustrations — Price, $7.50 
D. Van Nostrand Company, Publishers 



Containing virtually all the knowl- 
edge extant that conquers the sea 
through seamanship 



Descriptive Folder Mailed on Application 

SEND YOUR ORDERS TO 

THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

525 Market Street - - - San Francisco, Calif. 



Do You Want the Truth? 



This year there will be stirring 
times in the Nation. Under news 
censorship by the "interests" it is 
increasingly difficult for the aver- 
age man to get the real meaning 
of the social and political move- 
ments of the day. 

LaFollette's 
Magazine 

will be specially represented at 
Washington and will analyze and 
present the news from the capital 
truthfully and fairly. Senator La- 
Follette is making a real fight to 
life some of the tax burdens from 
the common people and place them 
where they belong — on excess prof- 
its, war profits and surplus fortunes 
and incomes. 

Send in your order today 

$1.00 Per Year— Agents Wanted 
La Follette's Magazine, Madison, Wis. 



TACOMA, WASH. 



Seafaring Men! 

When at 
TACOMA SMELTER (RUSTON) 

Visit 

WARD & GRUNDEN'S 

POOL HALL 

All Leading Brands of Cigars and 
Tobacco — Soft Drinks 

5811 North 51st St., corner Pearl St. 
(Close to Car Line) 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When in TACOMA, Visit 

Brewer & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 
CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



BEST SMOKE ON EARTH 

RED SEAL CIGAR 

UNION MADE 

RED SEAL CIGAR CO. 

Manufacturers 

762 Valencia St., San Francisco 
Phone Park 9401 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



Heroine (in the melodrama) — 
What are those shrieks? 

The Villain (relentlessly)— They 
have tied an American to a chair 
and are showing him a bottle of 
Johnny Walker. — 'The American 
Brewer. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

EVERYTHING GUARANTEED 
UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



Office Phone: Main 5190 
Residence .Phone: Elliott 5825 



CAPT. T. E. MARSHALL 
CAPT. F. A. MARSHALL 



MARSHALL'S 

LIFE BOAT SCHOOL 

We Teach and Drill You in a Life Boat 
435 Globe Bldg., First and Madison SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 
Connection 
Broadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



UNITED STATES 



^ 



LABOR 

isconceded by £* 
authority to b e iV 
erealestABVB*^ 

MWUMmthcWo 5 * 
ltreache stKeitla35es 



K3? 



NEW LOCATION 

K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 
1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



!\ > 



pKESS 

«Sn,Ta m H^t^^ 

•,-, v<.a: ,-,f .m ^~ 

ffifcclAI. DEVELOPMENT, 

gtaborPaper published 

■ . ■- . • 

EMPLOYEE UYERand 



ASSOCIATION 



j-22^. 



ywAi 



CATARRH 
of BLADDER 



Guard Your Health 

Be Sure To Use 



isanykitS 



TbcUandylProphylactlcKit for Men 

PREVENTIVE 

Affords Utmost Protection 
Tubel5c. Kit (4's) $1 

All DruiririsU or San-Y-Kit Co. 

81 Heekmaii St., New York 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 

For the BEST there Is in TAILORING 

Less the Fancy Prices 

NOTE— S. G. Swanson is not con- 
nected with any dye works and has 
no solicitors. Clothes made also from 
your own cloth. Repairing, cleaning 
and pressing. Second floor, Bank of 
San Pedro, 110 W 6th St., San Pedro, 
Los Angeles Waterfront, Cal. 



What Can It Be?— The bedroom 
farce, we are told, is going out 
of style. They must have found 
something more suggestive to take 
its place. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



The crews of the Oregon and 
of the Edna will do well in cor- 
responding with me about their 
pay, which was cut off when the 
vessels were captured by the Eng- 
lish in 1916. S. T. Hogevoll, 909 
Pacific Building, San Francisco. 



Wanted information as to the 
whereabouts of James Dolan, who, 
in 1886, was coal passer on 
steamer George W. Elder. Com- 
municate with B. I. La Selle, 504 
Phelan Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 



SEAMEN 
You Know Me 




"YOUR HATTER" 

FRED AMMANN 

I sell 
UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



Navigation Laws of 
the United States 

The Seamen's Act and all other 
features of the law applicable 
to seamen. 
Handbook, Navigation Laws of 

the United States 
Third edition. Including wage 
tables, department rulings, etc. 
Completely indexed. A ready 
reference work for practical sea- 
men, shipmasters and ship own- 
ers. Price $1.50. 

The Seaman's Contract 
A complete reprint of all laws 
relating to seamen as enacted 
by Congress, 1790-1918. Includ- 
ing the laws of Oleron and a 
summary of the history of each 
law. Reprinted verbatim from 
the Statutes at Large and Re- 
vised Statutes, Tables and In- 
dex. Designed for the use of 
admiralty lawyers. Price $4.00. 
Compiled by Walter Macarthur 
Published by 
JAMES H. BARRY CO. 
1122 Mission St., San Francisco 



They Arc Still Exempt.— The 
bootleggers will probably not care 
much how zealously they are 
chased so long as they are not 
compelled to pay taxes on their 
incomes. 



November, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



BOSS"* TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

0Q$&S\l Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



The United States Government 

offers you a 

COMPLETE SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT 
SERVICE 

* * * 

POSTAL SAVINGS 

for the deposit of your money 

Treasury Savings Certificates 

for investment 

* * * 

AT THE POST OFFICE 



The little daughter of a Chicago 
school principal is now a pupil at 
the experimental school at the 
University, where she learns some 
things not taught in the regular 
city schools. One day her father 
found her crying. "What's the 
matter, Noreen?" he asked. 

"I fell and bumped my patella," 
she replied. (Remember, this was 
in Chicago, and not in Boston.) 
Father was sympathetic. "Poor 
little girl," he said, and proceeded, 
with the best intentions, to exam- 
ine her elbow. Noreen broke away. 

"Huh!" she snorted. "I said my 
patella! That isn't my elbow. My 
elbow is my great sesamoid." 
Father went for a dictionary. — The 
Christian Register. 



"Are you sure you have shown 
me all the principal parts of this 
car?" asked the fair prospective 
purchaser. 

"Yes, madam, all the main ones," 
replied the dealer. 

"Well, then, where is the depre- 
ciation? Tom told me that was 
one of the biggest things about a 
car." — The Argonaut (San Fran- 
cisco). 



In speaking of the ultra-modern 
young woman it is no longer up- 
to-date to use the term "flapper." 
They are now called "Easter eggs," 
because they are hand-painted on 
the outside and hard-boiled on the 
inside! — Reformed Church Messen- 
ger. 



Phone Garfield 2457 

HOTEL EVANS 

ED COLL, Prop. 

LARGE SUNNY ROOMS 
Clean, Comfortable — Low Rates 

CORNER FRONT AND BROADWAY 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Kearny 3863 

JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing. All kinds of Watches and 
Jewelry 

676 THIRD STREET 

At 3rd and Townsend, San Francisco 

Phone Kearny 519 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 5348 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



France says she will pay us after 
she collects from Germany Well, 
at that rate we will always have 
something coming. 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



November, 1922 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
I any branch of Navigation. 
| The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
md Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




TTNTON MADF ^ complete line of seamen's shirts and 

garments of all kinds, union made right 

^HIRT^l ' iere m California, sold direct from factory 

to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Pier No. 1, Rooms 37-38-39 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



{^ The Popular Price Jewelry Store jfef^v 

Sorensen Co. 



Watches 

Jewelry 

Silverware 

Clocks Cut Class 

Optical Goods Umbrellas 



715 Market Street 



Third and Fourth 

Repairing Oi 
Spi 




FOR TOYS! 

Select Toys Now 
No Deposit Required ! 

We arc showing a full line 
of assorted imported Spear 
Games, Kestner Dolls, K. 
& W. Dolls and exclusive 
Hale-Dressed Dolls. An in- 
teresting novelty Ballet Doll 
from Vienna can be attached 
to any size phonograph — 
twirls while record is play- 
ing, keeping time with the 
music ! 

Make your selections now, 
while stocks are complete — 
while salespeople have plenty 
of time to give you imme- 
diate and full attention — 
while you can avoid the last- 
minute Christmas rush! We 
have arranged a system 
whereby you can have any 
Toy article put away NOW 
without deposit! Delivery 
made at your convenience. 
Ask About Our "Lay-Away 
Toy" Service 

— Third Floor 
Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished- Hard wearing 



$ 



33 



WORSTED 
SUITS 

See Them in our Windows - 



efs 




152-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts In 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 

SAVINGS BANK 



783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 




Official Organ of the International Seamen's Union of America 

yiiir:iiiiiiimiiniimiiiniinmiimiiiirji!iiiiiimir:iiiiii!!iiiinnin 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

Page 

THE "DRIVE" FOR SHIP SUBSIDY 3 

UNIFICATION OF MARITIME LAW 4 

WE ARE ALL EMPLOYERS 5 

EDITORIALS. 

WHAT OF THE FUTURE? 6 

DEATH OF CONGRESSMAN JOHN I. NOLAN 7 

ANTI-STRIKE LAW REPUDIATED 7 

"ADVANCED THINKING" 8 

WAGES VERSUS "OUTPUT PER MAN" 9 

THE NOVEMBER ELECTION 10 

DO YOU READ BOOKS? 11 

THE UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD'S FLEET 12 

THE TRUTH ABOUT THE FASCISTI 12 

AN INTERESTING SALVAGE CASE 13 

THE RIVER PLATE REPUBLICS : ... 13 

"STREAKS OF FORTUNE" 14 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 15 

UNION CRUSHERS TO BE TRIED 16 

AN ISLAND MUSEUM 16 

THE TWELVE-HOUR SHIFT 17 

TANKER TONNAGE GROWING 18 

"TIME BACK" (By Samentu) 18 

AUTOMATIC STEERING 19 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 20, 21, 22, 23 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 24, 25, 26 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

VOL XXXVI No 8 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

' " mailing at special rate of postage provided 



WHOLE No. 1907 



for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
DEC. 1, 1922 



^■niiiiiiiiicaiiiiiifiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiiEaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiicsiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiica iiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiihiiiiiiiiiiiihiiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiimiiihiiiiiiiiiiiihiiii^ 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L-. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

70 South Street 

BALTIMORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa O. CHRISTIANSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RTVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S. OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Phone John 0975 and 0976 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

206 Moravian Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

•ALVESTON, Tex CHAS. W. HANSON, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN OLSEN, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va PETER McKILLOP, Agent 

513 East Main Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La THOMAS MILLIGAN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

Branches: 
•LOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 
NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAG AN, Agent 

111 South Street 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

•HICAGO, HI 355 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 
Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 44 

ASHTABULA HARBOR, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y _ 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca 9048 

Branches: 

ASHTABULA, O J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

74 Bridge Street 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 332 North Michigan Avenue 

Phone Dearborn 6413 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 355 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 308 West Superior Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ASHTABULA, HARBOR, 74 Bridge Street 

SOUTH CHICAGO, 111 3308 E. 92nd Street 

CONNEAUT HARBOR, 992 Day Street 

TOLEDO, 618 Front Street 

NORTH TONAWANDA, N. Y 122% Main Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

BAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C P. HOCKADAY, Agent 

135 Cordova Street, West 
P. O. Box 571 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2115% North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102 

SEATTLE, Wash » P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

51 North Union Avenue 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS. Agent 

P. O. Box 314 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 
UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 

(Continued on Page 27.) 



December, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE "DRIVE" FOR SHIP SUBSIDY 




ONGRESS is in special session. The 
terms of the Senators and Represen- 
tatives, who were defeated on No- 
vember 7, do not expire until March 
J of next year. So these repudiated 
statesmen will continue to legislate for 
America and, if President Harding has his 
way, will saddle upon the country a Ship- 
subsidy scheme that cannot be defended in 
open court. It has been said that the Ship 
Subsidy bill is one of the biggest gold bricks 
the American people were ever called upon 
to buy, and this is literally true. 

The Subsidy campaign has been based on 
everything but education. The supporters 
of this measure have made no attempt to 
discuss it. Instead, they howl for a Mer- 
chant Marine and infer that everyone who 
opposes looting the treasury by ship owners 
is against a Merchant Marine. This bom- 
bast and bluster is intended to sweep the 
people off their feet. It is a hysteria cam- 
paign, with every 100 per cent American on 
the band wagon. It was the same system 
used when the notorious Cummins-Esclr bill 
was jammed through Congress. 

The leader in this campaign is Chairman 
Lasker of the Shipping Board. He is "sell- 
ing" subsidy by the same "rush-act" methods 
he would conduct a "selling" campaign for 
chewing gum, tar roofing or mineral water. 
The record of the Joint Congressional Com- 
mittee that held hearings on the bill shows 
that Mr. Lasker testified : 

I had no idea you gentlemen would ask me to 
give the testimony. All of it has been given me, 
but my mind can not hold it all. You will save a 
lot of time if you will let us start putting on 
experts. 

I have really only been a regular advertising 
expert until I came down here to handle this 
shipping. 

I was the only man who would take this job. 
The President couldn't get anyone else, and as Eva 
Tanguay sings in her song, "Gee, it is great to be 
crazy." 

In opposing the bill the minority of the 
House Committee on Merchant Marine and 
fisheries states that Chairman Lasker is giv- 
ing wide publicity to his prepared statement 
at the hearings, which he read, "but it is 
significant that he is omitting the cross- 
examination of himself upon such statement." 

The minority report also refers to letters 



by a representative of shipping interests who 
advised subsidy advocates to send in writ- 
ten statements to the committee, rather than 
appear in person, "as this method will also 
prevent cross-examination of witnesses." 

This statement by the committee shows 
the policy of subsidy advocates — Dodge 
facts ! Insinuate that American crews are 
"high-priced." But always indulge in gen- 
eralities ! Howl for a Merchant Marine to 
scare opposition, and denounce everyone as 
un-American who opposes this raid on the 
United States Treasury ! 

Of the twenty-eight witnesses who ap- 
peared before the committee in favor of the 
bill, nine represented the Shipping Board, 
nine represented private shipping interests, 
and all others, with possibly two or three 
exceptions, did so at the instance of the Ship- 
ping Board or shipping interests, says the 
Minority Committee. 

Subsidy opponents made such a strong- 
case against the bill that the majority report 
of the House Committee, while favoring the 
bill, makes this acknowledgment: 

"A permanent and healthy Merchant 
Marine can never be established merely by 
paying subsidies." 

The public is not aware of this statement 
by the majority members of the House Com- 
mittee. The press, which resents being re- 
ferred to as "subsidized,"' makes no mention 
of this statement that strikes at the founda- 
tion of the subsidy principle. Instead, news- 
papers are screeching that a healthy Mer- 
chant Marine is not possible without a sub- 
sidy. 

Another important fact concealed from 
the public is that excepting France none 
of the European maritime nations subsidize 
their merchant ships. England has not used 
the subsidy for three hundred years. That 
country only pays for carrying mail as does 
the United States. Japan is the second mari- 
time country that subsidizes its ships. 

This information was published by the 
Shipping Board in a pamphlet that was with- 
drawn when these facts were discovered. 
What was intended to aid the subsidy proved 
a boomerang. 

Not a single candidate dared advocate ship 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



subsidy at the recent election. No mention 
was made of ship subsidy in the platform of 
either of the political parties at the last 
national election. The dominant party's dec- 
laration at that time for a Merchant Marine 
is now used to justify the subsidy bill. 

This is the sort of logic that would defend 
highway robbery on the ground that a man 
must earn a living. 

The subsidy is a vicious proposal. No bill 
was ever presented to Congress that was 
backed by such incorrect statements, such 
hysteria and exaggeration, such appeals for 
unstable patriotism, such possibilities for loot 
and such power to a minor department of 
government — the Shipping Board. 

The bill should be — and will be — defeated. 
Its one hope is in a Congress that has been 
repudiated by the people. 



UNIFICATION OF MARITIME LAW 



An international Convention relating to 
maritime liens and mortgages, limitation of 
liability, etc.. was adopted at the diplomatic 
conference which met at Brussels, Belgium, 
during October. The convention is the out- 
come of efforts initiated at Antwerp in 1898. 
and brings up to date the draft convention 
of 1913, no action upon which was taken 
owing to the war. It aims at unifying the 
divergent maritime statutes of the various 
countries, and will have force of law if it is 
ratified by the twenty-four nations which 
sent delegates to the convention. 

As is well known, maritime liens are privi- 
leged claims upon a ship carried into effect 
by legal process. In English and American 
law, a lien is carried into effect by proceed- 
ing in rem — that is, by proceeding against 
the ship itself to enforce the personal liability 
of the shipowner. Under English law only a 
few claims, such as salvage, damage, wages, 
and bottomry are supported by lien. The 
laws of other countries, on the other hand, 
admit very numerous liens for various ser- 
vices rendered to, or in respect of damages 
inflicted by, the ship. Once a lien attaches 
to a ship it stands as a preferential claim, 
and, under most national laws, even a pur- 
chaser for value without notice of the lien 
takes possession subject to it. Existing liens, 
however, give place in point of priority to 



those accruing later because the latest ser- 
vice tends to preserve the ship. 

Mortgages rank after liens, and therefore 
there is a risk, if a ship accumulates liens 
in the course of her trading, that a mortgage 
may fail to obtain repayment in full. Be- 
sides becoming subject to maritime liens, 
ships may become subject to possessory liens 
in favor of repairers, or to detention and sale 
for non-payment of dock or harbor dues. A 
mortgage is, therefore, an inferior kind of 
security. But, under recent American legis- 
lation, "preferred mortgages" may be given. 
which, while ranking after liens of prior date 
and certain liens (for damage, wages and 
salvage), take precedence of all other liens. 
such as those in respect of repairs, supplies, 
towage, pilotage, etc. 

The international convention as adopted at 
Brussels is based on the American system, 
largely owing to the efforts of the Ameri- 
can delegates, Judge Hough and Norman 
Beecher. It first of all ranks liens in a cer- 
tain order. The kinds of liens may be 
roughly indicated as follows: 

1. Court fees due to the State and expense 
incurred for the common benefit, light and 
port dues, pilotage and preservation expenses. 

2. Wage.-. 

3. Salvage and general average. 

4. Damage. 

5. Necessaries. 

(>. Claims arising from bills of lading. 

The convention also provides that mort- 
gages are to rank after liens 1 to 4, that 
national laws may provide additional liens, 
and that liens 5 and 6, and also arty such 
additional liens, are to rank before mortgages 
if prior in date to the mortgage and if 
registered. 

The convention differs from the draft 
adopted in 1913 not only in the provision- 
as to mortgages, but in allowing an indefi- 
nite increase in the kinds of claim which arc 
to carry preferential rights by way of lien. 
Under the 1913 draft convention, the number 
of liens was increased relatively to the num- 
ber allowed by English law. but the list was 
fixed, and no additions could be made. Now 
there is to be no limit. It is only when the 
shipowner is in financial difficulty that the 
question of priority of lien becomes impor- 
tant, and it is questionable whether in equity 



December, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



some creditors should be preferred to others 
unless preferential rights accrue only to those 
fairly entitled to come before others. 

As regards limitation of liability, the con- 
vention effects a compromise between Eng- 
lish law and other practice. English law 
limits shipowners' liability to £8 per ton 
of the ship, or £15 in case of personal in- 
jury, taking no account of difference in value 
between ships. American and Continental 
laws, on the other hand, are based on the 
actual value of the ship, including pending- 
freight, taking into account sea damage, so 
that, in the event of a ship being lost, claim- 
ants may be without redress. 

The convention adopts, broadly speaking, 
the English basis, which was advocated by 
the American delegates, with the modification 
that in substitution for the freight (where 
ship and freight are abandoned), a lump sum, 
due in any case, of 10 per cent of the value 
of the ship at the beginning of the voyage 
is fixed. At present, under the American and 
Continental systems, when the ship is totally 
lost, claimants in collision cases may fail to 
recover anything. But under the new sys- 
tem this 10 per cent will remain in any case. 
In addition, the special fund for life claims 
as fixed by English law, has been fully main- 
tained. 

Unity of effort among the English and 
American delegates was also responsible for 
the adoption of The Hague Rules by the Con- 
ference in the same form as agreed in Lon- 
don a few weeks previously, with one excep- 
tion ; i. e., the rule as to notice of claims 
for damage. The provision for notice on de- 
livery has been altered in favor of the mer- 
chant by giving three months' time in case 
of non-apparent damage, but the period at 
the end of which claims are fully barred has 
been reduced from two years to one year. 

On the burning topic of legal immunity of 
State shipping, the majority of the delegates 
were precluded by their instructions from 
taking positive action, and the matter was 
held over. It is to be hoped that a clear 
definition of a public vessel will soon be 
made in the interest of private shipowners 
and merchants who are now deprived of legal 
redress for damage inflicted by such vessels 
when used for trading purposes. — "Nauticus." 



WE ARE ALL EMPLOYERS 



It is a common practice of wage earners to 
find fault with their employers. Often they 
may have just cause so to do, although from 
force of habit many of them probably would 
do so whether justified or not. It is more 
natural for all of us to find some one at fault 
other than ourselves. 

But in all the criticism that wage earners 
may direct toward employers, let it be under- 
stood that labor itself is the greatest employer 
of all. Each of us, in our capacity as pur- 
chaser of the necessities or the comforts or 
luxuries of life, is an employer and all of us 
together make labor the greatest employer. 

When we criticize an employer for his ex- 
hibit of antagonism to the desires of labor, let 
us reflect and see how much of his defiant 
attitude toward us is due to our indifference 
as to our acts as employers ourselves. 

We are told that the members of organized 
labor receive $5,000,000,000 per year in wages. 
The sum can not be far from correct. A 
buyer of $5,000,000,000 per year could domi- 
nate nearly all markets. Collectively, organ- 
ized labor is that buyer, but it does not domi- 
nate because the members of organized labor 
do not perform their duty as employers. 

Let us be more consistent and square our 
conduct a little better with our principles. 
We do not see how any man can claim to be 
a real good union man and still, in his own 
capacity as employer, • give employment to 
non-union help exclusively. 

If any union member never thought of this 
thing in just this light, it is hoped that this 
may call it to his attention and that he will 
not soon forget it. There is no man in the 
trade union movement so brilliant or able 
that conduct amounting to unfair employ- 
ment can be excusable. 

Neither is any member of organized labor 
justified in a wrong employing policy because 
some one else does the same thing. Two 
wrongs do not make a right. In the capacity 
of employer, let us be consistent and employ 
union members by insisting on union labels, 
shop cards and buttons. 



When labor is true to itself it will have 
no further need to ask favors of its "friends." 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN, Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON, Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

THOMAS A. HANSON, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 

■>® 



DECEMBER 1. 1922 



WILVT OF THE FUTURE 



Everyone who reads and thinks knows that 
there are recessions and progressions of the 
trade-union movement, just as there is an 
ebb and flow of the tide. The labor move- 
ment is helped on in days of prosperity and 
retarded in days of adversity ; but, gaining 
wisdom and experience in periods of indus- 
trial depression, it rushes on to new heights 
with each recurring period of prosperity. 

A mere glimpse at the reports of member- 
ship published in the annual convention pro- 
ceedings of the International Seamen's Union 
of America indicates clearly that the growth 
of membership has been in cycles ; that is to 
say, the increase has been much greater in 
some years than in others. This fact may be 
attributed to a number of circumstances, but 
it is due principally to the state of world 
trade as it is affected by industrial activity 



or stagnation. A brief examination of the 
periods which mark the most rapid progress 
and by comparing industrial conditions, then 
and now, it would seem that we have reached 
another of those psychological moments when 
the work of organization should take on new 
impetus. 

It is acknowledged, of course-, that labor 
organizations do not grow automatically. At 
any rate, unions of seamen do not evolve 
from struggling, impotent units into strong, 
effective organizations as caterpillars evolve 
into butterflies or as small boys evolve into 
big men. True, the union shop agre< men 1 
recruits new members without any special 
effort on the part of members or representa- 
tives of the union, yet a union that depends 
for its success entirely upon an "agreement" 
with the employers will never acquire tin- 
strength and vitality so essential to perma- 
nent progress and stability. 

It is an old saying that "what is really 
worth having is worth fighting for." And 
this is particularly true of the unions. If a 
union is to rise to its fullest possibilities, 
everyone officers and members alike — must 
put forth some earnest effort, everyone must 
be willing to make some sacrifice to bring- 
within the fold of the union every man eligi- 
ble to membership. To be sure, the actual 
work of organization devolved, in a large 
measure, upon the salaried officers. And yet, 
it is sate to say that no system of organiza- 
tion can prove so effective as one wherein 
the individual member of the union takes 
an active and substantial part. 

Let each member be ever alert and con- 
stant in the determination to make his union 
a tower of strength, an ever growing pro- 
tection to himself and his comrades, and an 
example to all who are earnestly striving to 
perfect collective self-help. Under such con- 
ditions it is never very difficult to bring all 
employed at the calling into the fold of the 
union. 

Unhappily, there are still too many mem- 
bers who feel and act as though, in paying 
their union dues, they have discharged full 
responsibility and that no further effort should 
be required of them. These men, no less than 
the unorganized outside the fold, must be 
taught the real meaning of unionism. Just 



December, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



think what splendid progress could be made 
if every union man should constitute himself 
an organizer and should give only half an 
hour a day to the work of the organization ! 
If each union member should single out one 
non-union acquaintance and persist in an 
effort to organize that man, what a short time 
it would take to organize all the toilers of 
the sea ! 

And if all were organized, how much less 
difficult it would be to secure higher wages, 
shorter hours, and better conditions of life 
and labor? Think it over and talk it over. 
But above all, never forget that there is no 
help for those who can not or will not help 
themselves. Unionism is collective self-help ! 



DEATH OF JOHN I. NOLAN 



By the death of Congressman John I. Nolan, 
of San Francisco, the seamen of America have 
lost an able champion, a loyal friend and a 
spokesman in Congress who always had the 
courage of his convictions. 

John I. Nolan was born in San Francisco, 
January 14, 1874. He was educated in the 
city's public schools and served his appren- 
ticeship as an iron molder. He became sec- 
retary of the local union of his craft and 
eventually an officer of the International 
Molders' Union of North America. Just be- 
fore his election to Congress, Nolan was sec- 
retary and legislative agent of the San Fran- 
cisco Labor Council. While acting in the 
latter capacity he was largely responsible for 
the enactment of much of the humane legisla- 
tion which has caused California to be recog- 
nized as one of the most progressive States 
in the Union. 

Nolan was first elected to Congress in 1912, 
from the Fifth California District, and has 
been re-elected five times, nearly always unan- 
imously, as this year, having captured the 
Democratic as well as the Republican nomi- 
nation at the primary. The term for which 
he was chosen on November 7 would not 
have expired until March 4, 1925. 

Nolan was one of the few Government offi- 
cials having the unanimous support of the 
American labor movement throughout his 
career. He not only had the continuous 
endorsement of the American Federation of 



Labor, but encountered no labor opposition 
in his district during his successive campaigns 
for re-election to Congress. This, of course, 
was largely due to his inherently fine qualities ; 
for he was recognized as the leader of the 
labor group in Congress, and during the past 
two years was chairman of the important 
Committee on Labor. John I. Nolan never 
once wavered in his earnest and effective fight 
for the men who toil, combating their op- 
ponents with courage, dignity and surpassing- 
ability. He was a manly man, who dared to 
stand alone in righting for a good cause 
against a bad one, no matter what the per- 
sonal sacrifice. He never gave a thought as 
to whether he would "survive or perish." 

When the seamen were confronted with the 
Scott bill, designed to increase the working 
hours of marine firemen on the Great Lakes 
from eight to twelve per day, Nolan took it 
upon himself to conduct the seamen's fight 
on the floor of the House of Representatives. 

The editor of the Journal, together with 
Patrick O'Brien, witnessed that memorable 
battle from the gallery. The Congressional 
Record can necessarily tell only a part of the 
story. Nolan was a sick man at that time, 
but he virtually threw himself into that fight, 
using up more real energy in a few hours 
than the average man would give in a month. 
Nolan won the fight for the eight-hour day 
and many other battles, but he gave all too 
freely from his ever diminishing physical 
strength. A giant in courage and intellect, 
he refused to give heed to the counsel of his 
friends to take life a little easier. The in- 
evitable result was his forced retirement to 
the hospital and the inability of his frail body 
to rally after an operation. 

John I. Nolan is dead. His native city gave 
him a funeral such as no prince or potentate 
ever had. All San Francisco testified to the 
fact that a real man had passed away — 
passed all too soon into the great beyond. 

Farewell, old friend, farewell ! 



ANTI-STRIKE LAW REPUDIATED 



The notorious Industrial Court of Kansas 
seems doomed. The late election settled that 
particular anti-strike statute. Jonathan M. 
Davis, Governor-elect, has announced deft- 



8 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



nitely that there is "no need or place for it in 
Kansas" and that it will be his purpose to 
have the court abolished. It is believed that 
if the new Governor finds no other way of 
destroying the court he will seek to do so by 
vetoing all bills carving appropriations for 
the court. 

In a statement issued at Lawrence, Kan., 
outlining his purpose, the Governor-elect, who 
during the campaign was opposed by all the 
forces that Governor Allen could muster, 
made the following declaration : 

The industrial court law has been unfair and un- 
just and there is no need or a place for it in Kan- 
sas. There have been only a few cases before it 
and none of them has been settled satisfactorily. 

The State needs officers who will arrest the 
wealthy man as quickly as the poor man and then 
the public will respect officers of the law and laws 
will be obeyed. 

Obnoxious laws cannot exist as long as I am 
Governor. The industrial court law is one of them. 

The passing of Governor Allen and his 
creed is another skyrocket that for the mo- 
ment attracted attention. Allen traveled 
through the country urging his "can't-strike" 
law, which was copied from the English code 
of the Middle Ages. He was advertised like 
a three-ring circus by secret and open de- 
fenders of reaction in the hope that his un- 
American doctrine would spread. Two years 
ago he was seriously urged as a Vice-Presi- 
dential candidate, because, the public was 
told, he "has solved the labor problem." 

Almost single handed, organized labor 
fought Alienism. Trade unionists repeatedly 
predicted Allen's finish when urging workers 
not to be swept off their feet by this latest 
frenzy and fad. Well, the end came sooner 
than expected ! 



"ADVANCED THINKING" 



The strike for an eight-hour day, called by 
the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes on 
October 1, will be carried on with renewed 
vigor next spring, according to an announce- 
ment by Secretary Nolan. The Lake Car- 
riers' Association has declined to arbitrate 
and insists upon forcing its infamous "wel- 
fare" discharge book upon all men employed. 
The Lake seamen arc to be congratulated 
upon their stubborn resistance to a form of 
slavery which, if general in the United States, 
would set the workers back into serfdom as 
bad as that prevailing during the feudal age. 



Men with only a superficial knowdedge of 
the American labor movement sometimes 
imagine that only those are "progressive" or 
"advanced in their views" who spend most of 
their spare time in knocking the union and its 
officers. 

These knockers tell us trade-unionism is 
played out and we must adopt the "One Big 
Union" idea — the latest, up-to-the-minute 
form of organization. 

Back in 1869 Uriah Smith Stevens and his 
followers said the same things when they 
founded the old Knights of Labor in Phila- 
delphia; so did R. II. Amnion when he 
launched his "One Big Union" of railroad 
employes in Pittsburgh in 1887; so did the 
leaders of the American Railway Union, 
which was founded in Chicago in 1893; BO did 
the leaders of the Socialist Trades and Labor 
Alliance, organized in 1895; so did the Organ- 
izers of the I. W. W., launched in Chicago m 
1905, and split in two factions shortly there- 
after; and so did the founders of numer- 
ous similar though less advertised sideshows 
to the American labor movement, extending 
over a period of more than fifty years. 

The moves of the "intelligencia" and the 
self-styled "advanced thinkers" On labor prob- 
lems in the United States and Canada have 
proven complete failures in both theory and 
practice, as far as the workers were con- 
cerned. The experimenters not only failed to 
rally the workers to their programs, but 
themselves violated the very first principle of 
working class unity by undermining the true 
organizations of labor that are based upon 
economic interest. They are responsible for 
several "modern industrial unions" existing 
at the present time on the railroads in the 
United States, whose combined membership 
is only a small fraction of the railroad em- 
ployes organized in the trade unions — all 
conceived in the name of solidarity; all advo- 
cating unity of the workers and at the same 
time waging war upon each other, as well 
as against the trade unions. With such a 
showing in one industry— and it is their best 
—after more than fifty years of effort, ran 
there be any wonder that the workers have 
not seen tit to scrap their organizations and 



December, 1922 



HE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



swallow the bombastic, inflated fads and 
fancies of their would-be saviors and guides? 
There are many who are victims of self- 
deception and are ignorant of the evolution 
towards greater unity that is constantly tak- 
ing place in the labor movement. It is going 
through evolutionary changes which none can 
avoid, regardless of all design or theory. 
Where industry and general conditions so 
develop, crafts are fused and organization by 
industry takes place in accordance with econ- 
omic law and human nature. There is no 
short cut to be taken ; nor can the changes 
be resoluted. 

We recognize the misery, poverty and 
evils which still surround the workers, but 
by the hard, cold facts of the past we have 
been taught that relief comes only through 
practical efforts, and that the abortive efforts 
of short-route artists do not hasten, but fre- 
quently retard progress. We can play on 
every string of the heart touching the ten- 
derest chords of human sympathy, and would 
readily apply a remedy for the evils that 
harass us, but we are forced to deal in a 
practical way with conditions and human 
nature as they are, not as we would want 
them to be ; and we refuse to discount the 
bitter experiences of the past. 

The workers demand relief from the ills of 
today, and years of effort have shown that 
they will get relief only by making use of 
the practical thing at hand — the present labor 
movement. It is practical because it deals 
with present problems, present conditions, 
and seeks to make each day a better one 
without waiting for millennial social changes 
— practical, further, because it believes in 
friendly relations with employers who are 
amenable to reason. 

The labor movement has marched and 
evolved ; it will continue forward, but it will 
not discard its policies, its methods or experi- 
ences at the superficial demand of a scattered 
handful of people who do not agree among 
themselves and who have done nothing to 
build up the movement they would destroy. 
Let honest experimenters and sincere the- 
orists fearlessly face the unpleasant every- 
day facts and join with us in striving to do 
practical things, and if these lead us into the 
land of any of their theories, very well. But 



we must devote ourselves to the immediate 
tasks at hand, rather than wait for the "sweet 
by and by." Idealism and the fondest dreams 
are not to be decried, but we must see with 
clear eyes that their realization tomorrow can 
come only through meeting in a sensible and 
practical way the problems of today. 



WAGES VS. "OUTPUT PER MAN 1 



The lives of forty-seven miners were sacri- 
ficed recently in the Argonaut mine, one of 
the best paying gold mines located in the 
mother lode district of California. 

The wages of these unfortunate (unorgan- 
ized) toilers were low, very low — considering 
the danger and every-day risk, and not men- 
tioning the fabulous output in gold per man. 
Perhaps it is just as well to be specific upon 
this point. The wages of the Argonaut mine 
victims were : 

Shovelers, muckers and car men, $3.50 to 
$3.75 a day ; most at $3.75 a day. Miners at 
$4, $4.25, $4.50 a day; most at $4.25 a day. 
In addition, there were two old miners at 
$150 a month each. 

By way of contrast it will be interesting to 
quote the average output per man. The 
figures for the Argonaut mine are not avail- 
able, but the California State Mineralogist has 
just made public the "average" output per 
man in the mineral industries of the Golden 
State. 

According to this State official, the average 
output per man in the mineral industries of 
California during last year was $7000. The 
total production for the year was $268,157,- 
472, and there were 38,000 miners employed. 
The report held that these figures showed 
that mining production per man was greater 
than agricultural production. 

And yet, notwithstanding this tremendous 
output per man, the people of California have 
been called upon to subscribe their pennies 
for the poor surviving dependents of the 
Argonaut miners. 

Truly, this is a topsy-turvy state of affairs. 
It is a strange commentary on man's in- 
humanity to man. Consider the output "per 
man" ! The miserly wages of the miners ! 
And then public charity for the surviving 
dependents of the Argonaut mine victims ! 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



THE NOVEMBER ELECTION 



The people, through Thomas Jefferson, 
smashed the Federalist party with its sedi- 
tion law and anti-democratic instincts. Six 
decades later the people wrote slavery's sen- 
tence and smashed the Whig party because 
liberty cannot compromise with traffic in 
human beings. 

Eight decades later — November, 1922 — the 
people's political expression marks the begin- 
ning of another era in the nation's life. 

This election differs from all others. It is 
the first time the United States Senate lost 
its characteristic of being the haven for privi- 
lege. The people have caused other political 
upheavels. The policies of other Adminis- 
trations have been rebuked, but this is the 
first time privilege has been challenged on 
the floor of the United States Senate. 

In every decade, in every generation, the 
"Old Guard" was considered invulnerable. 
Before the Civil War it was the bulwark of 
slavery. Following the Civil War the agents 
for steel, for textiles, for lumber, for the 
packing industry, for coal, for the railroads, 
were known and shamelessly proclaimed. 

Presidents could be defeated and Congress- 
men retired to private life, but the Senate 
system continued. 

. In late years, agitation against these politi- 
cal agents made some headway, but they 
could yet stand on the Senate floor and advo- 
cate handcuffing labor to its task, remove 
taxes from wealth, and urge a ship subsidy 
for the favored few. The recent election has 
changed this. The American house of lords 
no longer exists. The Senate has lost its 
characteristic. Industrial oligarchs will not 
control that body when the new Congress 
convenes. 

Another feature of this election was its 
non-partisanship. Men who berate Organ- 
ized Labor for its non-partisan attitude are 
jubilant over the people's victory, but fail to 
see that they are celebrating a victory made 
possible by non-partisanship. 

They condemn labor's political method, but 
they used that method to record the third 
significant political upheavel in the nation's 
history. Party labels were nothing to voters 
at this election. The power of party dis- 



cipline was nil. Voters "picked off" the de- 
fenders of privilege and elected by large ma- 
jorities honest men who were on the same 
ticket. 

\ oters refused to obey party mandates and 
broke the party spirit. Congressman Keller's 
party organization condemned him for dar- 
ing to impeach Attorney-General Daugherty. 
The people ignored the politicians and re- 
elected the Minnesota law-maker. Then they 
scratched Senator Kellogg on the same ticket 
and elected Dr. Shipstead, a Progressive with 
a sustained capacity for fighting. 

Voters everywhere adopted this non-parti- 
san policy. At no other election was Labor 
so victorious or its policy so completel) 
tained. The election proves that if the re- 
cent intensive campaign against Daugherty's 
injunction will be continued, or the sam> 
tation against child labor or other social 
wrongs, a public opinion can be created that 
will break the back of every opposition. 



A contemporary is of the opinion that the 
United States Shipping Board and its meth- 
ods, like tlie grace of God, pas.s all human 
understanding. Recently a Nelson liner, when 
75 miles north of Finisterre in bad weather, 
intercepted a wireless message from an 
American steamer requesting assistance be- 
cause her steam steering gear was disabled. 
She asked, however, that help should be given 
by a U. S. S. B. vessel. This, our contempor- 
ary asserts, will hardly help adherence to that 
grand old tradition of the sea that "it is the 
implied duty of all vessels in proximity to a 
ship in distress to render all the help in their 
] tower." A\'e agree. The tradition, as re- 
vised by the Shipping Board, is to "let her 
drift/' unless she belongs to the same com- 
pany ! 



The labor movement is the manifestation 
of that unrest born of the conviction that in- 
justice prevails which needs remedying and 
supplanting by justice and right. The labor 
movement voices the aspirations of the toil- 
ing masses as well as laws bare their wrongs. 
It is the means through which tyranny is 
held in check; it lives in their minds and 
hearts, and will not and cannot be crushed. 



December, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



DO YOU READ BOOKS? 



The letters received by the average trade- 
union editor cover a wide range of under- 
standing, mental attitude and viewpoint. 
Communications are received from some 
cock-sure individuals who are positive that 
the trade-union movement is almost all 
wrong, and that some particular theory which 
they hold is the only one which will enable 
the wage-earners to work out their industrial 
salvation. Others indicate that the writers 
have but few ideas of their own and but little 
knowledge of the problems which affect 
them. Then there are the letters from earn- 
est men who desire to become well-informed, 
who are anxious to know the truth, and who 
ask for assistance in securing the knowledge 
which they feel they must possess in order to 
make the most of their opportunities. 

It is an almost impossible task to tell the 
searcher after knowledge, what is the truth, 
and the whole truth, about the single tax, 
socialism, communism, bolshevism, syndical- 
ism, anarchy, co-operation, and the other 
theories and methods by which men have 
endeavored to solve the worker's problems. 
It is possible to give a fairly accurate defini- 
tion of any "ism" or theory which has been 
advanced. To be sure, the dictionary and 
the encyclopedia help us out in these mat- 
ters. But it is an altogether different ques- 
tion when the effort is made to explain 
theories in connection with practice and to 
explain the results which have followed the 
efforts made to apply these theories. 

One serious difficulty in endeavoring to 
arrive at the truth concerning these move- 
ments lies in the fact that many active and 
sincere minds have become wedded to some 
particular theory, and the method of its ap- 
plication, which prevents the individual from 
taking a broad-gauged view of what is going 
on in the world. Some theory or philosophy 
having met with their approval, they are no 
longer able to give a fair or full considera- 
tion to others, they can only see the good 
in the theory which attracts them, and only 
the bad and the unsound in all others. They 
become so wrapped up in the belief that their 
theory, or system, is the only one, that their 



minds are unwilling to admit that there can 
be truth and soundness in others. 

What we need, is all of the information 
which we can secure, and this in itself is not 
sufficient, unless we have had considerable 
experience, for even a sound theory can be 
applied in such a manner as to work destruc- 
tion. When we are experimenting with 
economic and industrial theories we can 
wreck a labor movement as effectively as the 
chemist, who knows the chemicals he is deal- 
ing with, can mix or handle them in such a 
manner as to blow up his laboratory and 
destroy his own life. 

To those who frequently ask for informa- 
tion as to the books they should read in order 
to secure the truth, and all of the truth, there 
is but one reply, "read the standard works of 
all schools dealing with economics, sociology, 
or the industrial problems." Read as much 
written by the writers on the other side as 
time can be found to give to their position 
and viewpoint. But above all, test every 
theory which they come into contact with by 
their every-day experience as workers and 
trade-unionists. 

Specific recommendations for book reading 
are rather difficult, and necessarily always 
subject to criticism. However, here is an 
attempt. If you prefer history, there is 
Buckle's "History of Civilization," Lecky's 
"History of European Morals," Van Loon's 
"Story of Mankind," Wells' "Outline of 
History," an "outline" that will not tire 
you. Gustavus Meyer's "History of Amer- 
ican Wealth," and "History of the Supreme 
Court." "The Ancient Lowly," by Ward. 
"Commercial Crises of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury," by H. M. Hyndman. "The Economic 
Interpretation of History," by Thorold 
Rogers, and "Six Centuries of Work and 
Wages," by the same author. Kuropatkin's 
"History of the Great French Revolution," 
probably the best book on the subject. 

Are you interested in politics, economics, 
philosophy, sociology? There is Adam 
Smith's "Wealth of Nations," "Principles of 
Political Economy," by David Ricardo, "Cap- 
ital," by Karl Marx. The last-named book is 
alleged to be "radical" — too much so for half- 
baked minds. At that, "Capital" is much 
easier reading than Kant's "Critique of Pure 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



Reason." Windlebaud's "History of Philoso- 
phy," Lange's "History of Materialism" and 
Snyder's "History of Modern Philosophy" 
will give you an inkling of what philosophy 
is about. Lester F. Ward's "Dynamic Soci- 
ology" is easy reading. Bongor's "Criminality 
and Economic Conditions" should be read by 
everyone. "The State, Its Origin and Func- 
tion," by William Paul, "The State and the 
Nation," by Edward Jenks; "Dynamic Amer- 
ica," by Klein ; "Plutocracy Triumphant," by 
Senator Pettigrew; "The Foundations of Im- 
perialist Policy," by Pavlovitch ; "Oil, Its 
Influence on Politics," by Francis Delaisi ; 
"The American Empire," by Scott Nearing, 
are all books which are cheap and within 
the reach of everyone. 

Good text-books on the history and de- 
velopment of Organized Labor are: "History 
of Trade Unionism" and "Industrial Democ- 
racy," by Sidney and Beatrice Webb ; "Trade 
Unionism in the United States" by Professor 
Hoxie ; "Organized Labor in America," by 
George Gorham Groat. A more pretentious 
work on the subject is John Commons' "His- 
tory of Labor in the United States. 

All of these books contain worth-while in- 
formation. So if you read books select one 
or two likely ones from the list, and you will 
soon cultivate an appetite for more. 



THE TRUTH ABOUT THE FASCISTI 



THE SHIPPING BOARD'S FLEET 



According to an official announcement, the 
Shipping Board owned on November 4, 1432 
vessels of 9,894,527 deadweight tons. These 
consisted of 1401 steel vessels, 9 concrete 
craft and 22 wooden vessels. 

The steel vessels number 1401, divided as 
follows : Passenger and cargo, 44 ; cargo, 
1232; tankers, 80; refrigerators, 14; tugs, 30, 
and unfinished cargo, 1 ; total deadweight 
tons, 9,799,545. 

Concrete vessels owned by the Board num- 
ber 9 and are divided as follows : Cargo 2, 
tankers 7. The Board also has 10 wood and 
composite cargo vessels and 12 tugs. 

Of the Board's steel passenger and cargo 
vessels 377 are in operation. In addition 
there are 15 tankers and one refrigerator 
ship in service. 



I lefore the war Benito Mussolini was editor 
of Avanti, central organ of the Italian Social- 
ist Party; today he is Premier of Italy. Two 
years ago he was unknown outside of his own 
country; today he is the most talked of man 
in the world. 

This amazing phenomenon is explained by 
the war. 

Mussolini, a young man, apparently of 
great ability and still greater ambition, 
his opportunity when the war came. In that 
he was not alone. Some were hungry for 
money, others for power. Mussolini belonged 
to the latter. He preached war, was removed 
from the paper and expelled from the party. 

After the war Mussolini organized the re- 
turned soldiers, who have since become no- 
torious as the Fascisti. This name was 
derived from Fascio (band), the first word 
in the title of the organization. Elsewhere 
in this issue the readers will find an inter- 
esting letter on the Fascisti movement, writ- 
ten before the coup, by Maurice Sterne, a 
great American artist living in Rome. 

The Fascisti soon began terrorizing the 
labor movement. 

The Socialist soldiers also organized, but 
the Fascisti, being subsidized by the enemies 
of the labor movement, had by far the advan- 
tage of the Socialist organization. 

In 1920, when the revolutionary Labor 
movement reached its zenith, the Fascisti 
undertook to destroy it by means of the in- 
cendiary's torch and the assassin's dagger. 
The government stood helplessly by while 
the metal workers were locking out their 
employers, and it was just as helpless when 
Mussolini, at the head of a bandit army, an- 
nounced that he would take over the govern- 
ment. 

Mussolini, the former Socialist, led his 
army in the destruction of Labor Union and 
Socialist headquarters and newspapers. 

Mussolini, the former republican, pr 
claimed himself an avowed monarchist. 

Now Mussolini is the government. No 
sooner did he attain power than he disbanded 
the army which had placed him there, the 
"black shirt" army of the Fascisti . And he 
did wisely. That was the only way for Mus- 



December, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



solini to protect himself from the danger of 
his army turning against him if he should 
fail to live up to his promises. But the dis- 
banded Fascisti are armed and may mobilize 
again ; perhaps against Mussolini. — Editorial 
comment in The Advance, New York Citv. 



THE RIVER PLATE REPUBLICS 



AN INTERESTING SALVAGE CASE 



A salvage case, with a direct bearing on 
the efficiency of the U. S. Steamboat Inspec- 
tion Service, was decided in the Norwegian 
Supreme Court on October 11. Messrs. S. O. 
Stray & Co. were the plaintiffs, and they 
claimed the salvage of the United States 
Shipping Board steamer Panola, 3545 gross 
tons, which was disabled whilst on a voyage 
from America to Gothenburg in August, 
1920. A strong W.N.W. wind was blowing 
at the time and heavy seas were running 
when the plaintiffs' tugs Speideren and Scout 
found the Panola, and towed her into Kris- 
tianssand. When the case was first heard in 
the Kristianssand Court it was stated that 
the Panola's boilers became leaky when she 
was nearing the Norwegian coast and the 
engines were so damaged that she had to 
send out a wireless appeal for assistance. The 
Court then valued the ship at 3,800,000 ki\, 
the bunker oil at 110,000 kr., and the cargo 
and freight at 4,100,000 kr., a total of 8,010,- 
000 kr., and they fixed the salvage remunera- 
tion at 420,000 kr., plus 4 per cent interest 
until payment. Evidence was given at the 
hearing on October 11 to the effect that the 
ship had been examined and certified as sea- 
worthy by the United States Steamship In- 
spection Service before departure from Amer- 
ica, and that the engineers who examined her 
at Kristianssand found that the damage was 
due to leaky boilers which could not be pro- 
perly repaired at sea owing to the fact that 
the supply of packing had given out. The 
Supreme Court eventually awarded the plain- 
tiffs 300,000 kr. for salvage, without costs. 



Some faint idea of the debt of the eleven 
billion dollars owed the United States by the 
Allies may be derived from the fact that the 
whole Christian era has lasted few more than 
a billion minutes. 



The River Plate region, which embraces 
the Republics of Argentina, Paraguay, and 
Uruguay, has a total area of 1,323,313 square 
miles, or about two-fifths that of the conti- 
nental United States, and a population of 
approximately 10,700,000, according to latest 
estimates. The early colonists were Span- 
iards, and notwithstanding the later immigra- 
tion from other European countries, Spanish 
blood still predominates throughout the 
greater part of this territory, and Spanish is 
the official language of the three republics. 

The northern part of this region, which is 
situated in the Subtropical Zone and em- 
braces Uruguay, Paraguay, and Northern 
Argentina, consists for the most part of a 
series of undulating, well-watered, grassy 
plains, which grow rougher toward the west, 
where the surface is broken here and there 
by low hills. In the extreme West is located 
the forest region, known as the Chaco, from 
which are obtained the quebracho logs and 
extract, which form an important part of 
Argentine and Paraguayan exports. The 
chief industry of this section is stock raising, 
and the majority of the large packing plants, 
including those controlled by American capi- 
tal, are located here. Comparatively little 
cultivation outside of the minimum require- 
ments for the local markets is carried on, 
excepting in the southern portion, which 
fringes the Argentine wheat area. The 
Argentine Government is encouraging the 
raising of cotton in the Chaco, and the area 
under this crop has been increasing each 
year. Dairy farming is also becoming an 
important industry in the district north of 
Buenos Aires. Nearly all of the principal 
cities of the River Plate region, including 
Buenos Aires, La Plata, Rosario, Santa Fe, 
and Montevidea, are located in this region. 

The great cereal-producing region of Ar- 
gentina lies in the central portion of the 
Republic, the most heavily cropped section 
lying within a radius of a few hundred miles 
from the city of Buenos Aires. On the 
southern border of this zone stock raising 
becomes the principal occupation, while in 
the West and Northwest the cultivation of 
fruits (particularly grapes) and cane sugar is 
the leading industry. South of Bahia Blanca, 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



in the Patagonian region, the country is 
almost entirely given over to cattle and sheep 
ranches, the latter being concentrated princi- 
pally in the South. Several large meat-pack- 
ing plants are located in Patagonia, two of 
which are subsidiaries of American com- 
panies. 

Mining in Argentina up to the present has 
been confined chiefly to the production of 
petroleum on the Government fields at Riva- 
davia. Rich deposits of gold, copper, tung- 
sten, wolfram, and coal are reported to exist 
in the district bordering the Andes, but these 
minerals have not yet been mined in com- 
mercial quantities. Traces of petroleum have 
been found in several regions, but, until the 
present investment by foreign or local capi- 
tal, have been restricted to the region around 
Comodoro, Rivadavia. and Ncuquen. Pro- 
duction on the Government fields has been 
going forward steadily for some years, and 
while it is still necessary to import the bulk 
of the petroleum products consumed, Argen- 
tina is expected to become an important ex- 
porter of petroleum within a few years. 

Manufacturing has been moderately devel- 
oped. The majority of these establishments 
are small, however, and Argentina still offers 
"1 market for manufactured wares, par- 
ticularly those of the better grades. Among 
the important industrial establishments arc 
the meat-packing plants (in which American 
capital is chiefly invested), flour mills, sugar 
refineries, breweries, sawmills, steel-finishing 
plant, and factories for the production of 
wine, alimentary pastes, confectionery, but- 
ter, cheese, and quebracho extract. The 
iiaking of boots and shoes has reached a 
stage where a small amount is produced for 
export, hut the textile industry is of rela- 
tively small importance. 

The city of Buenos Aires is the focus of 
the Argentine railway system, a network of 
lines radiating north and west to the Para- 
guayan, Bolivian, and Chilean frontiers, and 
south to the important towns of Bahia 
Blanca and Neuquen. These railways were 
built with the idea of serving the grain- 
growing region, and considering the present 
development of the country, the facilities are 
ample, although the roads leave much to be 
desired. South of Bahia Blanca are the Pata- 



gonian State railways, which run from vari- 
ous ports westward to the more important 
interior towns. These lines are not con- 
nected with each other or with the lines cen- 
tering in Buenos Aires, and have a total 
length of less than six hundred miles. Of 
the other two republics, Uruguay has three 
and Paraguay one short line, the latter de- 
pending to a great extent on its navigable 
rivers, which provide a cheap and easy means 
of transportation. 



"STREAKS OF FORTUNE' 



"It is an ill wind that profits nobody"! 

The rise and fall of European money in the 
exchange market has played some funny 
stunts with travelers' money. Some have- 
lost and others have gained. Among the 
gainers are a couple of seamen. One of them 
recently recovered a verdict of about $14,000 
for quite serious personal injuries. After all 
the expenses of trying the case were paid — 
and they were rather heavy because wit- 
nesses had to be brought from some dis- 
tance — the seaman in question received $9300 
net. This sum he took with his lawyer's 
admonition that he be careful and entrust it 
with no one except a reliable bank. 

lie started to visit his old home in Nor- 
way, and before doing so invested a large 
part of his money in Norwegian kroners. 
which were then quite low in the exchange 
market. Several months later his attorney, 
Mr. Axtell. received a letter from him stat- 
ing that his worldly wealth still consists of 
$4000 in American money and 32,000 .Nor- 
wegian kroners. At the exchange of 17 cents 
a kroner, it amounts to $5440. With his 
$4000 American money, he is worth $9440. 
In other words. $150 more than he was worth 
when he left Xew York and, it is said, he 
has lived quite royally in Europe ever since. 

In this connection, readers of the Journal 
will be interested to know that Nick Hjelt. 
the sailor whose back was broken on the 
steamship Bakersfield, has returned to Fin- 
land. His money was transferred to Finnish 
marks at a favorable movement of the mar- 
ket, and over there he is now rated as a 
millionaire. Mr. Hjelt had in his possession 
something over $18,000 when his case was 
finally settled at New York. 



December, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Chinese Crew of S.S. Celestial. — -This is a 
case of the steamship Celestial, built in 
Shanghai, China, by the Shipping. Board at 
the cost of $2,500,000. She was repur- 
chased by the Dollar Steamship Company 
for a price reported to be approximately 10 
per cent of her original cost. They hired an 
American crew, seven or eight of whom 
were ex-service men, at Norfolk, Va., with 
the verbal understanding that articles for a 
return trip to the Far East were to be signed 
at New York. When the vessel reached New 
York, they were all discharged. A Chinese 
crew was taken aboard under cover of dark- 
ness. The crew filed a protest with the 
Collector of Customs. A survey was held 
at New York, but the Collector of Customs 
permitted the ship to depart. The Chinese 
crew was trained diligently and passed in- 
spection at Baltimore. Attorney Axtell is 
now suing for damages on behalf of the dis- 
charged seamen. The s.s. Celestial has 
completed her voyage and all the plaintiffs 
who were unemployed during the six months 
are entitled to wages at the rate of $75 a 
month, and board and lodging at the rate of 
$2.50 a day, for all the time they were out of 
work. It is necessary that all these plaintiffs 
communicate with Mr. Axtell at once, so that 
he may prepare the testimony for the trial. 

Damages for Failure to Heat Forecastle. — 
T. Gorday was a fireman on the oil tanker 
Coalinga, and in February, 1921, while the 
vessel was at San Pedro repairing, the steam 
was turned off the forecastle. Gorday caught 
a cold which settled on his lungs, and he 
went to a hospital in June, 1921, and was 
discharged as cured October 9, 1922. Attor- 
ney Hutton brought an action for damages 
for him, the ground being the violation of a 
statutory duty in failing to provide a warm 
room. The case was set for trial before a 
jury for November 13, but satisfactorily com- 
promised November 11. 

Damages for Failure to Furnish Proper 
Medical Treatment. — Decision of lower court 
gave the plaintiff, a seaman, a verdict for 
$3890, affirmed by the Appellate Division, 
2nd Division, New York, on November 4, 
1922. This is the case where the seaman was 



injured while putting a cement plug in a 
chain pipe of the Lewis K. Thurlow, 24 hours 
out of Montevideo. The master, instead of 
putting in at Rio de Janeiro, where there 
exists one of the best hospitals in the world, 
especially open for seamen, carried the man 
on to Santa Lucia, where the vessel stopped 
for coal. His leg had been broken in three 
places and, due to improper splints placed on 
it, the bone worked through the flesh, causing 
a compound fracture. Plaintiff's case was 
tried in Brooklyn in 1920, before Judge 
Cropsey and a jury, and due to the unsym- 
pathetic attitude of the court, resulted in a 
small verdict of $1250. The plaintiff at that 
time, a Norwegian, could barely speak Eng- 
lish and had no witnesses to corroborate him. 
The master, a Yankee, was corroborated by 
the testimony of a mate. The judge further 
displayed his power by ordering that the ver- 
dict be set aside unless plaintiff would accept 
$850 in full settlement. To this arbitrary 
ruling, plaintiff and his attorney (Mr. Axtell) 
refused to acquiesce. The verdict was set 
aside and a new trial ordered. This time it 
was tried in the spring of 1922 before Judge 
Fawcett and a jury. The result was differ- 
ent. The jury brought in a verdict of $5000 
for pain and suffering and $390 additional for 
maintenance and cure. Judge Fawcett, feel- 
ing that this verdict was rather large, ordered 
it to be set aside unless plaintiff would accept 
$3850. Plaintiff did accept $3500, and signed 
the consent, which was filed, expecting that it 
would be promptly paid. The insurance com- 
pany called up and offered him then half of 
the amount of the judgment, or about $1750. 
This offer from the Employers' Liability In- 
surance Company was politely refused. The 
defendant took an appeal in the Appellate 
Division. The record was 500 pages long. 
The verdict of the jury as reduced by the 
court has been sustained and there will be 
approximately $4200 to the plaintiff's credit. 
which includes, of course, costs and interest 
which are quite an item. This case and the 
decision of the Court of Appeals in Leone vs. 
Booth, 232 N. Y., have established the law on 
neglect to treat. 

Damages for Wrongful Discharge and 
Arrest — A verdict of $328 was received for 
Mateas Gallardo at the hands of Judge Lewis 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



December, 1922 



A. Valenti, and a jury in the New York City 
Court for wrongful discharge and arrest of 
the seaman at Cape Haiti from the s.s. Lake 
Senapee. The amount of the recovery was 
small, but considering- that the defendants 
had such a good defense that they wouldn't 
offer a cent to settle, and that they were put 
to considerable expense to defend and will 
now have to pay the verdict with costs, 
amounting to about $100, it is a decided ver- 
dict to the seaman. The seaman was a 
colored man, and they felt because he was a 
negro they could impose upon him and 
nothing would be done, but the judge and 
jury felt otherwise. 



AN ISLAND MUSEUM 



UNION CRUSHERS TO BE TRIED 



After a lengthy preliminary hearing, offi- 
cers of the Industrial Association, Builders' 
Exchange and Material Dealers' Combination 
in San Francisco, have been bound over to 
the Superior Court on a charge of conspiracy 
in violation of the anti-trust law of California 
for refusing to sell building materials to per- 
sons employing union men. 

The alleged practices of the organized 
builders of San Francisco which have led to 
the action now reported have attracted na- 
tional attention. It was charged, when the 
case first came to public attention, that there 
was an organized effort in San Francisco to 
prevent the sale of building material to con- 
tractors employing union workers, and that 
a form of agreement was in use among the 
material dealers by which they bound them- 
selves to sell only to concerns operating on 
the so-called "American plan," which in real- 
ity was an anti-union plan. 

Upon the request of San Francisco trade 
union officials the charges were laid before 
the United States Attorney General in 
Washington. The charge in California is 
that the alleged practices constitute a viola- 
tion of the State anti-trust laws, and it is 
likely that the action now reported is the 
result of the effort to enforce the State laws. 
Request has been made that the case be again 
brought to the attention of the United States 
Attorney General, urging that he begin prose- 
cution under the Federal anti-trust laws. 



Two hundred feet above the Pacific Ocean 
and overlooking Avalon, on Catalina Island, 
situated off the Southern California coast- 
line, there will be erected a unique museum 
that should prove one of the wonders of the 
modern world. Mr. Ralph Glidden, in charge 
of the work, is an archeological authority on 
the famous Channel Islands, in whose an- 
cient history there is a steadily increasing 
interest. 

Instead of a tower to crown it, the Glid- 
den Museum will be capped by a gigantic 
skull, 16 feet wide, 11 feet high and 24 feet 
through. For his model Mr. (Hidden is tak- 
ing the skull of an Indian chief which he un- 
earthed recently on San Niccolas Island, just 
out beyond Catalina. The enlargement will 
follow its dimensions proportionately. 

The musum will be an imposing structure 
of solid masonry, 30x40 feet. The skull 
featuring the exterior will serve as an index 
to the contents of the building. The eve- 
sockets will be five feet in diameter, equipped 
with powerful electric lamps, the lights of 
which will be visible far out at sea. 

The nose-bridge will also be fitted up with 
additional illumination, as well as the lower 
jaw. The effect of the latter will be de- 
signed so as to show up the teeth, which 
were one of the notable features of the ab- 
origines. The whole thing will be such that 
no one ever seeing it can forget Mr. Glid- 
den's museum. If men ever grew large 
enough for heads of such a size as this skull, 
they would be from 60 to 70 feet tall. Al- 
though the original Channel Islanders were 
large men, not many exceeded one-tenth of 
that size. 

The novelty of Mr. Glidden's museum will 
not stop with the outside. If anything, the 
interior is to be even more bizzare. He in- 
tends taking for his pattern a mortuary chap- 
el recently unearthed on the Island of Malta, 
in the Mediterranean, halfway between Italy 
and Tripoli, where St. Paul was shipwrecked 
in 60 A. D. This burial hall has for its mural 
decorations more than 2000 skulls, with a 
frieze of collar-bones. 

While Mr. Glidden will not attempt to 
duplicate this chapel, he intends to arrange 



December, 1922 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



many of the human bones that he has col- 
lected in various geometric designs. When 
completed the museum on Santa Catalina 
will be unlike anything else anywhere in this 
country. It will be open to the general 
public and the builder plans to give talks 
on the relics, so that the people who visit it 
will learn something besides having their 
curiosity catered to. 

The Museum of the American Indian, 
George G. Heye Foundation, was opened 
in 1916 in New York, at the corner of One 
Hundred and Fifty-fifth street and Broad- 
way, adjoining the Hispanic Society of 
America, the American Geographic Society, 
and the American Numismatic Society. Its 
purpose was to study the Indians of North, 
Central and South America, to gather evi- 
dence of their civilization and modes of life, 
and to disseminate knowledge concerning 
them. 

Mr. Heye, director, commissioned Mr. Glid- 
den to explore the Channel Islands and col- 
lect relics of vanished Indians. Although the 
islands have already been dug over repeat- 
edly by successive researches from this 
country and abroad, the results attained by 
Mr. Glidden have been little short of remark- 
able, in the judgment of scientific skeletons. 
Nine months' work on the Catalina yielded 
316. In five months he obtained 343 on 
San Miguel, and 316 from San Niccolas in 
four months. As a result of these explora- 
tions the Heye Museum has the finest exhibit 
of Channel Island Indian lore existent, not 
surpassed even by that of the Smithsonian 
Institution in Washington. 



THE TWELVE-HOUR SHIFT 



The twelve-hour shift is not an economic 
necessity for the successful operation of any 
American industry, according to the report 
of the committee on work periods of the Fed- 
erated American Engineering Society, which 
was in session at Boston last week. The 
report is based on an exhaustive inquiry pur- 
sued for the last two years in the various 
industries of the country, and especially in 
the iron and steel industry. The results of 
the investigation are submitted to the execu- 
tive board of the Federation in two reports, 
one by Horace B. Drury of Washington, and 



the other by Bradley Stoughton of New 
York. According to the findings of these re- 
ports, there are few continuous industries 
which do not have twelve-hour plants. Of 
some forty or fifty continuous industries a 
number are overwhelmingly on three shifts. 
The majority are partly on two shifts and 
partly on three shifts, with three-shift opera- 
tion in the preponderance. 

There are a half dozen industries in which 
two-shift operation is so nearly universal 
that it is difficult to find an exception. Out- 
side the steel industry the total number of 
employes on eight-hour shifts is now consid- 
erably larger than the total number of em- 
ployes on twelve-hour shifts. Taking into 
consideration all continuous industries, be- 
tween one-half and two-thirds of all workers 
on continuous operation are on shifts averag- 
ing twelve hours. It is estimated that there 
are about 150,000 wage-earners in the entire 
steel industry on the twelve-hour shift, and 
in 1919 it w